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L I B R.AFLY 

OF THE 
UN IVE.R.5ITY 
Of ILLINOIS 

T62.*Zc 

\909/l0- 

1929/30 



2iaZc 

1909 A 



No. 6 



THE 



JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF THE UNIVERSITY 



NOTES IN BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



Baltimore, Maryland 

Published by the "University 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

June, 1909 

[New Series, 1909, No. 6] 
[Whole Number 217] 

Entered, October 31, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



THE BOTANICAL GARDEN 



NOTES IN BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 




BALTIMOKE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1909 



JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR, No. 217 



JUNE, 1 9 O 9 



CONTENTS 



The Botanical Garden of the University, 

Notes in Botany and Zoology : 

The Stem Offshoot in Erythronium Propullans, Gray. By F. H 

Blodgett 

The Nature of the Embryo Sac of Peperomia. By W. H. Brown 
Nuclear Phenomena in Pyronema Confluens. By W. H. Brown, 
Pinna Seminuda. By B. H. Grave 

College Courses for Teachers, 1909-10, 

Proceedings of Societies, 



PLAN OF ARRANGEMENT 



OF THE 



BOTANICAL GARDEN 



AT HOMEWOOD 



A GUIDE TO THE GARDEN 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 

New Series, 1909, No. 6 JUNE, 1909 Whole Number, 217 

THE BOTANICAL GARDEN 

The Botanical Garden of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity is in the western part of Homewood, opposite Thirty- 
fourth street, and directly west of the Carroll Mansion. 
It is immediately north of the greenhouse, which is visible 
from Wyman Park drive. 

The garden is being established primarily as an aid to 
botanical research and instruction in the university, and 
its arrangement has been planned with this end in view. It 
is believed, however, that the garden and greenhouse will 
prove interesting to all members of the university, and to 
other citizens of Baltimore as well. All visitors will be 
welcomed, but are requested to carefully avoid injuring 
the plants and lawns. Like consideration should be shown 
for all plants in the forest at Homewood, as well as for 
the trees themselves. Permission to enter the greenhouse 
must be obtained from the gardener. 

The garden consists of four Sections. — Section I illus- 
trates the chief types of vegetative organs of plants, i. e., 
of root, stem and leaf (see outline, page 8). The arrange- 
ment of these types is in part a morphological, in part a 
biological, one. Section II is given to the illustration of 
the structure and biology of the reproductive organs of 
plants, i. e. of sporangia, flowers, seeds, fruits. Sec- 
tion III illustrates the genealogy of plants as indicated 
by their classification. It includes illustrations of the 
various kinds and degrees of kinship, of a number of his- 
torically important systems of classification, of the mod- 
ern system of Engler, and, finally, it also illustrates in 



G The Johns Hopkins University Circular [G7G 

some detail the variety in structure and in geographical 
distribution found among the members of a few selected 
families of seed-plants. Section IV contains a selected 
series of useful and of ornamental plants, chiefly those 
native to temperate regions, though a few of the more 
important tropical economic plants are shown. Other 
tropical plants will be found in the greenhouse, and occa- 
sionally these are referred to by special labels placed in 
the proper beds in the garden. 

In the further development of the botanical garden, it 
is planned to illustrate various types of plant associa- 
tions, some of the important facts of geographical distri- 
bution and the habitat-relations of various plant forms. 
It is expected that the general planting of the Homewood 
grounds may be carried out in such a way that the groups 
of shrubs and trees so used shall have scientific as well as 
an ornamental value. 

EXPLANATION OF ARRANGEMENT AND OP LABELS 

The series of types, of structure, relationship, etc., 
shown in each] Section of the garden, is divided into subor- 
dinate groups of successively lower grades. These sub- 
ordinate groups are Division, Subdivision, and groups 
without titles but designated by letters and signs. The 
sequence of these groups is (starting with the highest) 
Division, Subdivision, A, a, *, * and *. 

Each individual type of structure etc., will be desig- 
nated, in this guide and on the labels, by a number. All 
species used in the garden to illustrate a given type will 
bear the number of this type on their labels. In the guide 
this number will be found at the extreme left of the page, 
opposite the name of the group. In the garden these 
numbers are at the bottom on the group labels and at the 
top on the species labels. 

The numbers at the bottom of a group label indicate 
the kinds and number of types of structure included in the 



G77] Botanical Garden 7 

group. For example : — The numbers 16-19 on the label for 
Subterranean Stems indicate that the types included in 
this category are those bearing these numbers, in the 
guide and on the labels, i. e., Rhizomes, Tubers, Gorms, and 
Bulbs; the numbers 288-290 on the label for indehiscent 
Fruits indicate that this group includes the Achene, Nut, 
and Garyopsis. 

The number at the top of a species label indicates the 
type of structure, relationship or economic plant illustra- 
ted by this species. A reference to this number in the 
guide, or in the garden, to the nearest group-label bearing 
this number, will shiow what is illustrated by the species. 
For example: — Any species label bearing the number 8 
indicates that the plant illustrates the use of the roots as 
tendrils; the number 529 indicates that the species 
belongs in the Series Rosales of Engler; the number 600 
designates the species as a cereal. 

The location in the garden of the illustrations of any 
particular group of structures or relationships may be 
readily seen by a comparison of the outline of the chief 
groups (p. 8) and the plan showing the arrangement of 
beds in the garden, (plate I). On the latter the area 
devoted to each Division is indicated by heavy red lines. 

Section I is in the northeast quarter of the garden, the 
types being numbered from 1-113. Section II is in the 
southeast quarter ( Nos. 200-313. ) Section III is contained 
chiefly in the southwest quarter (Nos. 400-558), but 
partly in the northwest quarter (Nos. 559-571). Section 
IV is also contained in the northwest quarter (Nos. 600- 
652). The sequence of the types within each quarter is 
readily seen from the numbers on the labels. These are 
arranged in regular succession along the beds as far as 
possible, and, where this succession has been broken, an 
index label has been used to show where next following 
numbers are to be found. 



8 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [078 

BOTANICAL GARDEN AT HOMEWOOD 
Chief Groups in the Garden 

section i. vegetative organs, 
division i. roots. 

Subdivision I. Subterranean Roots. 
II. Aquatic Roots. 
III. Aerial Roots. 
IV. Parasitic Roots. 

DIVISION II. STEMS. 

Subdivision I. Leafless Stems. 
" II. Foliage Stems. 

III. Branch Systems. 

DIVISION III- LEAVES. 
Subdivision I. Cotyledons. 

II. Foliage Leaves. 

SECTION II. REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. 

DIVISION I. FOR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION. 
II. FOR ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. 
III. FOR SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. 

Subdivision I. Sexual Organs. 

" II. Accessory Reproductive Organs. 

SECTION III. PLANT RELATIONSHIP. 

DIVISION I. DEGREES OF RELATIONSHIP. 

II. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATIONS. 
Subdivision I. System of Aristotle. 

II. " " Ray. 
III. " " Linnaeus. 

IV. " " DE JUSSIEL". 

V. " " DE CANDOLLE. 

VI. " " Brongniart. 
VII. " " Braun. 

VIII. " " ElCHLER. 

IX. " " Engler. 
DIVISION III. SELECTED FAMILIES. 

SECTION IV. ECONOMIC PLANTS. 

DIVISION I. USEFUL PLANTS. 

II. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 



if) 




WALK 



1 



n 



PLAN OF GARDEN 

DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES INDICATED IN RED 
SCALE 1 INCH- 32 FEET 



GREENHOUSE 



G79] Botanical Garden 



OUTLINE OF THE TYPES OF PLANT ORGANS, OF PLANT 

RELATIONSHIPS, AND OF ECONOMIC PLANTS 

ILLUSTRATED IN THE GARDEN* 

SECTION I. VEGETATIVE ORGANS. 
DIVISION I. ROOTS. 

Subdivision I. Subterranean Roots. 

1 Tap Roots. 

2 Fascicled Roots (clustered roots). 

3 Fibrous Roots. 

Subdivision II. Aquatic Roots. 

4 Bottom Roots. 

5 Floating Roots. 

Subdivision III. Aerial Roots. 

6 Prop Roots. 

7 Protective Roots (root-thorns). 

8 Tendril Roots. 

9 Attaching Roots (of air plants). 

10 Attaching and Absorbing Roots (of air plants). 

Subdivision IV. Parasitic Roots. 

11 Water-Absorbing Roots. 

12 Food-Absorbing Roots. 

Subdivision V. Symbiotic Roots. 

13 Mycorhizal Roots (with fungus threads instead of 

root hairs). 

14 Bacterial Roots (with bacterial tubercles). 

15 Nostoc-Holding Roots. 

DIVISION II. STEMS. 

Subdivision I. Leafless Stems (i. e. with scale-like 
leaves. ) 

A. Subterranean Stems. 

16 Rhizomes. 

17 Tubers. 

18 Corms. 

19 Bulbs. 

B. Aerial Leafless Stems. 

20 Cactoid Stems (fleshy green stems). 

21 Phyllocladia (leaf -like stems). 



*A11 types illustrated in the garden are indicated in this list. 
Each type is given a number here, which also will be on the top 
of the label of every species used to illustrate that type. 



10 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [680 





Subdivision II. Foliage Stems. 




A. 


Aquatic Stems. 


22 




Rooting Aquatic Stems. 


23 




Floating Aquatic Stems. 




B. 


Procumbent Stems (creeping stems) 


24 




Free Procumbent Stems. 


25 




Rooting Procumbent Stems. 




C. 


Climbing Stems. 


26 




Twig (or thorn) Climbers. 


27 




Tendril Climbers. 


28 




Twiners. 


29 




Root Climbers. 




D. 


Erect Stems. 


30 




Caudex (palm-like stem). 


31 




Culm (grass-like stem). 


32 




Caulis (herbaceous stem). 


33 




Undershrubs. 


34 




Shrubs. 


35 




Trees. 




Subdivision III. Branch Systems. 


36 


A. 


Monopodia. 




B. 


Sympodia. 


37 




False Monopodia. 


38 




False Dichotomies. 



DIVISION III. LEAVES. 
Subdivision I. Cotyledons. 

39 Storage Cotyledons. 

40 Absorbing Cotyledons. 

41 Starch-Making Cotyledons. 

Subdivision II. Foliage Leaves. 

A. Leaf- Arrangements (Phyllotaxy). 

42 a. One-Leaved Plants. 

43 fc. Two-Leaved Plants. 

c. Whorled Leaves. 

44 Whorls of Two (decussate). 

45 Whorls of Several (verticillate). 

d. Alternate Leaves. 

46 Two-Ranked Leaves. 

47 Three-Ranked Leaves. 

48 Five-Ranked Leaves. 

49 Eight-Ranked Leaves. 

50 Thirteen-Ranked Leaves. 



681] Botanical Garden 11 





B. Vernation (folding of leaf in bud). 


51 


Circinate Leaves. 


52 


Involute Leaves. 


53 


Convolute Leaves. 


54 


Revolute Leaves. 


55 


Plicate Leaves. 


56 


Conduplicate Leaves. 




C. Leaf-Parts. 




a. Stipules. 


57 


Sheathing Stipules. 


58 


Fused Stipules (Ochreae). 


59 


Starch-Making Stipules. 




b. Petiole (leaf -stalk) . 




♦Petioles Undeveloped. 


60 


Sessile Leaves. 


61 


Perfoliate Leaves. 


62 


Connate Leaves. 




♦♦Petioles Developed (leaves stalked). 


63 


Petioles Short. 


64 


Petioles Long. 


65 


Petioles with Pulvinus. 


66 


Petioles Flattened (Phyllodia). 




c. Leaf Blades. 




♦Leaf-Shapes. 


67 


Orbicular Leaves. 


68 


Cordate Leaves. 


69 


Saggitate Leaves. 


70 


Triangular Leaves. 


71 


Elliptic Leaves. 


72 


Ovate Leaves. 


73 


Oblong Leaves. 


74 


Lanceolate Leaves. 


75 


Spatulate Leaves. 


76 


Linear Leaves. 


77 


Acicular Leaves (awl-shaped). 


78 


Cylindrical Leaves. 




♦♦Leaf Margins. 


79 


Entire Leaves. 


80 


Serrate Leaves. 


81 


Crenate Leaves. 


82 


Sinuous Leaves. 


83 


Palmately Lobed Leaves. 


84 


Pinnately Lobed Leaves. 


85 


Parted Leaves. 



12 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [682 

86 Divided Leaves. 

87 Multifid Leaves. 

88 Palmately Compound Leaves. 

89 Pinnately Compound Leaves. 
***Leaf Mosaics. 

SO On Horizontal Shoots. 

91 On Vertical Shoots. 

92 Anisophylly. 
****Venation of Leaves. 

93 Palmate Veins. 

94 Pinnate Veins. 

95 Parallel Veins. 

96 Reticulate Veins. 

D. Secondary Adaptations of Leaves. 

a. Storage Leaves. 

97 Starch-Storing Leaves. 

98 JWater-Storing Leaves. 

b. Aquatic Leaves. 

99 Submerged Leaves. 

100 Floating Leaves. 

c. Tendril-Leaves. 

101 Petiole-Tendrils. 

102 Blade-Tendrils. 

d. Protected Leaves. 
♦Protected Against Drying. 

103 Bud-Scales. 

104 Rolled Leaves. 

105 Hairy Leaves. 
**Proteoted Against Animals. 

106 Poisonous Leaves (distasteful leaves). 

107 Resembling Poisonous Leaves (mimicry). 

108 Spiny Leaves. 

109 Folding Leaves (sensitive leaves). 

110 ***Protected Against Radiation (sleep movements). 

111 ****Protected Against Insolation (compass plants). 

e. Absorbing Leaves. 

112 Water-Absorbing Leaves (of air plants, etc.). 

113 Nitrogen-Absorbing Leaves ( insectivorous leaves ) . 



G83] Botanical Garden 13 

SECTION II. REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. 

DIVISION I. ORGANS FOR VEGETATIVE PROPAGA- 
TION. 

200 A. Soredia. 

201 B. Gemmae. 

C. Buds and Branches. 

202 Buds From Leaf. 

203 Buds From Root. 

204 Deciduous Branches. 

205 Stolons (runners). 

206 Tubers. 

207 Bulbs and Bulblets. 

208 Apogamous Embryos. 

DIVISION II. ORGANS FOR ASEXUAL REPRODUC- 
TION. 

A. CONIDIA. 

209 On Conidiophores. 

210 On Basidia. 

B. Endospores. 

211 Spores in Asci. 

212 Spores in Capsules. 

213 Spores, in Sporangia. 

214 Apospory. 

DIVISION III. ORGANS FOR SEXUAL REPRODUC- 
TION. 

Subdivision I. Sexual Organs (producing sex cells). 

215 Antheridia and Archegonia. 

216 Stamens and Ovules. 

217 Apogamy. 

218 Parthenogenesis. 

Subdivision II. Accessory Reproductive Organs (flow- 
ers). 
A. Structure or Flowers. 

a. Perianth. 

219 Perianth Wanting (flowers naked). 

220 Perianth Undifferentiated (flowers homochlamyde- 

ous). 

221 Pseudoperianth (broadened stamen). 

b. Calyx. 

222 Flower Polysepalous (sepals distinct). 

223 Flower Gamosepalous (sepals united). 

c. Corolla. 



14 The Johns Hbpkins University Circular [684 

224 Flower Apetalous (petals wanting). 

225 Flower Polypetalous (petals distinct). 

226 Flower Gamopetalous (petals united). 

d. Stamens. 

227 Stamens Distinct. 

228 Stamens Monadelphous (in one group). 

229 Stamens Diadelphous (in two groups). 

230 Stamens Syngenesious (united by the anthers). 

231 Stamens Hypogynous (inserted on receptacle). 

232 Stamens Epipetalous (on the petals). 

233 Stamens Perigynous (around the ovary). 

234 Stamens Epigynous (upon the ovary). 

e. Ovaries (pistils). 

235 Simple Ovary (of one carpel). 

236 Compound Ovary (of more than one carpel). 

237 Superior Ovary (free from calyx). 

238 Inferior Ovary (adnate to calyx). 

239 Stalked Ovary (raised on gynophore). 

B. Symmetry of Flowers. 

240 Flowers Actinomorphic (radial, i. e. with two or 

more planes of symmetry). 

241 Flowers Zygomorphic (with one plane of symmetry 

only). 

242 Asymmetric Flowers (with no plane of symmetry). 

C. Flower Clusters (infloresences). 

243 a. Flowers Solitary. 

o. Monopodial Infloresences (indeterminate). 

244 Spikes. 

245 Catkins. 

246 Spadices. 

247 Racemes. 

248 Capitula. 

249 Umbels. 

250 Panicles. 

c. Smypodial Infloresences (determinate, or cymose). 
*Monochasium (each unit of the sympodium bearing 
one lateral branch before terminating in a 
flower) . 

251 Helicoid Cyme. 

252 Scorpioid Cyme. 

**Dichasium (each unit of the sympodium bearing 
two lateral branches before terminating in a 
flower). 



685] Botanical Garden 15 

253 Cyme. 

254 Cymose Umbel. 

255 Fascicle. 

D. Biology of Flowers (arrangements for pollina- 
tion ) . 

a. Methods of Pollination. 

256 *Self-Pollination Obligate (cleistogamous flowers). 

257 ** Self-Pollination Facultative (autogamous flowers). 
***Self-Pollination Impossible (herkogamous flowers). 

258 Monoecious Flowers (stamens and pistils in dif- 

ferent flowers of tbe same plant). 

259 Dioecious Flowers (stamens and pistils on differ- 

ent plants). 

260 Polygamous Flowers (some flowers of an indi- 

vidual witb both stamens and pistils, otbers 
witb stamens only or pistils only). 

261 Proterogynous Flowers (stigma of each flower 

maturing before the anthers). 

262 Protandrous Flowers (pollen maturing before the 

stigma) . 

263 Heterostylous Flowers (styles, often stamens 

also, of different length in different flowers). 

264 Complex Floral Mechanisms (detachable pollinia, 

irritable stamens, etc.). 

b. Means of Pollination. 
*Means of Self-Pollination. 

265 By Deciduous Corolla. 

266 By Curving Filaments. 
**Means of Cross-Pollination. 

fWind-Pollinated Flowers. 

267 Flowers Without Stigmas. 

268 Flowers With Stigmas. 
ffFlowers Pollinated by Animals. 

£Types of Attractive Structures. 

269 Showy Flowers (large or brightly colored corolla, 

calyx, or stamens). 

270 Flower- Associations (clusters). 

271 Showy Bracts. 

272 Pollen-Flowers. 

273 Open Nectaries. 

274 Concealed Nectaries. 

StFitted for Pollination by Special Animals. 

275 Pollinated by Flies. 

276 Pollinated by Wasps. 



10 The Johns Hopkins UndvereUy Circular [680 

277 Pollinated by Honey-Bees. 

278 Pollinated by Bumblebees. 

279 Pollinated by Butterflies. 

280 Pollinated by Moths. 

281 Pollinated by Humming-Birds. 
c. Protection of Pollen and nectar. 

*From Rain. 

282 By Pendant Flowers. 

283 By Closing of Flowers. 

284 By Roof Over Stamens. 

**From Non-Useful Insects ("unbidden guests"). 

285 By Bristles or Spines. 

286 By Viscid Secretions. 

287 By Water Cups. 

E. Morphology of Fbutt. 
a. Pericarp Dry. 

*Indebiscent Fruits. 

288 Achene (simple, one-celled). 

289 Nut (compound, one-celled). 

290 Caryopsis (grass type). 
**Dehiscent Fruits. 

291 Follicle (pod of one carpel, splitting ventrally). 

292 Legume (pod of one carpel, splitting at both 

edges). 

293 Silique (capsule of two carpels, with parietal 

placentae and false dissepiments). 

294 Capsule (box-like). 

295 Pyxidium (circumcissile capsule). 

296 Pore-Capsule (opening by pores). 
o. Pericarp Fleshy (fleshy fruits). 

*Indehiscent. 

297 Drupe (stone-fruit). 

298 Berry (fleshy, with one or several imbedded 

seeds). 
**Dehiscent. 

299 Fleshy Capsule. 

300 c. Multiple Fruits (from fusion of several pistils). 

301 d. False Fruits (flesh of the fruit not from carpels). 

F. Biology of Fruits and Seeds (arrangements aiding 

dispersal). 
a. Adaptations of Fruits. 
♦Explosive Fruits. 

302 Turgescent Fruits. 

303 Dry, Elastic Fruits. 



687] Botanical Garden 17 



304 


**Wind-Scattered Fruits. 




305 
306 


***Floating Fruits. 
****Fruits Dispersed by Animals. 
Hooked Fruits. 




307 


Edible Fruits. 
b. Adaptations of Seeds. 
*Wind-Scattered Seeds. 




308 
309 


Winged Seeds. 
Hairy Seeds. 




310 


Minute Seeds (with air tissue 
**Seeds Dispersed by Animals. 


in seed-coat). 


311 


Sticky Seeds. 




312 


Seeds with Edible Aril. 




313 


Seeds With Edible Caruncle. 





SECTION III. PLANT RELATIONSHIP. (Genealogy of Plants). 

Natural relationship in plants, as among men, is due to com- 
mon parentage, i. e. is based on community of descent. The 
kinship of two plants or groups of plants is distant or close, 
according to the greater or less remoteness of their last common 
ancestor. A natural classification of plants aims to arrange the 
innumerable individual plants of the earth, according to their 
closer or more distant kinship, into groups of lower and higher 
grade, — into "species," "genera," "families," "series," "classes" 
and "divisions" of the vegetable kingdom. Under Division I 
(400-409) are shown illustrations of these groups, as far as the 
"family," and of certain subdivisions of "species." In Division II 
will be illustrated certain earlier interpretations of plant 
relationship, showing the gradual approach to our present under- 
standing of their kinship, also the System of Linnaeus, which 
was avowedly artificial and was devised primarily for its useful- 
ness in identifying species. In the Engler System (487-545), 
which is now the most generally accepted interpretation of our 
present knowledge of plant relationship, may be found illustra- 
tions of "series," "classes" and "divisions." 

DIVISION I. DEGREES OF RELATIONSHIP. 

A. Species. 

a. Constituents of Species. 
400 individuals: Several plants of a species, showing 

distinctness in minor details, such as number and 
shape of leaves, degree of development of 
branches, etc., among plants making up the 
species. 



18 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [088 

401 **Sub-Species (varieties) : Two or more varieties, of 

the same species, showing distinct groups of in- 
dividuals within the species. 

402 b. Specific Distinctions: Plants of two or more 

closely related species to show the nature and 
degree of specific differences. 
c. Derivatives of Species. 

403 *Sport: A parent species with its offspring, showing 

marked temporary deviation from parental type. 

404 **Mutant: A parent species with its offspring, show- 

ing the marked new characters that have sud- 
denly appeared in certain of the offspring, and 
that are inherited by the descendants of the 
latter. 
***Hybrids. 

405 IMendelian Hybrid: The male and female parent 

plants with the hybrid offspring of the first, sec- 
ond and third generations, showing segregation 
of parental characters in the individual offspring, 
after the first generation. 

406 ItBlend-Hybrid: The two parents with three genera- 

tions of offspring, showing the blending of the 
parental characters in each of the offspring, from 
the first generation onward. 
B. The Genus. 

407 a. Constituents of the Genus: Three diverse species 

of the same genus, to show the degree of likeness 
and difference within one genus. 

408 b. Generic Distinctions: Plants of two or more 

closely related genera, to show the nature and 
degree of generic distinctions. 

409 C. The Family: Five genera, showing the degree of 

likeness and difference within a single family. 

DIVISION II. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATIONS. 
Subdivision I. System of Aristotle, B. C. 330. 

410 Arbores (trees). 

411 Frutices (shrubs). 

412 Herbae (herbs). 

Subdivision II. System of John Ray, A. D. 1703. 

A. Herbae (herbs) : Plants without winter buds. 

413 a. Imperfectae (flowerless) ; Algae, fungi, mosses, 

ferns, duckweeds. 
b. Perfectae (floivering) . 



689] 



Botanical Garden 



19 



414 Dicotyledones (with two seed-leaves). 

415 Monocotyledones (with one seed-leaf). 
B. Arbores (with scaly winter buds). 

416 Monocotyledones. 

417 Dicotyledones. 

Subdivision III. Artificial System of Linnaeus, A. D. 
1733. 

418 "Class" I. Monandria (flowers with one sta- 

men). 

419 II. Diandria (flowers with two sta- 

mens). 

420 III. Triandria (flowers with three sta- 

mens). 

421 IV. Tetrandria (flowers with four sta- 

mens). 

422 " V. Pentandria (flowers with five sta- 

mens). 

423 " VI. Hexandria (flowers with six sta- 

mens). 

424 VII. Heptandria (flowers with seven sta- 

mens). 

425 " VIII. Octandria (flowers with eight sta- 

mens). 

426 IX. Enneandria (flowers with nine sta- 

mens). 

427 " X. Decandria (flowers with ten sta- 

mens). 

428 " XL Dodecandria (flowers with eleven 

to nineteen stamens). 

429 XII. Icosandria (flowers with twenty or 

more stamens, inserted on the 
calyx). 

430 " XIII. Polyandria (with twenty or more 

stamens, inserted on the recep- 
tacle) . 

431 " XIV. Didynamia (stamens in each flower 

of two lengths). 

432 " XV. Tetradynamia (four long and two 

short stamens in each flower). 

433 " XVI. Monadelphia (filaments of stamens 

united into a complete ring). 



434 


"Class" XVII. 


435 


" XVIII. 


436 


XIX. 


437 


XX. 


438 


XXI. 


439 


XXII. 


440 


" XXIII. 



20 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [000 

Diadelphia (filaments united in two 
sets). 

Polyadelphia (filaments united in 
three or more sets) . 

Syngenesia (anthers united around 
the style). 

Gynandria (stamens and pistils 
united). 

Monoecia (stamens and pistils in 
different flowers of the same 
plant). 

Dioecia (stamens and pistils on dif- 
ferent plants). 

Polygamia (stamens and pistils may 
be in part in the same flower, 
but also in part in different 
flowers of the same individual). 

441 " XXIV. Cryptogamia (flowerless plants). 

Subdivision IV. Natural System of A. L. de Jussieu, 
A. D. 1789. 

442 A. Acotyledones (without cotyledons) : Algae, fun- 

gi, mosses, ferns, Naiadaceae. (The last two 
groups really have cotyledons.) 

B. MONOCOTYLEDONES (FLOWERING PLANTS WITH ONE CO- 

TYLEDON ) . 

443 a. Stamens Hypogynous (inserted below the ovary). 

444 o. Stamens Perigynous (inserted around the ovary). 

445 c. Stamens Epigynous (inserted upon the ovary). 

C. DlCOTYLEDONES (FLOWERING PLANTS WITH TWO SEED- 

LEAVES ) . 

a. Apetalae (flowers ivithout petals) . 

446 Stamens Hypogynous. 

447 Stamens Perigynous. 

448 Stamens Epigynous. 

b. Monopetalae (petals united). 

449 Corolla Hypogynous. 

450 Corolla Perigynous. 

451 Corolla Epigynous. 

c. Polypetalae (petals distinct). 

452 Stamens Hypogynous. 

453 Stamens Perigynous. 

454 Stamens Epigynous. 

455 d. Diclines Irregulares (stamens and pistils on dif- 

ferent plants). 



091] Botanical Garden 21 

Subdivision V. Natural System of A. P. de Candolle, 
A. D. 1819. 

A. Vasculares (plants with vascular bundles). 

a. Exogenae (bundles in a ring, stem growing at 
circumference) . 

456 Diplochlamydeae (flowers with both calyx and 

corolla) . 

457 Monochlamydeae (perianth simple, flowers apeta- 

lous). 
o. Endogenae (bundles scattered, stem growing at 
center). 

458 Phanerogamae (with flowers) : Monocotyledons. 

459 Cryptogamae (without flowers) : Ferns, horsetails, 

club mosses. 

B. Cellulares (without vascular bundles). 

460 a. Foliaceae (with leaves) : Liverworts, mosses. 

461 b. Aphyllae (without leaves) : Algae, fungi. 

Subdivision VI. Natural System of A. Brongniart, 
A. D. 1843. 

A. Cryptogamae (flowerless, but not as Brongniart 

MISTAKENLY SUPPOSED, ASEXUAL). 

462 a. Amphigenae (without stem and leaf) : Algae. 

fungi. 

463 b. Acrogenae (leaf and stem differentiated) : Mosses, 

fern-plants. 

B. Phanerogamae (with flowers) . 

a. Monocotyledones. 

464 Albumenosae (seeds with endosperm). 

465 Exalbumenosae (without endosperm). 

b. Dicotyledones. 

466 Angiospermae (seeds enclosed in ovary) : Pinks, 

buttercups, roses, mustards, daisies, etc. 

467 Gymnospermae (seeds not in an ovary — the Gym- 

nosperma of Robert Brown, 1827, and Endlicher, 
1840) : Cycads, conifers. 

Subdivision VII. Natural System of Alexander 
Braun, A. D. 1864. 

A. Bryophyta. 

468 a. Thallodea (without leaves) : Algae, fungi. 

469 b. Thallophyllodea: Charas, liverworts, mosses. 

B. CORMOPHYTA (WITH STEM AND ROOT). 

470 a. Phyllopterides : Ferns, horsetails. 

471 b. Maschalopterides : Club mosses. 

472 c. Hydropterides : Water-Ferns. 



22 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [692 

C. Anthophyta (bearing FLOWERS). 

473 a. Gymnospermae. 
b. Angiospermae. 

474 *Monocotyledones. 

475 **Dicotyledones. 

Subdivision VIII. Natural System of A. W. Eiciiler, 
A. D. 1883. 

A. Cryptogamae (flowerless ) . 

a. Division I. Thallophyia. 

476 *Class I. Algae (with chlorophyll). 

477 **Class II. Fungi (without chlorophyll). 

b. Division II. Bryophyta. 

473 *Group I. Hepaticae (scale mosses). 

479 **Group II. Musci (mosses). 

c. Pteridophyta (fern-plants) . 

480 *Class I. Equisetinae (horsetails). 

481 **Class II. Lycopodinae (club mosses). 

482 ***Class III. Filicinae (ferns). 

B. Phanerogamae (with flowers). 

483 a. Division I. Gymnospermae. 
b. Division II. Angiospermae. 

484 *Class I. Monocotyleae (with one cotyledon). 
**Class II. Dicotyleae. 

485 tSubclass I. Choripetalae (petals distinct). 

486 ttSubclass II. Sympetalae (petals united). 

Subdivision IX. Natural System of A. Engler (Syl- 
labus, 5th ed.), 1907. See p. 17. 

The first ten primary "Divisions" of Engler's 
System cannot be adequately illustrated in a garden 
such as this and are therefore omitted. They are: 
A. Myxomycetes, B. Schizophyta, C. Flagellatae, 
D. Dinoflagellatae, E. Zygophyceae, F. Chlorophy- 
ceae, G. Charales, H. Phaeophyceae, I. Rhodophy- 
ceae, J. Eumycetes. These ten groups together 
make up the Thallophyta of Eichler. 

The names of the groups given below, i. e. Divi- 
sion, Subdivision, Class and Series, each, as a rule, 
with its own peculiar ending, are those used con- 
sistently by Engler for the successive portions of 
the vegetable kingdom, to indicate the grade of 
each group, e. g. Class names usually end with 
ales, Series names with ae. 



693] Botanical Garden 23 

K. Division XI. Archegoniatae (with archegonia) : 
Mosses, fern-plants. 

a. Subdivision I. Bryophyta. 

487 *Class I. Hepaticae (liverworts) : 3 series, 5 fami- 

lies, 145 genera, 4,000 species. Distribution cos- 
mopolitan. 

488 **Class II. Musci (mosses) : 3 subclasses, 58 fami- 

lies, 450 genera, 12,000 species. Cosmopolitan in 
distribution. 

b. Subdivision II. Pteridophyta (fern-plants). 
♦Class I. Filicales (ferns). 

489 Series I. Filicales Leptosporangiatae : Ferns, filmy- 

ferns, flowering ferns, etc. Of 10 families, 234 
genera, 3,400 species. Distribution cosmopolitan, 
especially tropical, only a few species in Africa. 
The family Polypodiaceae with 2,800 species. 

490 Series 2. Marattiales: Marattias, Danaeas, Angi- 

opteris, etc. Of 1 family, 5 genera, 50 species. 
Strictly tropical. 

491 Series 3. Ophioglossales : Adder's tongues, grape 

ferns. Of 1 family, 3 genera, 48 species. Cos- 
mopolitan in distribution. 

492 **Class II. Equiesetales: Horsetails. Of 1 family, 

1 genus, 24 species. Widely distributed, fewer in 
the southern hemisphere. 
***Class III. Lycopodiales. 

493 Series 1. Lycopodiales Eligulatae: Club mosses, 

ground pines. 2 families, 4 genera, 105 species. 
Widely distributed, many American, but few 
African. 

494 Series 2. Lycopodiales Ligulatae: Selaginellas. 

quillworts. 2 families, 2 genera, 560 species. 
Widely distributed, largely tropical. 
L. Division XII. Spermatophyta (seed-plants, or 

FLOWERING PLANTS ) . 

a. Subdivision I. Gymnospermae (seeds not en- 
closed). 

495 Class I. Cycadales: Sago palms. 1 family, 9 

genera, 90 species. Tropical or sub-tropical in 
distribution. 

496 Class II. Ginkgoales: Maidenhair trees. 1 fam- 

ily, 1 genus, 1 species. Found in Western China 
only. 



24 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [694 

497 Class III. Coniferae: Pines, spruces, hemlocks, 

cedars. 2 families, 33 genera, 370 species. 
Chiefly in north and south temperate zones, few 
in the tropics. 

498 Class IV. Gnetales: Gnetums, Ephedras. Of 1 

family, 3 genera, 36 species. Tropical and sub- 
tropical. 

b. Subdivision II. Angiospermae (seeds enclosed). 
*Class I. Monocotyledoneae (with one seed-leaf). 

499 Series 1. Pandanales: Screw pines, cat-tails, Hpar- 

ganiums. Of 3 families, 4 genera, 240 
species. Distribution cosmopolitan. 

500 " 2. Helobiae. Pondweeds, eel-grasses, water 

plantains. Of 7 families, 45 genera, 
280 species. Cosmopolitan. 

501 " 3. Triuridales: A single family of 2 genera 

and 20 species. Tropical saprophytes. 

502 " 4. Glumiflorae: Grasses, bamboos, sedges. 

Of 2 families, 378 genera, 6,100 species; 
Gramineae with 3,500 species. Dis- 
tribution universal. 

503 " 5. Principes: Palms. A single family of 

128 genera, 1,200 species. Distribute! 
around the earth in tropics and sub- 
tropics. 

504 " 6. Synanthae: Cyclanthuses, Carludovicas. 

A single family, 5 genera, 44 species. 
In tropical America. 

505 " 7. Spathiflorae: Callas, Caladiums, duck- 

weeds. Of 2 families, 108 genera, 920 
species. Cosmopolitan, few in Aus- 
tralia. 

506 " 8. Farinosae: Tradescantias. pineapples, 

pickerel weeds. Of 13 families, 119 
genera, 2,200 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, chiefly in tropical America. 

507 " 9. Liliiflorae: Lilies, Amaryllises, Irises. 

Of 8 families, 355 genera, 4,600 spe- 
cies; L-iliaceae 2,600 species. Cosmo- 
politan. 

508 " 10. Scitamineae: Bananas, gingers, Cannas. 

Of 4 families, 43 genera, 1,200 species. 
Tropical, largely African and Asiatic. 



095] Botanical Garden 25 

509 Series 11. Microspermae: Burmannias, orchids. 

Of 2 families, 419 genera, 6,000 spe- 
cies. Cosmopolitan, especially in 
warmer regions. 
**Class II. Dicotyledoneae (with two seed-leaves). 
tSubclass I. Archichlamydeae. (Including Apetalae 
and Polypetalae, i. e. sepals and petals wanting, 
or, if present then distinct.) 

510 Series 1. Verticillatae: Ironwoods. A single 

genus, 25 species. Native to East 
Indies and Australia. 

511 " 2. Piperales: Lizard's tails, peppers. Of 

4 families, 16 genera, 1,050 species. 
Nearly all tropical. 

512 " 3. Salicales: Poplars, willows. Of 1 fam- 

ily, 2 genera, 188 species. North 
temperate zone, a few tropical. 

513 " 4. Myricales: Sweet gales. Of 1 family, 

1 genus, 55 species. Temperate and 
sub-tropical. 

514 " 5. Balanopsidales: Of 1 genus, 7 species. 

Australian shrubs and trees. 

515 " 6. Leitneriales : Of 1 genus, 2 species. 

Southeastern United States. 

516 " 7. Juglandales: Walnuts, hickories. Of 1 

family, 6 genera, 33 species. Chiefly 
north temperate. 

517 " 8. Batidales: A single species of shrub. 

On tropical seacoasts. 

518 " 9. Julianales: Of 1 family, 2 genera, 5 

species. In Mexico and Peru. 

519 " 10. Fagales: Beeches, birches, chestnuts, 

oaks. Of 2 families, 11 genera, 417 
species. Chiefly north temperate and 
East Indian, none in Africa. 

520 " 11. Urticales: Elms, mulberries, figs, net- 

tles. Of 3 families, 110 genera (37 
monotypic), 1,500 species. Widely 
distributed. 

521 " 12. Proteales: Protects, silk oaks, Bank- 

sias. Of 1 family, 50 genera, 1,100 
species. Chiefly Australian and S. 
African, a few S. American and Asi- 
atic. 



2G The Johns Hopkins University Circular [696 

522 Series 13. Santalales: Sandalwoods, mistletoes, 

Balanophoras. Of 7 families, 88 
genera, 940 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, chiefly tropical. 

523 " 14. Aristolochiales: Birthworts, wild gin- 

gers, Rafllesias. Of 3 families, 24 
genera, 230 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, chiefly tropical. 

524 " 15. Polygonales: Docks, knotweeds, buck- 

wheats. Of 1 family, 30 genera, 750 
species. Chiefly north temperate, a 
few tropical. 

525 " 16. Centrospermae: Goosefoots, four- 

o'clocks, Portulaccas, pinks. Of 9 
families, 265 genera (118 monotypic), 
3,100 species (Caryophyllaceae 1,300 
species). Cosmopolitan, many halo- 
phytes. 

526 " 17. Ranales: Pond lilies, buttercups, Mag- 

nolias, laurels. Of 16 families, 238 
genera, 4,000 species. Chiefly north 
temperate and tropical. 

527 " 18. Rhoeadales: Poppies, fumitories, ca- 

pers, mustards. Of 6 families, 278 
genera, 2,050 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, largely north temperate and 
tropical. 

528 " 19. Sarraceniales: Pitcher plants, sun- 

dews. Of 3 families, 10 genera (5 
monotypic), 135 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, largely bog plants and 
epiphytes. 

529 " 20. Rosales: Stonecrops, Hydrangeas, 

sweet gums, sycamores, roses, pulses. 
Of 17 families, 700 genera, 10,750 
species. Universally distributed. The 
Leguminosae, with 8,000 species, is 
perhaps the most important family of 
Dicotyledons. 

530 " 21. Geraniales: Geraniums, Oxalises, nas- 

turtiums, rues, oranges, Polygalas, 
spurges. Of 20 families, 538 genera, 
9,050 species. Widely distributed, 
many families, largely tropical; 
Euphorbiaceae with 4,500 species. 



697] Botanical Garden 27 

531 Series 22. Sapindales: Boxes, sumachs, hollies, 

maples, horsechestnuts, jewelweeds. 
Of 20 families, 277 genera (110 mono- 
typic), 2,930 species. Widely dis- 
tributed; many tropical and sub- 
tropical. 

532 " 23. Rhamnales: Buckthorns, grapes, wood- 

bines. Of 2 families, 57 genera, 760 
species. Widely distributed, many 
sub-tropical and temperate. 

533 " 24. Malvales: Lindens, hollyhocks, cocoas. 

Of 8 families, 153 genera, 2,030 
species. Widely distributed; largely 
sub-tropical and temperate. 

534 " 25. Parietales: Teas, St. John's-worts, 

violets, passion-flowers, Begonias. Of 
30 families, 273 genera, 4,390 species. 
Chiefly tropical or sub-tropical. 

535 " 26. Opuntiales: Cactuses, prickly pears. 

Of 1 family, 20 genera, 900 species. 
Tropical or sub-tropical American 
(Rhipsalis occurs also in South Af- 
rica) ; desert plants and epiphytes. 

536 " 27. Myrtiflorae: Loosestrifes, pomegrana- 

tes, mangroves, Eucalyptuses, Melas- 
tomas, evening primroses. Of 17 
families, 390 genera, 6,500 species. 
Widely distributed; Myrtaceae of 
2,700 species, chiefly in America and 
Australia, Melastomaceae of 1,800 
species, chiefly in American tropics. 

537 " 28. Umbelliflorae: Aralias, ivies, parsleys, 

dogwoods. Of 3 families, 297 genera, 

2,200 species. Widely distributed; 

chiefly north temperate and tropical. 

f f Sub-Class II. Metachlamydeae (Sympetalae or 

Gamopetalae. — Perianth double, the petals united, 

sepals united or distinct). 

538 Series 1. Ericales: Pyrolas, Indian pipes, Azaleas, 

heaths. Of 6 families, 108 genera, 
(42 monotypic), 1.740 species. Widely 
distributed; chiefly arctic, temperate, 
and in mountains of tropics. 



28 The Johns Hopkins University circular [698 

539 Series 2. Primulales: Primroses, Cyclamens, sea 

lavenders, Plumbagos. Of 4 families, 
66 genera, 1,830 species. Widely dis- 
tributed; largely north temperate and 
tropical. The Plumbaginaceae include 
many halophytes. 

540 " 3. Ebenales: Guttaperchas, ebonies, per- 

simmons. Of 4 families, 43 genera, 
1,090 species. Chiefly tropical and 
sub-tropical. 

541 " 4. Contortae: Ashes, olives, gentians, dog- 

banes, milkweeds. Of 6 families, 466 
genera, 4,250 species. Widely distrib- 
uted in warmer regions; Asclepiada- 
ceae with 1,700 species, of these 500 
species, mostly xerophytic, in Africa. 

542 " 5. Tubiflorae: Morning glories, dodders, 

Verbenas, mints, nightshades, fig- 
worts, bladderworts. Of 20 families, 
910 genera, 14,300 species. Widely 
distributed; largely sub-tropical and 
temperate. Labiatae with 3,000 spe- 
cies., Scrophulariaceae 2,600 species. 

543 " 6. Plantaginales: Plantains. Of 1 family, 

3 genera, 203 species. Widely distrib- 
uted; chiefly temperate. Plantago 
with 200 species. 

544 " 7. Rubiales: Cinchonas, coffees, honey- 

suckles, teasels. Of 5 families, 375 
genera, 5,280 species. Widely dis- 
tributed; largely tropical, north tem- 
perate and Andine. Rubiaceae with 
346 genera, 4,500 species. 

545 " 8. Campanulatae: Gourds, bluebells, Lo- 

belias, golden-rods, Chrysanthemums, 
thistles. Of 6 families, 970 genera, 
14,150 species. Distribution univer- 
sal. Compositae with 806 genera, 
12,000 species. 

DIVISION III. SELECTED FAMILIES: Illustrating 
the differences in size, in variety of structure, and 
in geographical distribution found in different 
families. 



699] Botanical Garden 29 

546 A. Ginkgoaceae — Of a single genus with but one spe- 

cies, found only in Western China. 

547 B. Saururaceae — A small family of wide but local dis- 

tribution. Of three genera and four species. One 
genus in Eastern North America and Eastern 
Asia, one in California and one in Eastern Asia 
only. 
C. Liliaceae — A large monocotyledonous family of 
cosmopolitan distribution. Of 197 genera, 2,600 
species. 

548 a. Subfamily Melanthioideae: Bog-asphodels, false 

hellebores, autumn crocuses, bell- 
worts. Of 36 genera, 165 species. 
Cosmopolitan in distribution. 

549 b. " Herrerioideae: A single genus of 3 

species, in Brazil. 

550 c. " Asphodeloideae : Asphodels, day lilies, 

New Zealand flax, Aloes. Of 64 
genera, 600 species. Widely dis- 
tributed, largely in Australasia and 
South Africa. 

551 d. Allioideae: Onions, garlics, chives. 

Of 21 genera, 370 species. Widely 
distributed, chiefly north temperate. 

552 e. Lilioideae: Lilies, dog's-tooth violets, 

tulips, squills, hyacinths. Of 27 
genera, 575 species. Widely dis- 
tributed in the northern hemisphere 
and Africa. 

553 f. " Dracaenoideae : Yuccas, dragon-trees, 

bowstring hemps. Of 9 genera, 105 
species. Distributed widely but not 
in South America. 

554 g. " Asparagoideae : Asparagus, lily of the 

valley, Solomon's seals. Of 27 
genera, 210 species. Distributed 
from North America to South Africa 
and East Indies. 

555 h. " Ophiopogonoideae : Liriopes and Ophi- 

opogons. Of 4 genera, 23 species. 
In tropical Africa and Asia. 

556 i. " Aletroideae: Star-grasses. Of 1 genus, 

8 species. Eastern N. America and 
Eastern Asia. 



30 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [700 

557 ;'. Subfamily Luzuriagoideae : Luzuriagas, Lapager- 

ias. Of 6 genera, 8 species. In 
southern hemisphere. 

558 k. " Smilacoideae : Green BriaYs, sarsa- 

parillas. Of 3 genera, 210 species. 

Widely distributed; chiefly north 

temperate and tropical, many S. 

American. 
D. Compositae — A large family of Dicotyledonous 
plants. Universally distributed. Of 806 genera, 
12,000 species; the largest family of flowering 
plants, containing about one-tenth of all known 
species of the latter. 
a. Tubiflorae (disk flowers with tubular corollas, 
marginal flowers only are ligulate.) 

559 Tribe 1. Vernonieae: Iron weeds, elephant's foot. 

Of 42 genera, 600 species. Cosmopoli- 
tan; chiefly American. 

560 " 2. Eupatorieae: Thoroughworts and Agera- 

turns. Of 42 genera, 840 species. Al- 
most entirely N. and S. American; a 
few in Africa and Asia. 

561 " 3. Astereae: Golden-rods, daisies, Asters. 

Of 100 genera, 1,260 species. Cosmopo- 
litan; chiefly in temperate zones of N. 
and S. America. 

562 " 4. Inuleae: Everlastings, cudweeds, elecam- 

panes, Edelweiss. Of 151 genera, 1,400 
species. Cosmopolitan; many African, 
few S. American. 

563 " 5. Heliantheae: Ambrosias, cockleburs, sun- 

flowers, Dahlias. Of 143 genera, 1,360 
species. Cosmopolitan; many Mexican. 

564 " 6. Helenieae: The sneezeweeds. Of 54 

genera, 400 species. Largely in western 
N., Cent, and S. America; a few in 
Africa and Australia. 

565 " 7. Anthemideae: Yarrows, chamomiles, 

Chrysanthemums, wormwoods. Of 48 
genera, 800 species. Cosmopolitan; 
many in Africa. 

566 " 8. Senecioneae: Arnicas, Cinerarias, rag- 

weeds. Of 50 genera, 700 species. 
Cosmopolitan. 



701] Botanical Garden 31 

567 Tribe 9. Calenduleae: Marigolds. Of 7 genera, 

110 species. Mediterranean region, 
Africa and Terra del Fuego. 

568 " 10. Arctotideae: Ursinias, BerJcheyas. Of 11 

genera, 240 species. Chiefly S. African; 
one species in Asia, one in Australia. 

569 " 11. Cynareae: Burdocks, artichokes, thistles. 

Of 33 genera, 1,340 species. Distributed 
chiefly from N. Africa to Japan; few 
American. 

570 " 12. Mutiseae: Dicomas, Mutisias, Perezias. 

Of 56 genera, 590 species. Widely dis- 
tributed; chiefly in the Andes of S. 
America. 
b. Liguliflorae (all the flowers of the head with ligu- 
late, or strapshaped corolla). 

571 Tribe 13. Cichorieae: Chicories, dandelions, let- 

tuces, hawk-weeds. Of 61 genera, 1,320 
species. Universally distributed; more 
largely in northern hemisphere. 

SECTION IV. ECONOMIC PLANTS. 

Man is dependent ultimately, like all animals, on green plants 
for his food. He also makes use of plant parts and plant prod- 
ucts in the preparation of clothing, lumber, drugs, dyes and 
many other useful substances and, finally he uses a great variety 
of plants for ornament, shade, and for the binding of soil on 
mountain ranges and sea beaches. The cultivation of useful 
plants, i. e. agriculture, is the greatest and most universal in- 
dustry practiced by man. 

The series of illustrative plants shown here is made up chiefly 
of selected useful plants which are cultivated in temperate 
regions, but includes a few tropical and sub-tropical plants whose 
fruits or other products are familiar. The variety of plants 
made use of locally in the various regions of the globe is sur- 
prisingly great. 

DIVISION I. USEFUL PLANTS (yielding useful prod- 
ucts). 

A. Yielding Foods (starches, oils, proteids). 

600 a. Cereals (starchy seeds). 

601 b. Legumes (seeds with starch and proteid). 

602 c. Nuts and Fruits (starchy or oily). 

603 d. Rhizomes and Tubers (starchy stems or roots). 



605 


f. 


606 


B. 


607 


C. 


6C3 


D. 


609 


E. 


610 


F. 




G. 


611 


a. 


612 


b. 


613 


H. 


614 


I. ^ 


615 


J. 


616 


K. 


617 


L. 


618 


M. 



32 The Johns Hopkins University circular [702 

604 e. Vegetables (succulent roots, stems, leaves or 

fruits). 
Fruits (succulent and sweet or acid). 

Yielding Sugars. 

Yielding Spices or Perfumes (including condi- 
ments and flavors). 

Yielding Drugs or Stimulants. 

Yielding Beverages. 

Yielding Fodder (forage plants). 

Yielding Oils. 
Yielding Fixed Oils. 
Yielding Volatile Oils. 

Yielding Gums or Resins. 

Yielding Rubber. 

Yielding Dyes. 

Yielding Tannins. 

Yielding Fibres. 
Yielding Other Useful Products (Miscellaneous) . 

DIVISION II. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS (Yielding Or- 
namental Flowers) : A series of cultivated flowers, 
showing the origin and natural relationship of the 
chief horticultural types, in three selected genera. 

a. The Genus Dianthus: The Pinks. Of 230 spe- 
cies. Distributed from Cape Colony to Germany, 
Siberia and Japan; chiefly Mediterranean. 

619 *Subgenus I. Carthusianastrum (flowers in clus- 

ters, usually cymes or heads) : Sweet William, 
Deptford Pink. (D. cinnibarinus, D. cruentus, 
D. babbatus, D. Armeria). 

620 **Subgenus II. Caryophyllastrum (flowers solitary 

or in pairs) : Scotch Pink, Carnation, Maiden 
Pink, Chinese Pink. (D. plumarius, D. superbus, 
D. Caryophyllus [3 varieties], D. Chinensis, D. 
Ch. Heddewigii, D. Ch. Imperialis). 

b. The Genus Rosa (Subgenus Eurosa) : Roses. (The 
only other Subgenus, Hulthemia, has but a single 
species, R. Persica, with simple leaves, growing 
in Asia. It is rarely cultivated). The genus con- 
tains 100 species, in the north temperate zone 
and the mountains of the tropics. 

♦Cultivated species of the Rose, arranged under the 
natural Sections of the genus (from Bailey's 
Cyclopedia of Horticulture). 



703] Botanical Garden 33 

621 Section I. Systylae: Prairie Rose, Memorial 

Rose, Musk Rose. (R. multi-flora, 
R. setigera, R. Wichuriana, R. ar- 
vensis capreolata, R. moschata). 

622 " II. Stylosae: R. stylosa. (Rarely cul- 

tivated, not shown here). 

623 III. Indicae: Bengal Roses, Bourbon 

Roses, Tea Roses. (R. Chinensis, 
R. Ch. fragrans, R. Ch. Indica, 
R. Ch. semperflorens, R. Ch. 
Manetti, R. Ch. viridiflora, R. 
Noisettiana, R. Borbonica, (the 
two latter are perhaps hybrids of 
R. Ch. X R. sp.f) 

624 " IV. Banksiae: Banks' Rose (R. Bank- 

siae lutea plena). 

625 " V. Gallicae: Provence Rose, Moss 

Rose, Damask Rose. (R. G-allica, 
R. Damascena) . 

626 " VI. Caninae: Sweetbrier, Dog Rose. 

(R. rubiginosa, R. canina [the 
latter often used for grafting 
stock,] R. villosa) . 

627 " VII. Carolinae: Carolina Rose. (R. Caro- 

lina, R. lucida, R. humilis). 

628 " VIII. Cinnamomeae: Cinnamon Rose. 

(R. cinnamomea, R. rugosa rubra 
plena) . 

629 " IX. Pimpinellifoliae: Scotch Rose. (R. 

spinosissima altaica) . 

630 " X. Luteae: Yellow Rose. (R. hemi- 

sphaerica plena) . 

631 " XI. Sericeae. (R. sericea, — omitted in 

the Garden). 

632 " XII. Minutifoliae. (R. minutifolia, — not 

shown in Garden). 

633 " XIII. Bracteatae: Macartney Rose. (R. 

bract eata) . 

634 " XIV. Laevigatae: Cherokee Rose. (R. 

laevigata) . 

635 " XV. iMicrophyllae. (R. microphylla) . 
**Types of Hybrid Roses, with their probable parents. 



34 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [704 

636 Polyantha Roses: Hybrids of R. multiflora X R. 

Chinensis. (Baby Rambler, Etoile d'Or, R. Poly- 
antha grandiflora) . 

637 Rambler Roses: Hybrids of R. multiflora X R. sp. 

(Crimson Rambler, Yellow Rambler, White Ram- 
bler). 

638 Hybrid Perpetual Roses: Hybrids of R. Chinensis 

X R. Gallica, or X R. Damascena. (Ulrich 
Brunner, Frau Karl Druschki, Paul Neyron, 
Prince Camille de Rohan, Magna Charta). 

639 Hybrid Tea Roses: Hybrids of R. Chinensis frag- 

rans X Hybrid Perpetuals. (La France, Kaiserin 
Augusta Victoria, Magnafrano, Belle Siebrecht). 

640 Hybrid Rugosa Roses: Hybrids of R. Chinensis 

X R. rugosa. (R. rugosa calocarpa). 

641 Japanese Roses: Hybrids of Hybrid Teas X R. ru- 

gosa. (Madame Georges Bruant). 

642 Rosa Fortuneana: Hybrid of R. Banksiae X R. 

laevigata. (R. Fortuneana). 

643 Rubella Rose: Hybrid of R. spinosissima myria- 

cantha X R. pendulina. (R. rubella), 
c. The Genus Chrysanthemum: The Corn Mari- 
golds, Marguerites, Feverfews, Chrysanthemums. 
Of 200 species. Distributed through the northern 
hemisphere, especially in Eurasia; a few species 
occur south of the equator in Africa. 

*Types of wild species, with their cultivated forms, 
arranged in the natural Sections of the genus 
(according to Engler and Prantl, Die natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien) . 

tAnnuals. 

644 Section I. Pinardia: Corn Marigolds. (C. 

coronarium, C. viscosum, C. sege- 
tum). 

645 II. Ismelia: Summer Chrysanthe- 

mums. (C. carinatum). 

646 III. Coleostophus: (C. Myconis). 

647 IV. Ammanthus: (2 species in Crete). 
ttPerennial Herbs or Half-shrubs. 

648 Section V. Argyranthemum: Marguerites. (C. 

frutescens, C. anetiifolium) . 



705] Botanical Garden 35 

649 Section VI. Pyrethrum: Ox-eye Daisies, Mint 

Geraniums, Feverfews. (G. Leu- 
canthemum, G. montanum, G. 
Parthenium, G. Balsamita, G. 
roseum, G. uliginosum, C. indicum, 
G. sinense Sabine [O. morifolium 
Ramatuelle]. The last species 
was described from a cultivated, 
double form. Its' wild progenitor 
is not known with certainty). 

650 " VII. Gymnocline: (C. macrophyllum) . 

651 " VIII. Tanacetum: Tansies. (G. vulgare) . 

652 **Hybrid Chrysanthemums: Pompon Chrysanthe- 

mums, Autumn, or large-flowered Chrysanthe- 
mums. Hybrids of G. indicum X G. sinense. 
(The innumerable florist-varieties of pompons 
and large-flowered Chrysanthemums are ap- 
parently entirely the product of the intercrossing 
of the two species named. The exact origin or 
ultimate parentage of most varieties is not 
known with any certainty). 

The examples shown illustrate several varieties 
of pompons and some of the chief types of 
structure and color among the large-flowered 
Chrysanthemums. Among the latter, e. g., are 
shown the single-flowered or Anemone types and 
those with incurved and with reflexed ray-flowers, 
each in several colors. 



36 The Johns Hopkins University circular [700 



NOTES IN BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY 

THE STEM OFFSHOOT IN ERYTHRONIUM 
PROPULLANS, GRAY* 

[Preliminary Note] 

By F. H. Blodgett 

During the examination of the several species of 
Erythronium in connection with a study of the bulb 
development in the genus, the forms of the Mississippi 
\ alley and Eastward were found to resemble each other in 
regard to this phase of the life-history with one of the 
species showing special features in development. In the 
development of the three other species of this area (i. e. 
E. americanum, E. albidum, E. mesochoreum) , the inima- 
1nre plants form their new bulbs each year as a rule, at a 
distance from the active bulb, at the end of a stalk or 
runner of varying lengths and directions of growth ; this 
habit ceasing with the attainment of mature condition. 

In E. propullans, however, the mature plants have the 
runner habit more highly developed than the immature 
plants, and this feature is one of the specific character- 
istics. 1 " 

The mature plants have a length of six to ten inches 
from base of bulb to the flower, the peduncle, petiole 
sheath and stem being about equal in length with the soil 
line at the base of the free peduncle, at four to seven 
inches from the bulb. From the side of the petiole sheath, 
about midway from soil line to bulb, the stem offshoot 
pushes out, and during its development grows to be from 
one to four inches in length in different specimens. 



*Amer. Nat., 1871; pp. 298-300; fig. 74. 

tSpecimens of this species were secured in 1908 through the 
kind co-operation of Dr. C. O. Rosendahl and of Mr. C. S. 
Schofield, and in 1909 of Dr. Rosendahl and also of Miss Antoin- 
ette Robinson; to their kind assistance the author is much 
Indebted. 



707] Notes in Botany and Zoology 37 

Enclosed within the walls of the offshoot at its tip, is 
the bud which is the bulb rudiment. At first the bud 
has only one scale leaf about the growing point, but by 
the time it reaches its full growth and becomes a bulb, 
there are usually two scale leaves present. The walls of 
the enclosing tip of the offshoot become the husk of the 
bulb, the rest of the offshoot disintegrates. The aerial 
portions of the plants wither as the fruit ripens, as is the 
case throughout this group of species, leaving the capsule 
prostrate on the soil. 

The bud originates at the base of the peduncle, in the 
axil of one of the leaves, and is first to be seen about the 
first of October. It remains little developed until the 
growth of the plant is practically completed, just before 
flowering, in May, when it bursts through the walls of the 
petiole sheath and elongates into the offshoot. The bud 
becomes enclosed by the surrounding tissues by the 
upward growth of the lowest side, but an opening per- 
sists. In the elongation of the tissues to form the off- 
shoot, the cavity so formed continues as a tube connecting 
the space immediately about the bud with the opening 
in the side of the peduncle. The offshoot is built up from 
the tissue forming the base of the peduncle, through 
growth localized on one side of the axial line, and im- 
mediately behind the insertion of the bud. The vascular 
system of the peduncle supplies, through branches, the 
necessary strands for the offshoot. The bundles in the 
third (of a cross section) opposite the bud continue with 
little hindrance into the flower stalk, but the rest of the 
bundles are either diverted entirely, or throw off branches 
to supply the growing offshoot. The general relation of 
these bundles is shown in the figures. The fact that the 
offshoot derives its vascular supply by diversion of that 
of the peduncle may have considerable influence in the 
reduction in size noticeable in the flowers of this form in 
contrast to the rest of the genus. 



38 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [708 

While the offshoot has been producing a bulb and 
the deposit of starch in the terminal bud, the bulb of tli<* 
whole plant has been renewed by the similar growth of a 
bud within the active bulb, an outgrowth or runner being 
produced in many cases, but the new bulb frequently being 
formed within the space afforded by the withering of the 
preceding one. Thus from each mature plant there are 
obtained two individuals at the close of the season, as the 
result of the vegetative propagation, in contrast to one 
only as customary in the other species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 
(Reduced one-half from original scale) 

Figure 1. Entire plant of E. propullans showing relative 
positions of bulb and offshoot, and small size of flower, x 1; 
os. offshoot. 

Figure 2. Cross section of young offshoot, x 8; o-s, offshoot; 
sh., sheath; v. b., vascular bundles of sheath; v. s., same in off- 
shoot; b. r., bulb rudiment growing-point; c, cavity about bulb 
rud?ment. 

Figure 3. Vertical section of slightly older offshoot, x 6. 

Figure 4. Vertical section of base of offshoot, showing paths 
of vascular strands, in older stage than before, x 7; p., peduncle; 
v. s. vascular strands. 

Figure 5. Longitudinal section of bulb in October, x 5; 
s\ 1st scale leaf; s', second scale leaf ; f. 1., foliage leaf ; f. b., flower 
bud; o. b M offshoot bud; b. b., bud of bulb by which current bulb 
will be renewed. 



709] 



Notes in Botany and Zoology 



39 




40 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [710 

THE NATURE OF THE EMBRYO SAC OF PEPEROMIA* 
By W. H. Brown 

The archesporium of Peperomia sintensii and P. arifolia 
arises as a single hypodermal cell, which cuts off a single 
parietal cell and then forms the embryo sac directly. 

The first division of the embryo sac nucleus is hetero- 
typic. The nucleus goes into synapsis. This stage is 
followed by an apparently continuous spirem. This splits 
longitudinally, but later the two halves come together 
again. The chromosomes are formed from loops in the 
spirem. When these divide, they seem to separate two 
parts of the spirem, which were originally placed end to 
end. 

In P. pelhicida cell plates are formed on the spindles 
of the first two divisions. In the first division of 
P. sintensii and P. arifolia this plate grows into an 
evanescent wall which extends across the embryo sac and 
separates the nuclei. This wall is variable in position 
and generally disappears before the next division, but 
may persist as a remnant after it. At the second division 
in P. sintensii and P. arifolia plates are formed on both 
spindles. One soon disappears, while the other forms a 
wall separating one nucleus from the other three. This 
wall is variable in position, and all signs of it are usually 
lost before the next division. 

In the third division of the embryo sac nucleus of 
P. sintensii, no cell plates were seen on the spindles, but 
in the last division, giving rise to sixteen nuclei, cell walls 
are formed on all the spindles. These walls cut off, 
against the embryo sac walls, one of each of the eight 
pairs of nuclei, and leave the other eight free in the cyto- 



*Abstract of a paper published in the Botanical Gazette 46 : 445-460, 
December, 1908. 



711] Notes in Botany and Zoology 41 

plasm. These free nuclei fuse to form the endosperm 
nucleus. The egg and a nucleus with the position of a 
synergid are cousins. The other six nuclei which are cut 
off against the embryo sac wall finally degenerate. 

The presence of the reducing division in the primary 
embryo sac nucleus and the formation of evanescent walls 
in the first and second divisions seem to indicate that 
The sac is composed of the descendants of the nuclei of 
four megaspores, and that the primary embryo sac nucleus 
is a mother cell and not a megaspore nucleus. 

If the walls corresponded to those of prothallial cells, 
we should expect to find them in the third division, but 
here not even a cell plate was seen. Besides this, the 
nearest phylogenetic relatives in which the first divisions 
of a megaspore result in a cellular structure, are found 
among the leptosporangiate Filicales, which are not sup- 
posed to be in the line of descent of the angiosperms, and 
i1 does not seem probable that Peperomia has reverted to 
the characters of an ancestor as remote as one in which 
we should find the first divisions of the megaspore giving 
rise to a cellular structure. 

This position is strengthened when we consider the 
four-nucleate stage of P. ottoniana. Here the nucleus 
which is cut off is considerably larger and surrounded by 
much denser protoplasm than the other three. The resem- 
blance to the four megaspores of the ordinary angiosperm 
is quite striking. 

The walls formed at the fourth division are probably 
homologous to those formed at the last division of the 
usual angiosperm embryo sac. 

We are not justified, however, in extending the concep- 
tion of four megaspores in an embryo sac to all angio- 
sperms in which a row of megaspores is not formed, 
because we do not know that the division of the mother 
cell to megaspores may not be omitted and the place of 
the heterotypic division be changed. 



42 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [712 

NUCLEAR PHENOMENA IN PYRONEMA CONFLUENS 

[Preliminary Note] 
BY W. H. BROWN 

The form studied agrees perfectly with- the taxonomic 
description of Pyronema confluens, but a microscopical 
study shows that it differs markedly in essentia' details 
of development from the form described by Harper. It 
seems certain, however, that it has been derived from the 
latter and should probably be regarded as a variety of it. 

The structure of the fruit body and of the ascogonium, 
trichogyne and antheridium is very much like that de- 
scribed by Harper (1900) for Pyronema confluens. The 
ascogonia, however, contain many more nuclei than the 
antheridia. The trichogynes and antheridia were never 
found to be connected and often not in contact, while the 
nuclei of the antheridia degenerate in situ. There is, 
however, little doubt but that the antheridia, in this case, 
are derived from those of such a form as that described by 
Harper, in which the nuclei of the antheridium passed 
over into the ascogonium. 

No fusion of nuclei was found in either the ascogonium 
or the ascogenous hyphse, except in the cell which swells 
out to form the ascus. This fusion was of constant occur- 
rence and was the only fusion found in the form studied. 
An appearance quite like fusion but resulting from divi- 
sion was, however, found frequently in both the ascogonia 
and ascogenous hyphse. In the tips of the ascogenous 
hyphise the history of the nuclei is quite definite, so that 
the sequence can be readily followed. The spindle in these 
cases is intranuclear, and when the chromosomes have 
become aggregated at the poles (fig. 1) the whole spindle 
is still surrounded by a clear area. Often, without sepa- 



713] Xotes in Botany and Zoology 43 



(D © 



rating, the nuclei reorganize, and frequently, before the 
connecting fibres have disappeared, a wall appears to 
come across the clear space which surrounds the spindle 
(fig. 2). Later, the fibres disappear, giving the appear- 
ance shown in figure 3. The separation of the two nuclei 
gives an appearance very much like what Claussen (1907) 
has described in Ptjronema confluens as the separation of 
sexual nuclei, and the question arises as to whether the 
phenomena in both cases may not be due to division. 

The separation just described is also much like an early 
stage of fusion, and was at first mistaken for such. If 
the two nuclei are viewed at such an angle that the wall 
separating them is parallel to the plane of the section, this 
wall would be hard to see and the two nucleoli might ap- 
pear to be in the same nucleus. It seems possible that these 
appearances may have been mistaken by some other 
workers for fusing nuclei, though of course it is not safe 
to apply the results in this form to other forms and espe- 
cially to those which have a functional antheridium. 

At the tip of the ascogenous hyphse were found two 
nuclei which, when their origin could be determined, were 
formed by the division of a single one. The tip of the 
ascogenous hyphse becomes hook-shaped and each of the 
nuclei divides. A wall usually comes in between the 
nuclei of each pair. This leaves the ultimate cell uninu- 
cleate and the penultimate binucleate. In this case the 
ascus is formed from the binucleate penultimate cell. It 
is probable that in some cases the ultimate cell is 
binucleate and that the ascus is formed from it. When 
the penultimate cell is binucleate, the two nuclei fuse to 
form the primary ascus nucleus. The uninucleate ulti- 
mate cell may then grow out to form a new ascus. 



44 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [714 

The first division of tbe primary ascus nucleus is pre- 
ceded by what appears to be synapsis and a split spireme. 
At anaphase four or five chromosomes pass to each pole, 
and this number is maintained throughout the three divi- 
sions of the ascus, so that each of the eight spores receives 
four or five chromosomes. The number of chromosomes 
was never more than five or less than four, and it is proba- 
ble that it will be found to be constantly five. There is do 
permanent attachment of the chromosomes to the cen- 
trosomes, which, at the first division, appear to arise from 
the nucleolus. There is then no such arrangement for a 
double longitudinal splitting of the chromosomes as Har- 
per (1905) has described in Phyllactinia. It appears then 
that the reduced number of chromosomes results from the 
first division of the primary ascus nucleus and that there 
is only one reduction in the ascus. This is what would be 
expected if there were a fusion of nuclei at only one point 
in the life of the plant. 

The excellent work of Harper on Pyronema confluens 
seemed, for some time, to show that there was a fusion of 
nuclei in the ascogonium and another fusion in the 
mother-cell of the ascus. Claussen (1907) found nuclei 
associated in pairs in the ascogonium, but denied the 
presence of a fusion at this point. The results recorded 
in this paper seem to show that there is no fusion of 
nuclei in the ascogonium of the form studied. These 
facts, together with the suppression of functional sex 
organs in many forms, suggest that this first fusion may 
not take place at all. 

If this be true, it seems probable that the fusion of 
sexual nuclei originally took place in the ascogonium, but 
later was delayed until some point in the development of 
the ascogenous hyphae ; that then the fusion of the rather 
nearly related sexual nuclei was replaced by the fusion of 
nearer related or even cousin nuclei, as is the case in the 
asci of many forms; that this has obviated the necessity 
for functional sexual organs and is connected with their 
disappearance in many forms. 



715] 



Notes in Botany and Zoology 



45 



LITERATURE CITED 



Claussen, P. 
confluens. 



Zur Kenntnis der Kernverhaltnisse von Pyronema 
Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesells. 25: 586-590. 1907. 



Harper, R. A. Sexual reproduction in Pyronema confluens and 

the morphology of the ascocarp. Ann. Bot, 14: 321-400: 

pis. 19-21. 1900. 
Harper, R. A. Sexual reproduction and the organization of the 

nucleus in certain mildews. Carnegie Inst, of Washington. 

Publication 37: 1-104: pis. 1-7. 1905. 



46 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [710 



PINNA SEMINUDA 

[Preliminary Paper] 

By B. H. Grave 

I began the study of the anatomy of Pinna seminuda 
at the suggestion of Professor W. K. Brooks. It is the 
largest mollusk found at Beaufort, North Carolina, and, 
on account of its size, is a good form for dissection. The 
shells of the largest specimens measure about twelve 
inches in length, eight inches in width, and two and one- 
half inches in thickness. 

THE SHELL 

The shell of Pinna consists, for the most part, of a 
single layer, which is secreted by the edge of the mantle. 
It corresponds to the middle layer of the typical lamelli- 
branch shell, and, on account of its structure, is called 
the prismatic layer. In Pinna, it is w T ell developed and 
is made up of beautiful prisms, which extend transversely, 
and seem to run from surface to surface. The anterior 
third of the shell has an additional layer, secreted by the 
outer surface of that part of the mantle which lines the 
shell in this region. It closely resembles the pearly layer 
of other lamellibranchs, and extends from the anterior end 
as far posteriorly as the posterior adductor muscle. In 
the several transverse sections prepared, there is no trace 
of a horny or cuticular layer, and it seems safe to assume 
that none is developed. 

The outer surface of the shell is studded with tall 
spines, which have the same structure as the prismatic 
layer, and like it are secreted by the edge of the mantle. 
When fully formed, they are between one-half and three- 
fourths of an inch tall, and, except that they are slightly 
broader at the base than at the top, have rhe shape of a 
half cylinder, the hollow side of which faces the edge of 



717] Notes in Botany and Zoology 47 

the shell. During the growth period of one of these 
spines, the edge of the mantle extends beyond the shell 
and fits into the hollow surface of the spine as a fold or 
crimp. In time, the shell, by its growth at the edge, 
extends beyond the spine so that the mantle no longer 
comes into contact with it. This mode of formation 
accounts for the fact that the spines are hollow and open 
towards the growing edge of the shell. 

Judging from measurements taken at short intervals, it 
would seem that the shell grows quite rapidly. A young, 
vigorous specimen increased one-fourth of an inch in 
length in the course of three weeks. 

While working upon the embryology of Pinna, last 
summer, I found it necessary to mutilate the shell on one 
side to obtain the eggs and sperms. This could be done 
without injury to the soft parts of the animal, and such 
a mutiliated specimen, when placed in a live box in the 
harbor, lived perfectly, and began to repair the shell. It 
was impossible to learn in a few weeks to what extent 
it could be mutilated without causing the death of the 
specimen. Individuals were frequently found, which had 
met with accidents in their natural habitat. For exam- 
ple, a specimen was found which had lost a circular 
piece, the size of a silver dollar, from the edge of each 
valve. This lost part had been replaced completely, and, 
although the patch was thick and rough, it was strong 
and as good as before, and the specimen was in a healthy 
condition when found. One frequently finds individuals 
whose shells have been crushed. Specimens thus mutila- 
ted always attempt to mend the shell, but since they are 
exposed for a time to various enemies, many of them die 
as a result of their injuries. 

THE KIDNEYS 

The kidneys are two in number and each consists of a 
tubular and a glandular portion. They lie between the 



48 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [718 

gills on the ventral side of the body, just anterior to the 
posterior adductor muscle. They hang down into the 
mantle chamber, as two dark-colored bags, and are very 
conspicuous organs, needing no dissection to expose them 
to view. They are connected with the pericardial cham- 
ber above, and open below into the mantle chamber by 
large tubes, which end at the summits of papillae. The 
glandular portion forms the prominent sac mentioned 
above and lies between the two extremities. The whole 
kidney forms a coiled pouch, stretching between ihe 
pericardial chamber and the mantle chamber. 

While working with living specimens, I frequently saw 
quantities of yellowish-brown material expelled from the 
kidneys. When examined under the microscope, this 
material proved to consist of very numerous vacuolated 
cell-like bodies, which were filled with yellowish-brown 
or reddish-brown globules of excretory matter. After col- 
lecting and fixing some of this excreted matter, I strained 
it with iron-alum haematoxylin to see if there were nuclei 
present. Although the results obtained so far are not 
altogether conclusive, I believe that no nuclei are thrown 
off. Paraffin sections of the glandular portions of the 
kidney show the epithelial cells to be greatly vacuolated 
and filled with this excretory matter. The vacuole is 
located in the outer end of the cell and there is very little 
protoplasm surrounding it. The nucleus is seen in the 
basal end of the cell and is surrounded by dense proto- 
plasm. Certain cells show a constriction below the 
vacuole, as if they were in process of being thrown off. 
Other cells show this process farther advanced, and ap- 
pear as if they were drawn out by some force which was 
stretching them into two. The nuclei in these cells are to 
be seen in the basal half, and it appears, also, that very lit- 
tle cytoplasm is thrown off with the vacuole. This method 
of excretion, although uncommon, is not especially waste- 
ful, as would appear from the statements of the two or 



719] Notes in Botany and Zoology 49 

three investigators who have written upon this subject 
and maintained that the entire cells are excreted in the 
mollusks studied by them. Of course, it may take place 
in some mollusks, but excretion in Pinna is not of that 
wasteful character. 

EXPERIMENTS UPON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

After reading Dr. Drew's description of his interesting 
experiments upon the nervous system of Ensis directus, I 
decided to verify his results as far as possible by trying a 
similar series of experiments upon Pinna semmuda. The 
location of the ganglia and the distribution of the nerves 
are practically the same in the two lamellibranchs, so that 
no description of the nervous system of Pinna is given in 
this paper. It is possible to remove enough of one valve 
of Pinna seminuda to enable one to see the movements of 
all parts of the body, without injuring the soft parts of 
the animal in the least. The ganglia, also, lie so near the 
surface that they may be exposed by very little dissec- 
tion, and no great injury is inflicted in preparing a speci- 
men for experimentation. A great many of the experi- 
ments were performed upon uninjured specimens. The 
results obtained agree in nearly every particular with Dr. 
Drew's results, and, since to describe them all would in- 
volve repetition, I will speak only of a few which gave 
additional or slightly different results. 

In attempting to learn to what extent nerve impulses 
can be induced to take courses which could safely be con- 
sidered unusual, difficulty was experienced in proving 
that an impulse can go from one cerebral ganglion to the 
other by way of the cerebro pedal connectives. This was 
unquestionably demonstrated, however, in a few cases. 
The cerebral and visceral connectives certainly represent 
the usual paths of transmission of nerve impulses from 
one side of the body to the other. It is interesting to see 
what roundabout courses nerve impulses will take when 



50 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [720 

the natural paths of transmission are severed. This goes 
to show that the whole body is a unit and all parts closely 
associated by nerve connections. 

In working upon an uninjured specimen, it was noticed 
that, when the posterior mantle edge was stimulated, the 
gills, posterior adductor, palps and foot contracted in the 
order named. There was an interval of fully one-half sec- 
ond between the time of the contraction of the adductor 
and foot. It was frequently noticed that parts most dis- 
tant from the point of stimulation were the last to re- 
spond. This shows how slowly the nerve impulses are 
transmitted, and it would not be a difficult task to de- 
termine the rate, because the cerebro visceral connective 
is at least six inches in length. 

When the mantle is stimulated at the level of the an- 
terior end of the gills, this part of the gills is the first to 
respond by contracting. A moment later, the posterior 
end of the mantle and gills and the adductor muscle may 
contract in the order named. Sometimes, if the stimulus 
be weak, only the anterior end of the gills responds, there 
being no observable effect upon other parts. The nerves 
are so distributed that the course of the impulse is first 
to the visceral ganglion, from which a new impulse is sent 
to the anterior end of the gills, causing the contraction of 
these organs. From the same ganglion, other impulses 
may be sent out a fraction of a second later to these other 
organs, and, although they are located nearer to the vis- 
ceral ganglion, they contract later. It was noticed that 
no matter what part of the body is stimulated, the organs 
in that vicinity are the first to respond, even though the 
nerve paths to and from the nerve centers involved are 
longer than to other organs, which contracted later. This 
indicates that there are definite reflex arcs, or paths of 
least resistance, established for all parts of the body. This 
was most obvious when the stimulus was so weak that 



721] Notes in Botany and Zoology 51 

only the organs in the vicinity of the point stimulated 
were affected. 

The above facts point to the possibility that the nerve 
impulses may not travel as slowly as is indicated by the 
difference in time observed in the contraction of organs 
near the point of stimulation and those more distant. It 
may be due to the fact that a nerve center sends out im- 
pulses to these organs at a slightly later period. In this 
case, the only way to determine the rate of transmission 
of an impulse would be to test it directly. 

SUMMARY 

1. The shell of Pinna consists, for the most part, of 
one layer, which has the same structure as the prismatic 
layer of the typical lamellibranch shell. The anterior end 
of the shell consists of two layers. 

2. The spines on the outer surface of the shell are 
built up by the edge of the mantle, and are similar in 
structure to the prismatic layer. 

3. The shell is regenerated when injured. 

4. The excretory matter of the kidneys is deposited in 
vacuoles in the outer ends of the kidney cells, which vacu- 
oles are afterwards constricted off, but very little proto- 
plasm, if any, and no nuclei are thrown off. 

5. Dr. Drew's experiments upon the nervous system of 
Ensis directus were verified and definite reflex arcs were 
shown to exist. 



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1909-1910 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE 

Edward Franklin Buchner, Ph. D., Chairman, 
Professor of Education and Philosophy. 

John B. Van Meter, D. D., 

Dean of the Faculty of The Woman's College of Balti- 
more. 

Harry L. Wilson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Roman Archaeology and Epigraphy. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these 
courses may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns 
Hopkins University, and are to be filled up and returned 
to the Chairman of the Committee, on or before Septem- 
ber 25, 1909. 



52 



723] 



College Courses for Teachers 



53 



INSTRUCTORS IN THE COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Ira Remsen, LL. D., President 



Henry Wood, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
Herbert E'veleth Greene, Ph. D., English 

Collegiate Professor of English. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Associate Professor of French. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Robert P>ruce Roulston, Ph. D., German 

Instructor in German. 
William H. Maltbie, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in the Woman's College. 
Eleanor Louisa Lord, Ph. D., History 

Professor of History in the Woman's College. 
William E. Kellicott, Ph. D., Biology 

Professor of Biology in the Woman's College. 



54 The Johns Hopkins Undversity circular [724 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering 
from time to time extended and systematic courses of 
public lectures. These have included a great variety of 
subjects and have followed different methods of treat- 
ment. Almost continuously since 1890 special courses of 
class lectures or "lesson courses" have been given from 
year to year, and many teachers and other persons in 
Baltimore and vicinity have availed themselves of these 
opportunities for systematic instruction in the subjects 
selected. Many teachers have completed one or more of 
these courses of public educational lectures at the Univer- 
sity and have received certificates upon passing the 
required examinations. All this work has been done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

The Woman's College also has offered without refer- 
ence to academic credit special courses of instruction 
and lectures open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort 
to serve a larger constituency than its regularly enrolled 
students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public 
service, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-opera- 
tion with the Woman's College of Baltimore, will offer 
during 1909-1910 courses of instruction to teachers whose 
vocation prevents their attendance upon college lectures 
and recitations at the usual hours. It is the primary aim 
of these courses to provide the teachers in our public and 
private schools with special opportunities for further 
personal culture and for increasing their professional 
equipment and efficiency. These courses are to be similar 
in character, so far as quality and extent of instruction 



725] College Courses for Teachers 55 

are concerned, to the corresponding courses given in 
college classes. In order to give further encouragement 
to teachers in service to carry on extended systematic 
study, this plan of college courses for teachers also pro- 
vides that satisfactory work accomplished in these courses 
will be credited, under suitable regulations, towards the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

CO-OPERATION WITH THE WOMAN'S COLLEGE 
OF BALTIMORE 

The plan of co-operation with the Woman's College of 
Baltimore provides that the instruction in these College 
Courses for Teachers shall be given by instructors selected 
from the faculties of the Johns Hopkins University and 
the Woman's College. These courses will be open to 
men and women alike, and will be carried on indepen- 
dently of the regular collegiate instruction of the insti- 
tutions. In the case of women who may desire to become 
candidates for the baccalaureate degree, it is provided 
that such credits as they may acquire by means of these 
courses, to the amount of forty-five units or hours, will be 
accepted in full by the Woman's College towards the 
degree. A similar provision is made by the Collegiate 
Department of the Johns Hopkins University in the case 
of those men who desire to proceed to the baccaulaureate 
degree. Total credits of sixty units or hours are required 
for graduation in each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at 
the Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, how- 
ever, classes and laboratory exercises may be held at the 
Woman's College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 



50 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [726 

matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in 
its Collegiate Department, and to the entrance require- 
ments prescribed by the Woman's College of Baltimore. 
The preparatory training desirable for the successful 
pursuit of these courses is that represented by the com- 
pletion of a standard four-year high school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either 
of the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates : 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 
(Z>) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 
(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 

In cases where question may arise as to the adequacy 
of preparation, the applicant may be admitted provision- 
ally and be given an opportunity to prove his or her 
ability to sustain the work undertaken. Admission to 
any particular course will depend upon adequate prepara- 
tion for the pursuit of that course. 

Applications for admission to these courses must be 
presented to the Committee in charge of College Courses 
for Teachers. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity are referred to the circular descriptive of "The 
Collegiate Instruction of the Johns Hopkins University," 
1909, pp. 48-55, for a detailed statement of the require- 
ments for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for 
the same degree in the Woman's College, are referred to 



727] College Courses for Teachers 57 

the "Program of the Woman's College of Baltimore,' 1 
1909, pp. 18-32, for a detailed statement of the correspond- 
ing requirements in this institution. This circular may 
be had by addressing the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be con- 
ferred by either institution, the candidate must spend at 
least one year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts can be conferred by the 
Johns Hopkins University upon men only. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1909-1910 represent for the 
most part the work usually required in the first college 
year. In case there is a sufficient demand on the part of 
properly qualified persons for courses in advance of these, 
an effort will be made to arrange for such instruction. 
In considering applications for advanced standing the 
Committee will be guided by the regulations in force, in 
such cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the 
same rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in 
the Johns Hopkins University and the Woman's College, 
namely : 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. 
Where laboratory fees are required they are additional. 
Three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one 
hour of recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in advance at the office of the Treas- 
urer of the Johns Hopkins University, 712 North How- 
ard Street. Before payment of fees can be made, appli- 
cants must receive from the Committee in charge a card 
stating the courses to be taken. Registration in any class 
cannot be completed without the payment of the fee. 



58 



The Johns Hopkins University Circular [728 



SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 12, 1909, and close on Saturday, June 4, 1910. 
Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. 
Class-room and laboratory exercises will be given in the 
afternoon from Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual college recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admission are to be filed with the 
Chairman of the Committee in charge of the College 
Courses for Teachers, Johns Hopkins University, on or 
before September 25, 1909. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 



(Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10—5.00 P. M. 


5.10-6.00 P. M. 


Tuesday 


French (Brush) 
German (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Biology ( Kellicott) 
English Composition ( French ) 
English Literature (Greene) 
Mathematics (Maltbie) 


Wednesday 


History (Lord) 




Thursday 


French (Brush) 
German (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Biology (Kellicott) 
Mathematics (Maltbie) 


Friday 


History (Lord) 


English Composition (French) 
English Literature (Greene) 




9.00—10.00 A. M. 


10.00 A. M.— 1.00 P. M. 


Saturday 


French (Brush) 
German (Roulston) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Mathematics 
(Maltbie) 


Biology (Kellicott) 
( Biological Laboratory 
Woman's College) 



729] College Courses for Teachers 59 



THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten appli- 
cants may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts which will be allowed for successful 
completion of each of the courses mentioned below, can 
be determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Biology 

This course treats of the characteristics of living organ- 
isms, both plant and animal, their constant relations with 
one another and with the inorganic world, and the 
development of form, structure, and function in a series 
of types of increasing complexity. The course concludes 
with a brief discussion of the theory of organic evolution. 
Two hours class-work, three hours laboratory work a 
week. A laboratory fee of f 5.00 will be charged to cover 
the cost of material. 

Professor Kellicott. Tuesday, Thursday, 5.10 p. m., 
and Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

English Composition 

The course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
arid the forms of prose composition, with some critical 
study of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be 
required ; these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. French. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

English Literature 

First half-year: The poems of Chaucer; History of 
English Literature from the seventh century to about 
1500. 



60 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [730 

Second half-year: The poems of Spenser; History of 
English verse; History of English Literature from the 
Renaissance to about 1600, — not including the drama. 

Professor Greene. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

French 

1. Grammar and Composition : Chardenal's Complete 
French Course. 

2. Translation : Daudet's L' Enfant Espion, and other 
stories ; Augier and Foussier, TJn beau Mariage; Theuriet, 
L'Aobe Daniel; Pailleron, he Monde ou Von s'ennuie; 
Balzac, Scenes cle la Comedie humaine; Corneille, Horace; 
Moliere, Les Femmes savantes, he Medecin malgre lui; 
Victor Hugo, Ruy Bias. 

3. Private Reading: Fortier, Histoire de France; 
Lamartine, Scenes de la Revolution francaise; De Tocque- 
ville, Voyage en Amerique. 

4. Exercises in Pronunciation and in Writing from 
Dictation. 

Associate Professor Brush. Tuesday, Thursday, 4.10 
p. m., and Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

German 

In German, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered : 

1. A course similar to undergraduate German I., con- 
sisting of modern prose readings (C. F. Meyer, von Saar, 
Fulda, Keller, Sudermann), two hours weekly, and prose 
composition, one hour weekly. 

2. Should all the candidates be able to read and write 
German with some facility, and should they wish to pur- 
sue the subject further, with the privilege of substituting 
course 2 for course 1, a plan of study can be arranged as 
follows : 



731] College Courses for Teachers 61 

a. Headings in modern German drama, to be reported 
on in the class, with comments and criticism by the 
instructor. One hour weekly. 

o. History of the German novel in the Eighteenth 
century. One hour weekly. 

c. Written themes in German, involving literary appre- 
ciations, and in the elements of German literary style. 
One hour weekly. 

Course 1 or 2 will be given, but not both of them. The 
selection will be made according to the needs of the 
candidates who present themselves. 

Professor Wood and Dr. Roulston. Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, 4.10 p. m., and Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

History 

This course will deal with the evolution of the char- 
acteristic institutions of the Middle Ages; the church; 
monasticism ; the feudal system ; the Holy Roman Empire; 
the struggle between the empire and the papacy; the 
beginnings of national history in France, England, 
Germany, and Italy ; the rise of the towns and the "third 
estate" ; the Crusades ; the rise of the universities and the 
typical culture of the Middle Ages. 

The method of work will be for the most part the 
so-called "library method," with occasional lectures by 
the instructor, special reports from members of the class, 
and some elementary training in the use of source 
material. 

Professor Lord. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

Latin 

The class will meet three hours weekly, through the 
year. One hour weekly will be devoted to Latin Prose 
Composition (text-book by Gildersleeve and Lodge, 2nd 



62 The Johns Hopkins University Circular [732 

edition). The remaining time will be given to the follow- 
ing authors: Livy (book i and selections, ed. Dennison) ; 
Terence (Phormio, ed. Laing) ; Catullus (ed. Merrill). 
Students will read also privately, for examination, 
Cicero's Cato Maior and one play of Plautus. 

Professor Mustard. Tuesday, Thursday, 4.10 p. m., 
and Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
special topics in Algebra including theory of exponents, 
theory of logarithms, simultaneous equations, binomial 
theorem, elements of 1he theory of equations, and elements 
of the theory of determinants. 

The second part of the year will be devoted to an 
introductory course in Plane Analytic Geometry includ- 
ing a discussion of the right line and of the circle and 
other conies as represented by their equations both 
Cartesian and Polar. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 

Professor Maltbie. Tuesday, Thursday, 5.10 p. m., 
and Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 



CALENDAR, 1909-1910 



College Courses for Teachers begin Tuesday, October 12, 1909. 

Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 25, 1909. 

The Christmas Recess begins Friday morning, December 24, 
1909. 

Exercises will be resumed on Tuesday afternoon, January 4, 
1910. 

Commemoration Day falls on Tuesday, February 22, 1910. 

The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, March 24, and 
closes Wednesday evening, March 31, 1910. 

College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, June 4, 1910. 






PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES 



Philological Association: 

April 23, 1909. — Two hundred and fifty-fourth regular meeting. 
Professor Gildersleeve in the chair. Attendance, 22. 
Egyptian Monasticism. W. W. Wood. 
The Quinquennales. R. V. D. Magoffin. 

May 21, 1909.— Two hundred and fifty-fifth regular meeting. 
Professor Gildersleeve in the chair. Attendance, 28. 
A Theory of the Cyclical Pour-Stage Development of the 
Indo-Germanic Arsis. G. D. Brown, of Princeton Univer- 
sity. 
A Recent Excavation in Rome. H. L. Wilson. (Read by 
title). 

Scientific Association: 

April 7, 1909. — The Bloating of Oysters. C. Grave. 
Analysis of Sounds. P. H. Edwards. 
Absorption Spectra of Solutions. W. W. Strong. 
Selection of Food by Unicellular Animals. A. A. Schaeffer. 

May 12, 1909. — Scientific Method in the Study of Comparative 
Psychology. Professor R. M. Yerkes, of Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

Historical and Political Science Association: 

April 16, 1909. — Van Buren and the Polk Cabinet. Mr. Worth- 
ington C. Ford. 

Hasbach's History of the English Agricultural Labourer. 
F. E. Wolfe. 

Vernon's Italy, 1494-1790. R. G. Ely. 

Parmelee's Anthropology and Sociology in Relation to Crimi- 
nal Procedure. J. P. Wright. 

May 21, 1909. — Some Features of the Government of European 

Cities. Professor William B. Munro. 
Deming's Government of the American City. W. F. Dodd. 
Beveridge's Unemployment: a Problem of Industry. F. T. 

Stockton. 
DeWitt's The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. C. G. 

Kelly. 



63 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS OF BALTIMORE 



American Journal of Mathematics. Frank Morley, Editor. Quarterly. 

4to. Volume XXXI in progress. $5 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

fifty cents.) 
American Chemical Journal. Ira Remsen, Editor. Monthly. 8vo. 

Volume XLI in progress. $5 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
American Journal of Philology. B. L. Gildersleeve, Editor. Quarterly. 

8vo. Volume XXX in progress. $3 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

fifty cents.) 
Studies in Historical and Political Science. Under the direction of the 

Departments of History, Political Economy, and Political Science. 

Monthly, 8vo. Volume XXVII in progress. $3 per volume. (Foreign 

postage, fifty cents.) 
Johns Hopkins University Circular. Monthly. 8vo. $1 per year. 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XX in 

progress. $2 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XV in progress. $5 per 

volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Contributions to Assyriology and Semitic Philology. Paul Haxjpt and 

Friedrich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume VI in progress. 
Memoirs from the Biological Laboratory. Five volumes have appeared. 
Modern Language Notes. A. M. Elliott, Editor. Eight times yearly. 

4to. Volume XXIV in progress. $1.50 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

twenty-five cents.) 
American Journal of Insanity. Henry M. Hurd, Editor. Quarterly. 8vo. 

Volume LXV in progress. $5 per volume. 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L». A. Bauer, 

Editor. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume XIV in progress. $2.50 per volume. 

(Foreign postage, twenty-five cents.) 
Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Third series, 

in progress. $2.00. 
Report of the Maryland Geological Survey. 
Report of the Johns Hopkins University. Presented by the President 

to the Board of Trustees. 
Register of the Johns Hopkins University. Giving the list of officers 

and students, describing the courses, setting forth the regulations, etc. 



Rowland's Photograph of the Normal Solar Spectrum. Ten plates. $25. 
Photographic Reproduction of the Kashmirian Atharva-Veda. M. Bloom- 
field, Editor. 3 vols. Folio. $50. 
Poema de Fernan Goncalez. Edited by C. Carroll Marden. 284 pp. 8vo. 

$2.50 net. 
The Taill of Rauf Coilyear. Edited by William Hand Browne, 164 pp. 

8vo. $1.00 net. 
A New Critical Edition of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament. 

Paul Haupt, Editor. Prospectus on application. 
Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. $6. 
The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. 8vo. $7.50. 
The Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. 225 pp. 8vo. $1. 
Ecclesiastes : A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 50 pp. 

8vo. 50 cents. 
The Book of Nahum: A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 

53 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 
Ancient Sinope. By David M. Robinson. 112 pp. 8vo. $1. 
Notes on Stahl's Syntax of the Greek Verb. By Basil L. Gildersleeve. 

65 pp. 50 cents. 



Communications should be addressed to 
The Johns Hopkins Press. 



1010 No. 7 



THE 



JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



PROGRAMMES OF COURSES 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



rIMNTSOFFlCB. 

3TJL27191C 

Baltimore, Maryland 

published by the university 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

July, 1910 

[New Series, 1910, No. 7] 
[Whole Number, 227] 



Entered, October 21. 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, undsr 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



PROGRAMMES OF COURSES 
1910-11 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

1910-11 



COMMENCEMENT, 1910 

VJN1VERS1TY OP 1U1NOK 




F ftBSU>*NTS 



ornc* 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 
1910 



CALENDAR, 1910-11 



1910 

Tuesday, October 4 — Instruction begins. 

Thursday, November 24 — Thanksgiving Day. All classes sus- 
pended. 

Saturday, December 17 — Last day for application for the Uni- 
versity Scholarships. 

Tuesday-Friday, December 20-23 — Undergraduate Examinations. 

Saturday, December 24 — The Christmas Recess begins. 

Sunday, December 25 — Christmas Day. 

1911 

Tuesday, January 3 — Instruction resumed. 

Wednesday, February 22 — Commemoration Day. All classes sus- 
pended. Public exercises at 11 o'clock. 

Saturday, April 1 — Last day for application for the Johnston 
Scholarships and the Bruce Fellowship. 

Friday-Wednesday, April 7-12 — Undergraduate Examinations. 

Thursday, April 13 — The Easter Recess begins. 

Thursday, April 20 — Instruction resumed. 

Monday, May 1 — Last day for application for the University 
Fellowships. 

Thursday, June 1 — Last day for application for the Hopkins 
Scholarships offered to graduate students from North Caro- 
lina and Virginia. 

Friday-Thursday, June 2-8 — Final Undergraduate Examinations. 

Monday-Thursday, June 5-8 — Oral Examinations for the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Tuesday-Friday, June 6-9 — Entrance Examinations of Under- 
graduates. 

Tuesday, June 13 — Commencement Day. Public exercises at 4 
o'clock. 

Tuesday-Friday, September 26-29 — Entrance Examinations of 
Undergraduates. 

Tuesday, October 3 — Instruction begins. 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 

New Series, 1910, No. 7 JULY, 1910 Whole Number, 227 

GENERAL STATEMENTS AS TO THE 
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



The Johns Hopkins University will begin its thirty- 
fifth year of instruction in October, 1910. The work will 
be carried on in these divisions: 

The Graduate department, in which arrangements are 
made for the instruction of advanced students (men and 
women) in the higher branches of literature and science. 
The degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts 
are offered. 

The Medical department, in which students (men and 
women), who have already received a liberal education, 
are received as candidates for the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine, and in which Doctors of Medicine may attend 
special courses. 

The Undergraduate or Collegiate department, in which 
young men receive a liberal education leading to the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

An academic building, called McCoy Hall, in com- 
memoration of its donor, contains the library and the 
class-rooms in languages, the historical and economic 
sciences, and philosophy. Laboratories are provided for 
Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mineralogy, Zoology, 
Botany, Experimental Psychology, Anatomy, Physiology, 
and Pathology. Seminaries are organized in the Greek, 

3 



4 General Statements [638 

Latin, Romance, German, English, Sanskrit, and Semitic 
languages, in Classical Archaeology and Art, in Mathe- 
matics and Physics, and in History, Political Economy, 
Political Science, and Philosophy. There are various 
scientific associations and journal clubs which hold 
regular meetings. 

The University Library contains one hundred and forty- 
seven thousand volumes, part of which are kept in the cen- 
tral reading-room, while the remainder of the books are 
distributed according to their subjects in the different 
laboratories and seminaries. The Library of the Peabody 
Institute contains one hundred and seventy thousand 
volumes. These books are selected with reference to the 
wants of scholars, and are accessible daily from nine in 
the morning until half-past ten in the evening. The 
proximity of Baltimore to Washington enables the 
students to visit the libraries, museums, and scientific 
foundations of the Capital. 

The academic year extends from the first Tuesday in 
October to the middle of June. Instruction will begin 
October 4, 1910. 

The charge for tuition is one hundred and fifty dollars 
per annum in the graduate and undergraduate depart- 
ments, and two hundred dollars in the medical depart- 
ment. 

The Register, containing statements as to the regula- 
tions and work of the University, and separate announce- 
ments of the Medical and Collegiate Courses will be sent 
on application. 



639] 



Faculties 



FACULTIES OF PHILOSOPHY AND MEDICINE 
1910-11 



IRA REMSEN, Ph. D., 
President and B. N. Baker Professor of Chemistry. 



Basil L. Gildersleeve, Ph. D., 

Francis White Professor of 

Greek. 

Paul Haupt, Ph. D., 

W. W. Spence Professor of 

Semitic Languages. 

William H. Welch, M. D., 

Baxley Professor of Pathology. 

Edward H. Griffin, D. D., 
Professor of History of Philoso- 
phy, Dean of the College 

Faculty. 

William Osler, M. D., 

Honorary Professor of Medicine. 

Henry M. Hurd, M. D., 

Emeritus Professor of 

Psychiatry. 

Howard A. Kelly, M. D., 
Professor of Gynecology. 
Maurice Bloomfield, Ph. D., 
Professor of Sanskrit and Com- 
parative Philology. 

A. Marshall Elliott, Ph. D., 

Professor of the Romance 

Languages. 

William S. Hals ted, M. D., 
Professor of Surgery. 

Harmon N. Morse, Ph. D„ 

Professor of Inorganic and 

Analytical Chemistry. 

Henry Wood, Ph. D., 
Professor of German. 

Edward Renouf, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of 

Chemistry. 

John J. Abel, M. D., 

Professor of Pharmacology. 

William H. Howell, Ph. D..M.D., 

Professor of Physiology and 

Dean of the Medical Faculty. 

Franklin P. Mall, M. D., 

Professor of Anatomy. 



James W. Bright, Ph. D., 
Caroline Donovan Professor of 

English Literature. 

William Hand Browne, M. D., 

Emeritus Professor of English 

Literature. 

Herbert E. Greene, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of English. 

William B. Clark, Ph. D., 

Professor of Geology. 
Lorrain S. Hulburt, Ph. D., 
Collegiate Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 
Joseph S. Ames, Ph. D., 
Professor of Physics. 
J. Whitridge Williams, M. D., 

Professor of Obstetrics. 
Frank Morley, M. A., Sc. D., 

Professor of Mathematics. 

W t illiam J. A. Bliss, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Physics. 

Harry F. Reid, Ph. D., 

Professor of Geological Physics. 

Robert W. Wood, A. B., 

Professor of Experimental 

Physics. 

Kirby F. Smith, Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin. 

Jacob H. Hollander, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Economy. 

Edward B. Mathews, Ph. D., 

Professor of Mineralogy and 

Petrography. 

Harry C. Jones, Ph. D., 

Professor of Physical Chemistry. 

Lewellys F. Barker, M. D., 

Professor of Medicine. 

William S. Thayer, M. D., 

Professor of Clinical Medicine. 

John M. Vincent, Ph. D., 
Professor of European History. 



Faculties 



[040 



C. Carroll Marden, Ph. D., 

Professor of Spanish. 

Westel W. Willoughby, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Science. 

Duncan S. Johnson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany. 

Harry L. Wilson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Roman Archaeology 

and Epigraphy. 

Hermann Collitz, Ph. D., 

Professor of Germanic Philology. 

Herbert S. Jennings, Ph. D., 

Henry Walters Professor of 

Zoology. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., 

Professor of Education and 

Philosophy. 

John B. Watson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Experimental and 

Comparative Psychology. 

Ethan A. Andrews, Ph. D., 

Professor of Zoology. 

Christopher Johnston, Ph. D., 

Professor of Oriental History 

and Archaeology. 

Walter Jones, Ph. D., 

Professor of Physiological 

Chemistry. 

Adolf Meyer, M. D., 

Professor of Psychiatry. 

Edward C. Armstrong, Ph. D., 

Professor of the French 

Language. 

Clemens von Pirquet, M. D., 
Professor of Pediatrics. 

Burton E. Livingston, Ph. D., 

Professor of Plant Physiology. 

Arthur O. Lovejoy, A. M., 

Professor of Philosophy. 

John B. Whitehead, Ph. D., 

Professor of Applied Electricity. 

Charles K. Swartz, Ph. D., 
Collegiate Professor of Geology. 

M. Llewellyn Raney, Ph. D., 

Librarian of the University. 

William D. Booker, M. D., 

Clinical Professor Emeritus of 

Pediatrics. 



John N. Mackenzie, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Laryn- 
gology. 
Samuel Theobald, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Ophthal- 
mology and Otology. 
Henry M. Thomas, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Neurology. 
J. Williams Lord, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Derma- 
tology. 
Thomas C. Gilchrist, M. R. C. S., 
Clinical Professor of Derma- 
tology. 
Henry J. Berkley, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry. 
Edward H. Spieker, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Greek 
and Latin. 
John M. T. Finney, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Surgery. 
C. W. Emil Miller, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Greek. 
William W. Russell, M. D., 
Associate Professor of 
Gynecology. 
Thomas S. Cullen, M. B., 
Associate Professor of 
Gynecology. 
Robert L. Randolph, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Ophthal- 
mology and Otology. 
Thomas B. Futcher, M. B., 
Associate Professor of Medicine. 

Joseph C. Bloodgood, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Surgery. 

Harvey Cushing, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Surgery. 

Hugh H. Young, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Genito- 
urinary Surgery. 
Warren H. Lewis, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Anatomy. 

James C. Ballagh, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of American 

History. 

Florence R. Sabin, M. D., 

Associate Professor of Anatomy. 

Thomas McCrae, M. D., 

Associate Professor of Medicine 

and Clinical Therapeutics. 



G41] 



Faculties 



Caswell Grave, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Zoology. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Political 

Economy. 

William W. Ford, M. D., 

Associate Professor of Hygiene 

and Bacteriology. 

Max Broedel, 
Associate Professor of Art as 

Applied to Medicine. 

Solomon Farley Acree, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of 

Chemistry. 

Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of French. 

Datid M. Robinson, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Classical 

Archaeology. 

J. Morris Slemons, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Ob- 
stetrics. 
Arthur B. Coble, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 
Louis Adolphe Terracher, 
Associate Professor of French 
Literature. 

Samuel Amberg, M. D., 
Associate Prof essor of Pediatrics. 

James Eustace Shaw, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Italian. 

William S. Baer, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Orthope- 
dic Surgery. 

George H. Whipple, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Pathology. 

Donald R. Hooker, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology. 

Carl Voegtlin, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Pharma- 
cology. 

Philip R. Uhler, LL. D., 

Associate in Natural History. 

Bernard C Steiner, Ph. D., 

Associate in English Historical 

Jurisprudence. 

Abraham Cohen, Ph. D., 
Associate in Mathematics. 



J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., 

Associate in Chemistry. 
George C. Keidel, Ph. D., 
Associate in Romance Lan- 
guages. 
Frank R. Smith, M. D., 
Associate in Medicine. 
Guy L. Hunner, M. D., 
Associate in Gynecology. 
William Rosenau, Ph. D., 
Associate in Post-Biblical 
Hebrew. 
Henry 0. Reik, M. D., 
Associate in Ophthalmology and 
Otology. 
Louis P. Hamburger, M. D., 
Associate in Medicine. 
Thomas R. Brown, M. D., 
Associate in Medicine. 
George Walker, M. D., 
Associate in Surgery. 
Richard H. Follis, M. D., 

Associate in Surgery. 

Thomas R. Boggs, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Frederick H. Baetjer, M. D., 

Associate in Surgery, in charge 

of Actinography. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D., 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

William Kurrelmeyer, Ph. D., 

Associate in German. 

Elizabeth Hurdon, M. D., 

Associate in Gynecology. 

Louis V. Hamman, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Clarence B. Farrar, M. D., 

Associate in Psychiatry. 

Arthur D. Hirschfelder, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Roger S. Morris, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Curtis F. Burnam, M. D., 

Associate in Gynecology. 

J. H. Mason Knox, Ph. D., M. D., 

Associate in Pediatrics. 

John C. French, Ph. D., 

Associate in English. 

Aaron Ember, Ph. D., 

Associate in Semitic Languages. 

John A. Anderson, Ph. D., 

Associate in Astronomy. 



Faculties 



[642 



Charles D. Snyder, Ph. D., 

Associate in Physiology. 

August H. Pfund, Ph. D., 

Associate in Physics. 

RlIEINART P. COWLES, PlI. D., 

Associate in Biology. 

Francis C. Goldsborough, M. D., 

Associate in Obstetrics. 

Edward W. Berry, 

Associate in Paleobotany. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., 

Associate in Psychology. 

John T. Geraghty, M. D., 

Associate in Genito-Urinary 

Surgery. 

John H. King, M. D., 

Associate in Pathology. 

Eliot R. Clark, M. D., 

Associate in Anatomy. 

Leonard G. Rowntree, M. D., 

Associate in Experimental 

Therapeutics. 

Arthur H. Koelker, Ph. D., 

Associate in Physiological 

Chemistry. 

Herbert M. Evans, M. D., 
Associate in Anatomy. 

Ralph V. D. Magoffin, Ph. D., 

Associate in Greek and Roman 

History. 

William W. Holland, Ph. D., 
Associate in Chemistry. 

Milton C. Winternitz, M. D., 

Associate in Pathology. 

William L. Moss, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

S. Edwin Whiteman, 
Instructor in Drawing. 

Nathan E. B. Iglehart, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Mactier Warfield, M. D., 

Instructor in Laryngology and 

Rhinology. 

Alfred R. L. Dohme, Ph. D., 
Instructor in Pharmacy. 

J. Hall Pleasants, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Richard A. Urquhart, M. D., 

Instructor in Pediatrics. 



Julius Hoi man. v, 

Assistant in German. 

Edgar R. Strouel, M. D., 

Instructor in Dermatology. 

W. Rush Dunton, Jr., M. D., 

Instructor in Psychiatry. 

James J. Mills, M. D., 

Instructor in Ophthalmology 

and Otology. 

Edward M. Singewald, M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

Ronald T. Abercrombie, M. D., 

Director of the Gymnasium. 

Joseph A. Chatard, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

John A. Luetscher, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

G. Lane Taneyhill, Jr., M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

John McF. Bergland, M. D., 

Assistant in Obstetrics. 

Charles W. Larned, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Henry Lee Smith, M. D., 
Instructor in Medicine. 
Samuel Wolman, M. D., 
Instructor in Medicine. 

Charles A. Rouiller, Ph. D., 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

Harry S. Greenbaum, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Alexius M. Forster, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D., 
Instructor in German. 

Paul W. Clough, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Rhoades Fayerweather, M. D., 
Assistant in Orthopedic Surgery. 

Frank J. Sladen, M. D., 
Instructor in Medicine. 

Clyde G. Guthrie, M. D., 
Instructor in Medicine. 

Bertram M. Bernheim, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Charles M. Byrnes, M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

John W. Churchman, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 



643] 



Faculties 



J. Staige Davis, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Franklin Edgerton, Ph. D., 

Assistant in Sanskrit. 

Charles R. Essick, M. D., 

Instructor in Anatomy. 
William A. Fisher, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Willis D. Gatch, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Eugene J. Leopold, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 
David I. Macht, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 

Charles A. Myers, A. B., 
Instructor in English. 

Omar B. Pancoast, M. D., 
Instructor in Surgery. 

Edward H. Richardson, M. D., 
Instructor in Gynecology. 

Thomas P. Sprunt, M. D., 
Instructor in Pathology. 

William W. Strong, Ph. D., 
Assistant in Chemistry. 

Harlan H. York, Sc. B., 
Assistant in Botany. 
George S. Bond, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 

Alexius McGlannan, M. D., 
Voluntary Assistant in Surgery 

Howard E. Ashbury, M. D., 
Assistant in Surgery. 

Charles R. Austrian, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 



Walter A. Baetjer, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

William E. Burge, Ph. D., 

Assistant in Physiology. 

Trigant Burrow, M. D., Ph. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Samuel J. Crowe, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Ernest K. Cullen, M. D., 

Instructor in Gynecology. 

Walter E. Dandy. M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Franklin Hazlehurst, M. D., 

Assistant in Laryngology and 

Rhinology. 

F. McPhedran, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 

Arthur H. Morse, M. D., 
Instructor in Obstetrics. 

Flora Pollack, M. D., 

Assistant in Gynecology. 

J. T. Sample, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 
Martin F. Sloan, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Carroll M. Sparrow, A. B., 

Instructor in Physics. 

Hedley V. Tweedie, M. D., 

Assistant in Ophthalmology and 

Otology. 

Ernest I. Werber, Ph. D., 
Assistant in Anatomy. 

Karl M. Wilson, M. D., 
Assistant in Obstetrics. 



10 Programmes [644 

PROGRAMMES FOR 1910-11 



The following courses in literature and science are 
offered for the academic year which begins October 4, 
1910. They are open to properly qualified students ac- 
cording to conditions varying in each department. 

Mathematics 

The advanced courses are so arranged that a qualified 
student gets in three years the more important points of 
view of the whole subject. The courses are elastic in 
character, subjects being introduced as they are needed. 
In general, the plan pursued is to foster independent 
inquiry on the part of the student. Once embarked on 
investigation, he uses all the apparatus of lectures and 
library with intelligent purpose. The seminary, which 
meets weekly, is primarily intended for the presentation 
of the results of the student's own thinking. Literature 
either intrinsically important or opportune is presented 
and discussed in the reading class, which also meets 
weekly. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

1. Mathematical Seminary. 

One hour weekly. Professor Moeley. 

2. Reading Class. 

One hour weekly. Professor Morlet. 

3. Higher Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Morlet. 

This is a general course in Geometry, covering in three 
years such matters as Projective Geometry, the Invari- 
ants of algebraic forms, Line Geometry, Conformal Geom- 
etry, Geometry on an algebraic curve or surface. 



645] Mathematics 11 

4. Theory of Functions. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Morley. 

Algebraic Functions and their integrals ; Elliptic, ellip- 
tic modular, and general automorphic functions; Theory 
of the potential. 

5*. Dynamics. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year (every other year). Pro- 
fessor Morley. 

Special stress is laid on Rigid Dynamics. 

6*. Vector Analysis. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year (every other year). Pro- 
fessor Morley. 

7. Elementary Theory of Functions. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 
An introduction to the theories of functions of a real 
and a complex variable. 

8. Differential Equations. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 

Including, in three years, Ordinary Differential Equa- 
tions, their integral curves and singular points; Partial 
Differential Equations ; Lie's theory. 

9*. Differential Geometry. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 

Including a study of Curves in space; Surfaces and 
lines upon them; Spherical representation; Applicability 
of surfaces. 

10. Calculus of Variations. 

Two hours weekly, one half-year. Dr. Cohen. 
11*. Theory of Numbers. 

Two hours weekly, one half-year. Dr. Cohen. 
12. Theory of Groups. 

Two hours weekly. Associate Professor Coble. 

Including Theory of Equations, Finite Geometries, 
Theory of algebraic forms. 

13*. Theory of Correspondence. 
Two hours weekly. Associate Professor Coble. 



♦Course thus marked will not be given in 1910-11. 



12 



Programmes [646 



Including such matters as Cremona Transformations, 
general birational transformations. 

14. Theory of Probability. 

Two hours weekly, one half-year. Associate Professor Coble. 

Including the applications to statistics and the Theory 
of Errors. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Solid Geometry; Algebra (special topics). 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Hulburt. 
Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Hulburt. 
Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

2. Differential and Integral Calculus. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hulburt. 
Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

3. Applications of Calculus; Differential Equations. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohex. 

Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Projective Geometry and Descriptive Geometry. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 

Coble. 

Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

In connection with the three hours' class-room instruction, the 
instructor in each course meets his students weekly in a two-hour 
session, for the purpose of supplementary explanation and appli- 
cation of the principles taught in the class-room. This is the 
part of each course designated as "Conference." It is not intended 
thus to increase the amount of work required of the student, but 
rather to aid him in the understanding and preparation of the 
work of the class. 



647] Physics and Astronomy 13 

Physics and Astronomy 

The Physical Laboratory offers facilities in the form of 
apparatus, libraries, and machine shops to students who 
wish to pursue experimental investigations in any field of 
Physics. If the results of these are to be offered as a dis- 
sertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the 
work must be done under the general direction of the 
Director of the Laboratory, or of one of the other profes- 
sors. For students carrying on experimental researches 
the laboratory is open daily, except Saturdays, from 9 
a. m. until 5 p. m., and on Saturdays from 9 a. m. until 
1 p. m. 

Eegular courses of instruction in both Physics and 
Astronomy are given in the form of lectures and labora- 
tory exercises. They may be classified as Advanced and 
Elementary. The former are designed primarily for 
graduate students; the latter, for undergraduates. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

Seminary and Journal Meetings 

All advanced students meet with the instructors twice 
each week, — once in the Physical Seminary, and once for 
the discussion of the current Physical Journals. 

During the year 1910-11 the questions to be considered 
in the Seminary will refer to the history of the develop- 
ment of Theoretical Mechanics. 

Lectures 

1. General Physics. Professor Ames. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. 

This is a course of lectures in Mathematical Physics continuing 
for three years and including the subjects of Theoretical Mechan- 
ics, Elasticity, Hydrodynamics, Sound, Thermodynamics, Heat 
Conduction, Electricity and Magnetism, and Light. During the 
year 1910-11 the lectures will be on Mechanics, Electricity, and 
Hydrodynamics. 



14 Programmes [048 

2. Selected Problems in Advanced Physical Optics. Pro- 

fessor Wood. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. [Omitted in 1910-11.] 

3. Applied Electricity. Associate Professor Whitehead. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Applied Electricity {Advanced Course). Associate 

Professor Whitehead. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

5. Celestial Mechanics. Dr. J. A. Anderson. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

6*. General Astronomy. Dr. J. A. Anderson. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. (See 6 below). 

7. Advanced Physical Optics. Dr. A. H. Pfund. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. 

8. Conduction of Electricity in Gases. Dr. W. W. 

Strong. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

9. Kinetic Theory of Matter. Mr. C. M. Sparrow. 
This course will discuss the kinetic theory of gases and 

liquids, the motion of electrons in solids, the radiation of a 
black body, and allied topics. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

Laboratory Courses 

1. Special Exercises in Physics in preparation for in- 
dependent research, under the direction of Professors 
Ames, Bliss, and Whitehead, and Dr. Pfund. 

2. Applied Electricity. Associate Professor White- 
head. 

3. Use of Astronomical and Astrophysical Instru- 
ments. Dr. J. A. Anderson. 

For students following these courses the laboratory is 
open daily, except Saturdays, from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. ; the 
observatory is open every favorable night. 



♦This course may be chosen as an elective by undergraduates. 



(Ui)] Physics and Astronomy 15 

ELEMENTARY COURSES 

1. Elements of Physics. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Ames. 

This course of lectures is based upon Ames's "Text-book of Gen- 
eral Physics," and is intended to include the field of Physics in 
an elementary manner. It presupposes a knowledge of the ele- 
ments of plane trigonometry. Course 4 of laboratory work (see 
below) is arranged to accompany these lectures. 

2 and 3. The four following series of lectures are given 
each year and are combined, together with the corre- 
sponding laboratory work (see Physics 5 below), into 
two courses known as Physics/ 2 and Physics 3. The 
mode of combination varies from year to year according 
to the needs of the students applying. 
(a) Elementary Theoretical Mechanics. 
Three hours weekly, twelve to fifteen weeks. Professor Bliss. 
This course is designed to serve as an introduction to Mathe- 
matical Physics, and students following it must have a knowledge 
of the elements of the Calculus. 

(o) Elementary Electricity and Magnetism. 

Three hours weekly, fifteen to twenty weeks. Professor Bliss. 

This is an introducction to the mathematical theory of the 
electrostatic and magnetic fields and electric currents. Course 
"a" or an equivalent preparation is assumed. 

(c) Elementary Thermodynamics. 

Three hours weekly, twelve to fifteen weeks. Professor Bliss. 

The object of this course is to familiarize the student with the 
fundamental ideas of Thermodynamics, such as Temperature, 
Entropy, and Reversibility. By way of illustration applications 
are made to very elementary problems in heat engines, solutions, 
and electrochemistry, so far as time will permit. Course "a" or 
an equivalent preparation is assumed. 

(d) Physical Optics. 

Three hours weekly, fifteen weeks. Dr. Pfund. 

This course is a moderately advanced treatment of the subject 
of optics, special emphasis being laid on interference, diffraction, 
polarization, and their applications to modern instruments of 
high efficiency. 

4. Laboratory Work for Beginners. 

Two afternoons weekly, through the year. Professor Bliss and 
assistants. 

In this elementary work the students are taught methods of 
exact observation and measurement, and, so far as possible, they 
study the fundamental phenomena of Physics in a quantitative 
manner. The exercises given in Ames and Bliss's "Manual of 
Experiments in Physics" serve as a basis for this work. 



1G Programmes [650 

5. Laboratory Work, in connection with Physics 2 and 3. 
To complete each of these courses the student is required to 

pursue two of the four following groups, making together two 
afternoons a week for the year. 

(a) Mechanics. 

Two afternoons weekly, twelve weeks. Professor Bliss. 

In this course the students are taught methods of exact meas- 
urement in time, length, and mass, and methods for the determi- 
nation of the various mechanical and elastic constants. 

(6) Electricity and Magnetism. 

Two afternoons weekly, twenty weeks. Professor Bliss. 

Special attention is given to instruction in modern methods of 
measurement of various electrical quantities and in the use of 
improved apparatus. Those qualified and desiring such instruc- 
tion may substitute work with dynamos, motors, and transform- 
ers for part of the course. 

(c) Heat. 

Two afternoons weekly, one half-year. Professor Bliss. 

This includes methods of measuring temperature, including the 
use of thermocouples, resistance thermometers and pyrometers, 
together with other exercises illustrating lecture course "c" above. 

(d) Optics. 

Two afternoons weekly, one half-year. Dr. Pfund. 

The students are given a thorough working knowledge of 
experiments dealing with fundamental principles, as well as of 
experiments involving the use of modern types of optical instru- 
ments, such as the plane and concave grating, Michelson and 
Fabry and Perot Interferometers, Polarimeters, etc. 

6. General Astronomy. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Anderson. 

The theory of astronomical instruments and observations will 
be outlined (based on Young's "General Astronomy"), a general 
treatment of spherical astronomy and the elements of celestial 
mechanics will be given, together with as much physical astron- 
omy as time will permit. The students will spend one evening 
per week throughout the year in the observatory, where instruc- 
tion in the actual use of instruments will be given. 



651] Chemistry 17 

Chemistry 

The Chemical Laboratory is equipped with apparatus 
for nearly all kinds of scientific chemical investigations, 
and it is the policy of the department to provide every 
needed facility for promising investigations of a special 
or unusual character. 

The laboratory is open daily, except Saturdays, from 
9 a. m. until 5 p. m., and on Saturdays from 9 a. m. until 
1 p. m. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

i. Journal Meetings 

These meetings are held at 9 a. m. on Mondays, through- 
out the year, and are under the direction of Professor 
Rem sen. Toward the end of the year, those who have 
been engaged in research give an account of the progress 
of their investigations. 

ii. Lectures 

(a) ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

The lectures in Organic Chemistry are given by Profes- 
sor Rem sen, except those upon certain chapters of the 
subject, which are given by Associate Professor Acree. 
The course consists of two lectures weekly and extends 
over two years. 

(&) INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

The course on this subject is given by Professor Morse. 
It consists of two lectures weekly and extends over three 
years. 

(C) PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 

Three lectures weekly are given throughout the year by 
Professor Jones. 



18 Programmes [ 652 

(d) SPECIAL TOPICS IN CHEMISTRY 

Short courses of lectures upon special topics are given 
each year by Professor Jones and Associate Professor 
Acree. 

hi. Laboratory Courses 

(a) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 

This course is under the direction of Professor Renouf, 
and is designed to meet the needs of those graduate stu- 
dents whose knowledge of the subject is defective. 

(&) QUANTITATIVE CHEMISTRY 

This work is under the direction of Professor Morse. 

(C) PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL METHODS 

The routine work in this branch usually occupies from 
four to six weeks and is under the direction of Professor 
Jones. 

(d) organic preparations 

This work is done under the direction of Associate Pro- 
fessor Acree. The required work occupies from eight to 
twelve weeks. 



The student who is a candidate for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, must give evidence that he has a 
satisfactory knowledge of elementary chemistry and is 
familiar with laboratory methods, before he is permitted 
to undertake the advanced courses. These consist of lec- 
tures, and laboratory exercises in (b) quantitative chem- 
istry, (c) physical-chemical methods, and (d) organic 
preparations. The order in which, these are taken is not 
fixed, but is arranged with reference to the convenience of 
the student. 



653] Chemistry 19 

Having completed the routine work of the laboratory, 
the student is assigned by the director of the laboratory 
to one of the staff who proposes to him a subject for 
investigation, which may be made the basis of the Doctor's 
dissertation,* and who thenceforth directs his work in the 
laboratory. It sometimes happens that the student has 
sound reasons for preferring some particular line of 
research, and this course is allowed if the circumstances 
permit. 

For those who do not look forward to the degree, the 
rules are less rigid. Any person admitted to the Univer- 
sity as a special student is permitted to take any of the 
laboratory or lecture courses for which he is qualified by 
previous training. The department also provides labora- 
tory facilities for experienced chemists who wish to come 
to it for the purpose of carrying out researches of their 
own. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Introduction to General Chemistry. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Professor Renouf. 

(ft) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Professor Renouf, Dr. Gilpin, and assistants. 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The class- 
room work is based on Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and 
covers the field of inorganic chemistry, as far as possible. The 
last twelve class-room exercises give a brief sketch of organic 
chemistry, particularly for the benefit of those students whose 
study of chemistry is confined to the first-year course. In the 
laboratory the student repeats the experiments performed in the 
class-room, and, in addition, has some practice in simple quanti- 
tative analysis and in making inorganic preparations. Each 
student is required to keep a notebook of his work. 



*The length of time required for the completion of the disserta- 
tion work cannot be definitely stated, but, as a rule, from one 
year to one and one-half years should be allowed for it in the 
plans of the candidate. 



20 Programmes [654 

2. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry and Qualitative Anal- 

ysis. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Dr. Gilpin. 

(6) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Professor Renouf, Dr. Gilpin, and assistants. 

The class-room work in the second year is intended to give a 
more thorough knowledge of chemical and physical-chemical 
laws, of the properties of chemical compounds, and of the prin- 
ciples of qualitative analysis. The laboratory work is in qual- 
itative analysis and inorganic preparations. 

3. Chemistry of the Compounds of Carbon. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Dr. Gilpin. 

(b) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Professor Renouf, Dr. Gilpin and assistants. 

The class-room work of the third year is devoted to the study 
of Organic Chemistry. The laboratory work is the making of 
organic preparations, but also includes practice in the analytic 
detection of organic substances and in analytical methods of 
value to those intending to study medicine. The text-book used 
is Remsen's Organic Chemistry. 

This course is open only to those who have completed Courses 
1 and 2. 

4. Laboratory Work only. 

Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. Pro- 
fessor Renouf. Dr. Gilpin, and assistants. 

The laboratory work comprises advanced qualitative analysis, 
including technical methods, difficult inorganic preparations, and 
assaying. Those contemplating graduate work in chemistry will 
devote half of the year to the study of Volhard and Zimmer- 
mann's "Experiments in General Chemistry;" others may substi- 
tute quantitative analysis. 

Students of the fifth group whose principal subject is 
chemistry are required to pursue the courses in chemistry 
during the first, second, and third years. Those who look 
forward to the study of medicine are advised to follow the 
courses in the first and second years, and to take the 
course in the compounds of carbon in their last year of 
residence. 

The fourth-year course is intended for those students 
only who have satisfactorily absolved the courses of the 
three preceding years. It will be a help to those who 
intend to follow graduate work in chemistry, and also to 
those who desire to make a practical use of their knowl- 
edge of chemistry after receiving the bachelor's degree. 



(555] Geology 21 

Geology 

The Geological Laboratory offers facilities in the form 
of collections, instruments, and libraries to students wish- 
ing to pursue special researches in geology and its allied 
subjects — paleontology, petrography, mineralogy, etc. 
Such researches may be carried on independently, or 
with the co-operation of the members of the geological 
staff; but, if the student intends to become a candidate 
for a degree, the work must be conducted under the gen- 
eral direction of the head of the department or of his 
associates. 

The laboratory, collections, and libraries are open to 
the advanced students daily, from 9 a. m. until 5 p. m. 

Kegular courses of instruction in geology are given in 
the form of lectures, laboratory exercises, and field work. 
The advanced courses are adapted to the requirements of 
students of maturity, the general courses to students 
desiring an elementary or cultural training in the subject. 
The former are designed primarily for graduate students 
in geology; the latter for undergraduates or for students 
from other departments wishing a more general knowl- 
edge of the subject. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

Seminary and Journal Meetings 

The advanced students meet with the instructors once 
each week for the discussion of current publications deal- 
ing with geology. During the latter half of the year 
papers are presented giving the results of researches con- 
ducted in the laboratory, or summarizing the present 
state of knowledge regarding geological questions of 
general interest. 



22 Programmes [ 656 

Lectures 

1. Historical Geology. Professor Clark. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

2. Sytematic Paleontology. Professor Clark. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

3. Economic Geology. Professor Clark. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Geological Physics. Professor Reid. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

5. Exploratory Surveying. Professor Reid. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

6\ Advanced Mineralogy. Professor Mathews. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. 

7. Petrography. Professor Mathews. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. 

8. Paleobotany. Mr. E. W. Berry. 
Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

Laboratory Courses 

1. Paleontology. Professor Clark and Mr. Berry. 

Weekly, through the year. 

2. Petrography. Professor Mathews. 
Weekly, through the year. 

3. Advanced Mineralogy. Professor Mathews. 
Weekly, through the year. 

4. Geological Field Methods. Professor Mathews. 
Weekly, during the fall and spring. 

Laboratory studies in advanced courses are carried on daily 
from 9 a. m. until 5 p. m. under the general direction of the 
professors in charge, who are accessible at all times. An after- 
noon is devoted especially to each course, when the subject matter 
is more fully developed by quizzes, demonstrations, etc. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Elements of Geology. 

Three lectures or recitations and three hours of laboratory work 
weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Swartz. 

This course is opcu to all students. It is designed to give a 
general view of the subject of Geology, and may profitably be pur- 
sued by those who wish to have some knowledge of the chief 
events of the earth's history. It includes an account of the origin 



657] Geology 23 

of the features of the surface of the earth, a discussion of the 
phenomena of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain-making, and an 
outline of the past history of the earth. 

Materials illustrative of the lectures are studied in the labora- 
tory. Emphasis is placed upon the observation of geological 
phenomena in nature, the vicinity of Baltimore and the State of 
Maryland presenting features of unusual interest for such study. 
Frequent excursions are made to neighboring points where the 
principles of the science are studied in the field, while a longer 
trip is made in the spring to places of special interest for geolog- 
ical study. The longer excursion may be omitted by students 
who desire to do so. the field trips in the vicinity of Baltimore 
only being taken. This course is illustrated by maps, lantern 
views, and the rich collections of the university. 

2. Mineralogy and Elementary Petrography. 

Three lectures or recitations and six hours of laboratory work 
weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Swabtz. 

This course includes the study of crystallography, a discussion 
of the more important minerals, and a brief consideration of the 
origin and characteristics of the chief types of rocks. Numerous 
excursions are made to points of interest in the vicinity of Bal- 
timore, which is unusually rich in the variety of its rocks and 
minerals. 

Emphasis is laid upon laboratory work, which includes the 
study of crystal models, the identification of minerals by means 
of the blowpipe and by inspection, and the examination of rocks 
in the laboratory and in the field. A knowledge of chemistry 
is required for the pursuit of this course. 

3. Applied Geology. 

Three hours weekly, through the year, with laboratory work. 
Professor Mathews. 

This course is devoted to a discussion of the non-metallic 
minerals and rocks which are worked commercially. The knowl- 
edge of geology and mineralogy gained in the preceding courses 
is applied to the recognition of useful minerals, their mode of 
occurrence, properties, values, and uses. The main sources of 
coal, oil, clay, building-stones, abrasives, gems, etc., the way they 
are won, and their economic importance, are treated with more 
or less detail. The aim of the course is to supply such informa- 
tion regarding mineral resources as an educated man should 
possess. The treatment of the technical questions of metallurgy 
or mining must be sought in technical schools. 



State Scientific Bureaus connected with the Depart- 
ment. — Two scientific bureaus, established by the legisla- 
ture and maintained at the expense of the State, are car- 
ried on in connection with the geological department. 
They are the Maryland Geological and Economic Survey 



24 Programmes [658 

and the Maryland State Weather Service. Professor 
Clark is the director of both these organizations, which 
are concerned with a study of the geology and physical 
features of the State of Maryland. The work is carried on 
under his direction mainly by the instructors and students 
of the department. A State Forestry Bureau, of which 
Professor Clark is Executive Officer, is also located in one 
of the buildings of the geological department. 

Advantages afforded by Proximity to Washington. — 
Washington is less than an hour distant from Baltimore. 
This renders it possible to take frequent advantage of the 
facilities afforded by that city, where the officers of the 
various scientific bureaus and societies give the students 
of the university every opportunity to examine the rich 
collections and libraries under their control. 

Field Work. — The area of the State of Maryland in- 
cludes, notwithstanding its comparatively small size, a re- 
markable sequence of geological formations. The ancient 
rocks of the earth's crust, as well as those still in the pro- 
cess of deposition, are found, while between these wide 
limits there is hardly a geological epoch which is not rep- 
resented. As a result most excellent facilities are afforded 
for a study of the various geological horizons. Excur- 
sions to points of interest are made during the autumn 
and spring months. 



659] Zoology and Botany 25 

Zoology and Botany 

The Biological Laboratory furnishes adequate rooms, 
with the usual apparatus, for carrying on research in ani- 
mal and plant morphology, embryology, and experimental 
zoology. For special investigations unusual apparatus 
will be obtained. 

It is planned that, before receiving the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy, each student shall have the opportunity to 
study marine and terrestrial life in some tropical region. 
In the spring and summer of 1910 this work will be 
carried on in Jamaica, West Indies. 

A collection of living plants in the botanical garden 
and conservatory, a physiological laboratory in the latter, 
and propagating grounds nearby are available for experi- 
mental work. A collection of carefully "fixed" and pre- 
served alcoholic material of several hundred species of 
plants is available for histological and developmental 
study. The herbaria of the laboratory include the Schim- 
per collection of European seed plants, the Field Club 
collection of local plants, the Fitzgerald collection of 
mosses, and smaller collections of fungi, marine algae, 
and Jamaican plants. 

The library in the laboratory is supplemented by the 
main library of the university and other libraries in the 
city, including the excellent botanical library of John 
Donnell Smith, whose courtesy has always made his 
library and herbarium available for advanced students. 

Prompt publication of abstracts of results is provided 
for in the University Circular. From time to time the 
results of extensive investigations in zoology are pub- 
lished by the University Press in a series of illustrated 
quarto monographs. The Adam T. Bruce Fellowship is 



26 Programmes [000 

awarded to men capable of carrying on research in 
biology. One of the graduate students in zoology may be 
appointed each- year to occupy the University table at the 
marine laboratory of the U. S. Fisheries Bureau, at 
Woods Holl, Mass. 

The laboratories are open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., and 
for necessary research in the evenings, but only by special 
permission. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

I. Zoology 

The student will receive such assistance and training 
as his individual needs seem to require. Work done in 
the laboratory is supplemented by work in the field and 
at the seashore. The research work of individual stu- 
dents will be directly supervised by those members of the 
staff whose own field of investigation is most nearly ap- 
proached by the problem dealt with. 

Journal Club. — All the graduate students take part 
with the instructors in a weekly discussion of the current 
literature. 

Seminary. — Professors Jennings and Andrews will 
meet the advanced students for discussion of some of the 
fundamental problems of zoology, weekly from the begin- 
ning of the session until the Easter vacation. 

Advanced Zoology. — Professor Jennings. Three hours 

a week (lectures, laboratory work, and demonstrations), 

from the beginning of the session till February 1. 

During the year 1910-1911 this course will be devoted to the 
Behavior of Animals. It will deal mainly with behavior in lower 
animals, and will be carried on in co-operation with the course 
to be given during the second half-year by Professor Watson in 
the department of Psychology, dealing mainly with higher ani- 
mals. Students should arrange to take both courses. 



661] Zoology and Botany 27 

II. Botany 

1. Journal Club and Seminary. 

a. The Journal Club meets weekly through the year, in 
conjunction with the Zoological Journal Club. 

b. The Botanical Seminary meets twice weekly, from 
December 1 to May 1. Professor Johnson. 

The seminary work of the year 1909-10 was based on Warming's 
"Oecology of Plants." 

2. Lectures and Laboratory Work. 

i. The Reproduction and Phylogeny of Plants. Pro- 
fessor Johnson. 

a. Three lectures weekly through the year. 

b. Laboratory work associated with the lectures, twice 
weekly through the year. 

c. Definite problems in field work assigned for study 
in the autumn and spring. 

ii. The Histology and Ecological Anatomy of Plants. 
Professor Johnson. 

a. Two lectures or conferences weekly from January 1 
to April 1. 

b. Laboratory work ttvice iveekly from January 1 to 
April 1. 

in. The History of Botany. Professor Johnson. 
Two lectures weekly from October 1 to December 20. 
The following themes will be discussed in alternate years: 
The Theory of Sex in Plants, The Cell Theory. 

iv. Plant Physiology. Professor Livingston. 

Lectures and laboratory work on the chief plant processes. 
Green's Plant Physiology will be read. A good general knowl- 
edge of physics and chemistry is highly desirable. 

a. Three lectures or conferences weekly till Febru- 
ary 1. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work weekly till Febru- 
ary 1. 



28 Programmes j WY1 

v. Physiology of the Cell. Professor Livingston. 

An advanced course on protoplasmic processes, such as proto- 
plasmic movement, the chemistry of nutrition and respiration, 
enzymes, etc. 

a. Two lectures weekly from February 1 to June 1. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work weekly from Febru- 
ary 1 to June 1, with, reading of original articles. 

The laboratory work will aim to give the student illustrative 
material bearing on the subject as well as to bring him into con- 
tact with problems and methods of research, and will require 
the reading of selected original literature, much of it in French 
or German. Open to students who have had Course I or its 
equivalent, or a similar course in animal physiology. 

vi. Problems in Plant Physiology. Professor Living- 
ston. 

a. Two lectures weekly throughout the year. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work and a one-hour con- 
ference weekly throughout the year. 

This course plans to give perspective and to prepare the student 
for profitable research in either pure or applied physiology. Each 
student will carry on experimentation upon and will work up the 
literature of restricted phases of plant activity, reporting on both 
literature and experiments. A considerable knowledge of the 
principles and methods of physics and chemistry is prerequisite. 



UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

The collegiate courses in zoology and botany are known 
as Biology 1, Biology 2, Biology 3, and the Natural His- 
tory Course. 
1. General Biology and Embryology. 

Six hours laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. Professor Andrews and assistants. 

This introductory course is open to all students and may be 
taken without previous training in chemistry or physics. It may 
be taken profitably by students interested in political economy, 
history, psychology, or ethics; it will be found useful to those 
looking forward to the ministry; and it is required of all who are 
to enter the medical school. 

(a) General Biology. [Till March 15.] 

In the laboratory each student studies with the microscope, or 
dissects, selected animals and plants, from the more simple such 
as amoeba and yeast, to the more complex such as the fern and 
frog. In the lectures some of the fundamental facts of Biology 
are emphasized. 



663] Zoology and Botany 29 

(o) Embryology. [After March 15.] 
Each student studies the cleavage of the living frog's egg and 
the formation and transformation of the tadpole. Subsequently 
he studies the hen's egg and the formation of organs in the em- 
bryo chick, learning to make his own serial sections, etc. 

2. Comparative Anatomy and Bacteriology. 

Six hours of laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. Dr. Cowles. 

This course continues the training of Biology 1 in limited 
fields, and is recommended to those who expect to study medicine, 
or to specialize in any department of Biology. 

(a) Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. [Till 

March 15.] 

The student dissects the skate, shark, codfish, necturus, turtle, 
alligator, pigeon, and dog. The lectures emphasize the principles 
of animal morphology. 

(6) Bacteriology. [After March 15.] 

The student learns the methods of handling, cultivating, and 
studying non-pathogenic bacteria. The practical work gives valu- 
able training in careful laboratory methods. The lectures treat of 
bacteria from a biological point of view, as very important agents 
in natural processes. 

3. Zoology and Botany. 

Six hours of laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. 

(a) Zoology. [First half-year.] 

Professor Andrews and Dr. Cowles. 

A comparative study of the chief groups of non-vertebrate ani- 
mals. This may be made a whole course when botany is not 
needed. 

(6) Botany. [Second half-year.] 
Professors Johnson and Livingston. 
The Structure of Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower, and Fruit. 

[January to May.] 

An Introduction to Plant Physiology, with selected 
laboratory experiments. [After May 1.] 

This is a course for beginners, giving a general survey of the 
nature and activities of plants, the out-door work serving to give 
students some familiarity with native plants in the field. This 
may be made a full course by those desiring it for general culture, 
or as a preparation for graduate work in botany or for work in 
forestry. 



30 Programmes [004 

Elementary Zoology and Botany (Natural History.) 

Nine hours weekly, second half-year. Professors Andrews and 
Grave. 

This course is intended for those having no training in these 
subjects and is chiefly a laboratory course. It is required of 
students in groups I, IT, III. 

It may be made a whole course provided a sufficient number 
apply. 



Physiology 



Facilities are offered in the Physiological Laboratory 
for special students, graduates in medicine and others, 
who are interested in special lines of investigation, and 
also for those who wish to follow courses leading to the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physiology or allied 
subjects. 

Regular courses of instruction are given as follows : 

1. Advanced lectures. Professor Howell. 

Irregular intervals, through the year. 

2. Journal Club. Professor Howell. 
Weekly, through the year. 

3. Seminary. Professor Howell. 
Weekly, through the year. 

4. Physiology of the Animal Body. Professor Howell, 

Dr. Hooker, and Dr. Snyder. 

Lectures, three hours weekly, through the year; laboratory, six 
hours weekly, first half-year. 

[The laboratory course may be repeated in the second half- 
year.] 

5. Advanced Laboratory Work. Professor Howell. 
This work is done individually. 



665] Greek 31 

Greek 
greek seminary 

Professor Gildersleeve will conduct the Greek Semi- 
nary, the plan of which is based on the continuous study 
of some leading author or some special department of 
literature. 

The Seminary consists of the director, fellows, and 
scholars, and such advanced students as shall satisfy the 
director of their fitness for an active participation in the 
work by an essay, a critical exercise, or some similar test 
of attainments and capacity. All graduate students, 
however, may have the privilege of attending the course. 

During the next academic year the study of Aris- 
tophanes and the Old Attic Comedy will constitute the 
chief occupation of the members. There will be two meet- 
ings a week during the entire session, chiefly for the criti- 
cism and interpretation of the author, but auxiliary 
studies in the literary and political history of the period 
will also find place in the plan of the Seminary. 

ADVANCED AND GRADUATE COURSES 

1. Professor Gildersleeve will conduct a course of 
Practical Exercises in Greek, consisting chiefly in transla- 
tion at dictation from Greek into English and English 
into Greek, two meetings a week from the beginning of 
the session to the first of January. 

2. He will give a series of Readings in Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides, once a week after January 1. 

3. He will lecture on select chapters of Greek Syntax 
and Greek Style, once a week after January 1. 

Arrangements will be made for the competent guidance 
of the private reading of advanced students ; and a course 
of lectures on Greek Metres, with practical exercises, will 
be conducted by Associate Professor Miller. 



32 Programmes [C6(i 

The schedule given above is subject to additions and 
modifications. 

The student should be provided with a complete text of Aristo- 
phanes, Bergk's or Meineke's, or Hall and Geldart's (Bibliotheca 
Oxoniensis), von Velsen's critical edition so far as issued, and 
Kock's editions of the Knights, Clouds (translated by Hum- 
phreys), Birds, and Frogs, and Starkie's Wasps (Macmillan). 

It is also desirable that the students should possess some edi- 
tion of the Fragmenta Comicorum Graecorum, if possible Kock's, 
or, if that should be too expensive (48 marks), Meineke's smaller 
edition of the fragments, and for the study of the period, Thucy- 
dides, Xenophon's Hellenica, and Plutarch's Lives of Pericles and 
Alcibiades. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Xenophon, Memorabilia (selections). 
Plato, Apology. 

Herodotus ( selections ) . 
Three hours weekly, first year. Associate Professor Miller. 

Prose Composition. 
One hour weekly, first year. Associate Professor Miller. 

Private Heading: Plato, Crito; Homer, Odyssey (two 
books). 

2. Lysias (select orations) ; Isocrates (selections). 
Euripides (one play). 

Prose Composition. 
Three hours weekly, second year. Associate Professor Spieker. 
Private Reading: Xenophon, Hellenica (book 1) ; 
Euripides, Cyclops. 

3. Plato, Protagoras. 
Lyric Poets. 
Sophocles (one play). 
Survey of Greek Literature. 
Prose Composition. 

Three hours weekly, third year. Associate Professor Spieker. 
Private Reading: Elegiac and Iambic Poets; Aeschy- 
lus (one play). 

4. Thucydides (book vn ). 
Lucian ( selections ) . 
Aristophanes, Frogs. 

Two hours weekly, fourth year. Associate Professor Spieker. 



667] Latin 33 

Greek Life: lectures and conferences. 
One hour weekly, fourth year. Dr. Robinson. 
Private Reading: Demosthenes (select orations); 
Aristophanes, Clouds. 

5. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (one play each). 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Spieker. 



Associate Professor Spieker offers, for beginners in Greek, a 
course of three or four hours weekly throughout the year. This 
course is intended primarily for the benefit of such graduate 
students of language as may feel the need of a knowledge of 
Greek in the prosecution of their work; but undergraduate stu- 
dents who have the ministry in view, and who have not had any 
previous training in Greek, may also be admitted. The class will 
be advanced as rapidly as is consistent with thoroughness of 
work. 



Latin 

The most important organ of training is the Latin 
Seminary which meets twice a week throughout the year, 
under the direction of Professor Smith. It consists of the 
director, fellows, scholars, and such advanced students as 
shall give satisfactory proof of their ability and training. 
Any graduate student is at liberty to attend the Semi- 
nary exercises, but each regular member is required to 
take his turn in the work. Each year some author or 
group of authors in a given department of literature is 
made the centre of study. The subjects treated during 
the last three years are as follows: 

1907-1908. The Roman Satire, especially Horace and Juvenal. 
1908-1909. The Roman Historians, especially Livy and Tacitus. 
1909-1910. The Roman Epic, especially Vergil. 

In addition to the regular work of the Seminary, 
courses of lectures are given every year by the director, 
and from time to time by other qualified persons. 

During the academic year 1910-1911 the attention of 
the Seminary will be given to the Roman Drama, and the 
centre of this work will be Plautus and Terence. 



34 Programmes [668 

Students are requested to provide themselves in 
advance with complete texts of Plautus (Lindsay, 2 
volumes, Oxford Text), Terence (Tyrrell, Oxford Text), 
Senecae Tragoediae (Peiper-Richter, Teubner, 1902), and 
Scaenicae Romanorum Poesis Fragmenta (Ribbeck, 2 
volumes, 3d ed., Teubner, 1897-8). 

ADVANCED AND GRADUATE COURSES 

1.* Professor Smith will lecture once a week, through 
the year, on the Roman Comedy. 

2. During the first half-year he will lecture once a 
week on the Roman Tragedy from Livius Andronicus to 
Seneca. 

3. During the second half-year he will lecture once a 
week on Metre and on other topics connected with the 
formal and stylistic development of the Roman Drama. 

4.* Professor Wilson will lecture once a week through 
the year on Latin Epigraphy. The course will be accom- 
panied by a series of practical exercises in the interpreta- 
tion of inscriptions from original stones and from pub- 
lished texts. 

5. The advanced students will meet once a week 
through the year for the rapid reading of Plautus, 
Terence, and Seneca. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Livy (selections) ; Terence (one play) ; Catullus (se- 

lections). 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 
Private reading: Cicero, Cato Maior; Plautus (one play). 
Prose Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 

2. Tacitus, Annals (selections) ; Horace, Odes and 

Epodes. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 



♦These courses will be given at an afternoon hour for the benefit of 
those who cannot attend in the morning. 



G60] Classical Archaeology 35 

Private reading: Tacitus, Germania; Horace, Satwes and 

Epistles (selections). 
Prose Composition : exercises from time to time. 

3. Lucretius (selections) ; Vergil, Georgics. 

Tivo hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 
Private reading: Cicero, First Tusculan; Quintilian 

(book x). 
Roman Literature (with reading of selected passages). 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Smith. 

4. Juvenal (selections) ; Petronius (selections) ; Apu- 

leius (selections). 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 
Private reading: Martial (selections) ; Pliny, Letters (se- 
lections) ; Roman Elegy (selections). 
Roman Life: lectures and conferences. 
Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

5. Advanced Latin Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 



Note. — Courses 2, 3, and 4 may be taken only by those who 
have pursued the courses preceding them. 

Roman Literature (Course 3) and Roman Life (Course 4), 
each one hour weekly, are open to all students, and taken together 
are counted as half a course. 



Classical Archaeology and Art 

The work in Classical Archaeology and Art is carried 
on by means of a Seminary, various courses of lectures, 
conferences with individual students and practical exer- 
cises in the museums. The archaeological material in the 
possession of the university includes good collections of 
Greek and Roman inscriptions, marbles, bronzes, vases 
and other terracottas, coins, gems, etc., which not only 
serve the purpose of illustration, but also form the basis 
of original investigation. These are supplemented by 
squeezes, photographs, and lantern slides, as well as by 
the casts belonging to the university and to the Peabody 



36 Programmes [070 

Institute. The new Walters Gallery, which is not far 
from the university, contains a very valuable collection 
of Greek and Roman antiquities. 

SEMINARY AND ADVANCED COURSES 

The subjects treated in the Seminary, or presented in 
lectures, vary from year to year, so that in three or four 
years of continuous residence students are brought into 
contact with the principal fields of archaeological re- 
search. These subjects include Greek and Roman archi- 
tecture, epigraphy, topography, sculpture, coins, gems, 
bronzes, and terracottas, private life, Mycenaean civiliza- 
tion, and Greek vase painting. The following courses are 
offered for the year 1910-11 : 

1. Archaeological Seminary. Selected topics in the 
Latin inscriptions. Professor Wilson. 

Problems in Pausanias. Associate Professor Robinson. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

Note. — The University collection contains nearly two hundred 
original inscriptions, extending in date from 250 B. C. to 500 
A. D. These, together with casts, squeezes and other reproduc- 
tions, furnish material for original investigation in this field. 

2. The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 
with especial reference to the development of the city 
from the earliest period. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

3.* An introduction to Latin Epigraphy, with practi- 
cal exercises in the interpretation of inscriptions from 
original stones and published texts. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

4. The Theatre of the Greeks and Romans. This 
course of eight or ten lectures will be devoted to a discus- 
sion of the methods of dramatic presentation in antiquity 
and of the architectural development of the ancient 
theatre. 

Weekly, during February and March. Professor Wilson and 
Associate Professor Robinson. 



♦This course will be given at a late hour in the afternoon for the bene 
fit of those who are unable to attend in the morning. 



G71] Classical Archaeology 37 

o. Greek Inscriptions. Lectures with readings from 
Michel's Recueil, from squeezes, and from original stones. 

Weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Robinson. 

(>. Greek Vase Painting. A brief account of the 
various early wares will be given, but most of the time 
will be devoted to the study of the Attic black-figured and 
red-figured vases as sources of information on mythology 
and private life. 

Weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Robinson. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Outlines of Classical Archaeology; lectures and con- 

ferences. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson and 
Associate Professor Robinson. 

This course is intended to furnish a rapid survey of the prin- 
cipal fields of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman archaeology and art. 
Knowledge of Latin and Greek is not required. 

2. The Private Life of the Romans. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

3. The Private Life of the Greeks. 

Weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Robinson. 

Courses 2 and 3 are parts of Latin 4 and Greek 4, respectively, 
but may be pursued by any student of the University. Taken 
together they count as half a course, and with the course in 
Roman Literature (Latin 3) as a full course. 



38 Programimes [072 

Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 

Courses of instruction, directed by Professor Bloom- 
field, with the assistance of an Instructor or Fellow in 
Sanskrit, are provided in the Indo-Iranian languages 
(Vedic and Classical Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, Avestan 
and Old Persian), in Comparative Grammar of the Indo- 
European languages, in historical Ethnology of the Indo- 
European peoples, and in general Linguistic Science. 
During recent sessions courses in the Lithuanian language 
and literature were given; these also will continue to 
form a regular feature of the work of the university. 

These courses aim to meet the wants of those who wish 
to devote themselves to the study of these branches exclu- 
sively and for their own sake, i. e., those who wish to 
become specialists in Sanskrit Philology or Comparative 
Philology ; and also the needs of students of languages in 
general, who wish to obtain a broader linguistic basis for 
special studies in other departments of philology. 

The advanced work aims specially to meet the wants of 
those who wish to make Indian Philology or Comparative 
Philology their special study. This work centres in the 
Sanskrit Seminary and not infrequently involves the use 
of Sanskrit manuscripts. 

A prolonged course in Sanskrit, involving two lectures 
a week during two years and attendance in the Sanskrit 
Seminary for a half-year (one hour a week), is planned, 
so as to furnish a good knowledge of Classical Sanskrit, 
and to include an introduction into the dialect of the 
Vedas. This amount of work represents material suffi- 
cient for the first subsidiary subject for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. A course in the same study for 
one and a half years, involving two hours a week, is the 
amount required for a second subsidiary subject leading 
to the same degree. 



673] Sanskrit 39 

A synopsis of the courses offered during past years may 
be presented under the following heads: 

I. Courses in the general principles of comparative philology 
or linguistic science, and on special chapters thereof; lectures on 
ethnology and the history of religions. 

II. Courses in the general comparative grammar of the Indo- 
European languages; comparative grammar of Sanskrit and 
Avestan; comparative study of Indo-European accentuation; com- 
parative study of Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, and Teutonic, including 
vocalism, consonantism, noun-formation, and inflections. 

III. The Vedic, Sanskrit, and Prakrit dialects; Rig- Veda; 
Atharva-Veda; literature of the Brahmanas and Upanishads. The 
law books of Manu and Yajfiavalkya; the Drama Cakuntala and 
introduction into Prakrit; Hitopadeca, Kathasaritsagara, and 
Nala. Sanskrit grammar and prose composition. 

IV. The Pali language and Buddhist literature. 

V. The Avestan language and the sacred books of the Avesta. 

VI. The Lithuanian language and literature. 

The following courses, in charge of Professor Bloom- 
field, will be given during the session of 1910-1911 : 

A. Linguistic Science and Comparative Grammar of the 

Indo-European Languages. 

1. The elements of Linguistic Science, with an account 
of the Ethnology and Religions of the Indo-European 
peoples. Weekly, through the year. 

2. Comparative grammar of the more familiar Indo- 
European languages (Greek, Latin, German, and Sans- 
krit) : The history of the vowels and their interrelations 
(ablaut). Weekly, through the year. 

B. Indo- Aryan Philology. 

3. Vedic Seminary: The literature of the Rig- Veda. 
Weekly, through the year. 

4. The Elements of Vedic philology : Vedic grammar, 
metres, and interpretation of selected hymns of the Rig- 
Veda. Weekly, second half-year. 

5. The Pali language and selections from Buddhist 
literature. Weekly, through the year. 

6. Beginners' course in Sanskrit: grammar (Whit- 
ney's Sanskrit Grammar) and interpretation of an easy 



40 Programmes [G74 

text (Lanman's Reader). Twice weekly, through the 
year. 

7. Selections from the Hitopadeca and the Law-Book 
of Manu (second year's course in Classical Sanskrit). 
Tivice weekly, first half-year. 

C. Other Indo-European Languages. 

8. Introduction to the Lithuanian Language and 
Literature. Weekly, through the year. 



Note. — No knowledge of Sanskrit is presupposed for courses 1, 
2, 6 and 8. Course 1 sketches briefly the history of the Science 
of Language; presents a systematic account of the ethnology and 
religions of the indo-European peoples; deals with the principles 
that govern the life and growth of language, and finally treats of 
the origin of language. Course 2 is intended as an elementary 
introduction into the methods and results of the Comparative 
Grammar of the more important Indo-European languages. 



Modern Russian 



Dr. Franklin Edgerton will give the following course 
during the year 1910-11 : 

Elements of the Russian Language : A brief survey of 
the grammar, followed by selected readings from the 
works of Tolstoi, Tschechov, Turgeniev, Lermontov, 
Dostojevskij, Gogol, and others. 

Twice weekly through the year. 

This course will be designed for the needs of students 
who desire a practical reading knowledge of modern Russian. 
Comparative grammar and etymological science will be used 
incidentally to assist students, especially those who know Greek, 
Latin, or Sanskrit, in mastering the difficulties of the Russian 
vocabulary and grammatical forms. A knowledge of these 
languages will therefore be helpful; but no foreign language, 
except German, is required. The text : books used will be 
Berneker's Russische Grammatik and Russisches Lesebuch mit 
Olossar (Sammlung Goschen, Nos. 66 and 67; price 20 cents 
each.) Those desiring an acquaintance with colloquial Russian 
will find valuable the Russisch-deutsches Gespriichsbuch by the 
same author (S. G. No. 68, price 20 cents). 



075] Oriental Seminary 41 

Oriental Seminary 

The various courses are adapted to the requirements of 
four classes of students, namely: (a) students of theology 
wishing to obtain a thorough acquaintance with the 
sacred tongue and its sister idioms as a means of eluci- 
dating Scripture and problems of the comparative history 
of religion; (6) students of linguistics intending to make 
comparative grammar of the Semitic languages their 
specialty; (c) students of Oriental history and archae- 
ology desirous of drawing directly from the original 
sources; (d) persons looking for instruction in the living 
Oriental languages (as modern Arabic, Turkish, Persian, 
modern Hebrew, Amharic, Malay, Tagalog, etc.) for prac- 
tical purposes. 

A room has been set apart containing a well-equipped 
working library for all the branches of Oriental research 
(including the library of the late Professor A. Dillmann, 
of Berlin, the Leopold Strouse Semitic Library, a special 
collection of works on Philippine dialects, etc.), and some 
advanced students are usually present to help in the 
preparation for the recitations conducted by the Director 
of the Seminary, and to furnish any other aid that may bes 
desired. Near the Dillmann Library, on the same floor, 
are some archaeological and antiquarian collections, in- 
cluding the Cohen Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, 
the Sonneborn Collection of Jewish Ceremonial Objects, 
collections of Hebrew and other Oriental manuscripts, 
Babylonian seal-cylinders and clay tablets, etc. 

The following courses are offered for the academic year, 
1910-11 : 

Oriental History, Literature, and Archaeology 

1. History of the Ancient East (Egypt, Babylonia, 
Assyria, Persia, Israel, and Judah). Professor John- 
ston. Saturday, 11 a. m. 



42 Programmes [07G 

2. Biblical Archaeology. Professor Johnston. Satur- 
day, 12 m. 

3. Lectures on the Talmud. Dr. Rosenau. Friday, 
3 p. m. 

4. The Literature of the Old Testament (with special 
reference to date and authorship). Dr. Rosenau. Thurs- 
day, 5 p. m. 

5. Interpretation of Selected Chapters of the Old Tes- 
tament (on the basis of the Authorized Version). Pro- 
fessor Haupt and Dr. Blake. Friday, 5 p. m. 

Biblical Philology 

6. Elementary Hebrew. Dr. Ember. Three hours 
weekly. 

7. Hebrew: Second Year's Course. Dr. Blake. Two 
hours weekly. 

8. Hebrew Phonology. Dr. Blake. Thursday, 3 p. m. 

9. Unpointed Hebrew Texts. Dr. Rosenau. Mon- 
day, 11 a. m. 

10. Prose Composition (Hebrew, Arabic, Assyrian, 
and Sumerian). Professor Haupt. Monday, 4 p. m. 

11. Comparative Semitic Grammar. Professor Haupt. 
Monday, 3 p. m. 

12. Old Testament Seminary (Critical Interpretation 
of the Books of Joel, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah). Pro- 
fessor Haupt. Tuesday, 4 to 6 p. m. 

13. Cursory Reading of the Hebrew Bible. Dr. Ember. 
Monday, 5 p. m. 

14. Post-Biblical Hebrew. ( Selections from the Mish- 
nah and the Talmud; Rabbinical Commentaries on the 
Bible). Dr. Rosenau. Monday, 10 a. m., 12 m., and 2 
p. m. 

15. Medieval Hebrew Poetry. Dr. Ember. Friday, 
10 a. m. 



677] 



Oriental Seminary 



43 



16. Jewish Philosophers of the Middle Ages. Dr. 
Rosenau. Monday, 9 a. m. 

17. Modern Hebrew. Dr. Ember. Tuesday, 11 a. m. 
IS. Hebrew Conversation. Dr. Ember. Friday, 9 

a. m., Tuesday, 10 a. m. 

19. Biblical Aramaic Grammar and Interpretation of 
the Aramaic Portions of the Book of Daniel. Dr. Blake. 
Friday, 4 p. m. 

Syriac 

20. Syriac (Roediger's Chrestomathy). Dr. Blake. 
Friday, 3 p. m. 

Arabic 

21. Elementary Arabic (with special reference to stu- 
dents of Romance Languages). Dr. Ember. Friday, 12m. 

22. Arabic for Beginners (with special reference to 
students of Hebrew). Dr. Ember. Monday and Wed- 
nesday, 9 a. m. 

23. Extracts from the Arabian Nights. Professor 
Johnston. Thursday, 10 a. m. 

24. Selections from Maimonides. Dr. Ember. Friday, 
9 a. m. 

25. Arabic Prose Composition. Professor Haupt. 
[See No. 10.] 



Ethiopic 

26. Ethiopic (Dillmann's Chrestomathy) 
Wednesday, 4 p. m. 



Dr. Blake. 



Assyriology 

27. Assyrian for Beginners. Dr. Blake. Wednesday, 
3 p. m. 



44 Programmes [678 

28. Selected Assyrian Letters. Professor Johnston. 
Thursday, 11 a. m. 

29. Sumerian (Selected Bilingual Hymns). Professor 
Haupt. Monday, 5 p. m. 

30. Assyrian and Sumerian Prose Composition. Pro- 
fessor Haupt. [See No. 10.] 

Egyptology 

31. Egyptian for Beginners. Professor Johnston. 
Friday, 11 a. m. 

32. Selected Hieroglyphic Texts. Professor John- 
ston. Friday, 10 a. m. 

Malayo- Polynesian Philology 

33. Malay. Dr. Blake. Monday, 4 p. m. 

34. Elementary Tagalog. Dr. Blake. Monday, 5 p. m. 

Journal Meeting 

35. Journal Meeting. Professor Haupt. Tuesday, 
3 p. m. 



G70] English 45 

English 

graduate courses 

In the graduate courses the subject of English is 
studied with reference to the historical and technical 
aspects of linguistic and literary science. The usual 
sequence of courses enables a student, in three or four 
years, to study with precision the important departments 
of grammar and of literature, and to become trained in 
the process of original investigation. Instruction is 
imparted by lectures, by freer conferences, by the 
methods of the Seminary, and by class-room recitation. 
A Journal Club is conducted for the purpose of supple- 
menting the regular courses with reports of the current 
work of scholars. 

1. English Seminary 

Graduate students are admitted to the Seminary as 
soon as they have satisfied initial requirements for inde- 
pendent research. 

In the academic year 1910-11, the Seminary will be 
engaged in the study and investigation of the following 
subjects : 

(a) English Poetry from Wordsworth to Tennyson. 
First half-year. 

(6) The English Drama before Shakespeare. Second 
half-year. 

The Seminary will be conducted by Professor Bright. 
Tuesday and Thursday, 3-5 p. m. 

2. Lectures on Historical Grammar, Versification, 
and Literary Criticism. Professor Bright. Monday, 11 
a. m. 

3. Interpretation of selected texts. Professor Bright. 
Tuesday and Thursday, 12 m. 

4. The Journal Club of the English Seminary. Pro- 
fessor Bright. Alternate Fridays, 3-5 p. m. 



4G Programmes [080 

5. Additional courses in literature by Professor 
Browne and others will be announced later. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

Introductory courses in (a) Rhetoric and English Com- 
position, (o) Platform Speaking and Forensics, and (c) 
English Literature, are prescribed for all undergraduate 
students. For those who may wish to continue their 
study in any of these departments, elective courses are 
provided in the various forms of discourse and in the 
more important periods of English and American litera- 
ture. Further practice in debating is provided in connec- 
tion with the elective course in exposition and argument, 
and in the annual inter-class and inter-collegiate debates. 

English Composition 

1. Rhetoric and English Composition. 

Theory based upon text-books, lectures, and discussions; 
critical study of prose writers; frequent practice in writing. 
This course is prescribed during the first year. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French and Mr. 
C. A. Myers. 

la. English Composition. 

This course is prescribed during the second year. Students 
who have attained a mark of "8" on the work of the first year 
are excused from this course. 

One hour a week, through the year. Mr. C. A. Myers. 

2. Description and Narration. 

Readings in standard prose. Practice in writing. 

One hour a week, through the year. Professor Greene. 

3. Exposition and Argument. 

During the first term, the theory of exposition with frequent 
practice in expository writing. During the second and third 
terms, the theory of argument; practice in writing; platform 
speaking and debate. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French. 

Public Speaking 

1. Reading and Platform Speaking. 

In this course attention is paid to correct habits of breathing 
and to enunciation and expression. The course is prescribed 
during the second year. 

One hour a week, through the year. Dr. French. 



C81] English 47 

2. Public Speaking. 

The principles of argumentation; practice in argumentative 
writing and in debate; parliamentary procedure. This course is 
prescribed during the third year. 

One hour a week, through the year. Dr. French. 

Note. — Additional practice in platform speaking and in debate 
is provided in English Composition 3. 

English Literature 

1. English Literature: introductory course. 

The class will become acquainted with the course of English 
Literature from the seventh century until about 1600. Much of 
the poetry of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare will be read in 
the class-room and in private reading. This course is prescribed 
during the second year. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

2. English Literature, 1600-1744. 

First half-year: English Literature from 1600 to 1660; special 
attention will be given to the English Bible and to the works of 
Bacon and Milton. 

Second half-year: From the Restoration to the death of Pope 
(1660-1744); the work will centre upon the writings of Dryden, 
Addison, Steele, Swift, and Pope. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

3. English Literature, 1798-1892. 

First half-year: English Literature from the publication of 
the Lyrical Ballads to the death of Coleridge (1798-1834); the 
work will centre upon the writings of Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
Keats, Shelley, Byron, and Scott. 

Second half-year: Tennyson and Browning; novelists and es- 
sayists since 1832. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

4. American Literature. 

Literary history in outline; critical study of selected authors; 
written reports on assigned reading. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French. 

5. English Literature. (Third Year of Group II). 

First half-year: The Caroline and "classical" periods in Eng- 
lish Literature, 1625 to 1770. 

Second half-year: The period of the romantic reaction in Eng- 
lish Literature, 1770 to recent times. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Browne. 

6. English. (Fourth Year of Group II). 

First half-year: Anglo-Saxon. 

Second half-year: Middle English and Early Scottish Poets. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Bright and 
Professor Browne. 



48 Programmes [682 

German 

Under this head are included German Language and 
Literature and subjects in the wider field of Germanic 
Philology. Regular instruction, through seminary and 
lectures, is given in German Literature and in Gothic, 
Comparative Germanic Grammar, Old High German, and 
Middle High German ; while occasional courses are offered 
in Old Norse, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

Seminary 

The library of the German Seminary, to which all ad- 
vanced students have the fullest access, is open Mondays 
to Fridays from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., and Saturdays from 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m. The Seminary treats, in successive half- 
years, some theme from the period of German Classicism 
or Romanticism, and a subject from the literature of Mid- 
dle High German. During the year 1910-11 the Seminary 
will meet three times weekly. The subject for the first 
half-year will be the period of "Storm and Stress" in Ger- 
man Literature (1772-1785). During the second half-year, 
the German Courtly Lyrics (Minnesong) of the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Centuries will be studied. The Seminary 
will be conducted by Professor Wood. 

Students are requested to procure Deutsche Nationallitter- 
atur, hrsg. Jos. Kurschner, Bde. 79-81 (Sturmer und Drdnger), 
and Bd. 107 (Goethes Eleine Jugendschriften in Prosa) ; Min- 
nesangs Friihling, hrsg. von Lachmann und Haupt, 4. Auflage, 
Leipzig, 1888. 

Germanic Society 

The Germanic Society, which includes as members all 
the instructors and advanced students in German, meets 
fortnightly. Before it are presented not only reports on 
articles in current journals, but also successive results of 



883] German 49 

studies by the members. The chief object of the Society 
is to foster and guide the aptitude for more sustained 
individual investigation than the collective work of the 
Seminary offers scope for. 

Lectures 

1. Gothic and the elements of Comparative Germanic 
Grammar. 

Professor Collitz. Two hours weekly, through the year. 
Students are requested to procure Braune, Gotische Gram- 
matik, 7. Auflage, Halle, 1909. 

2. Introduction to the study of Germanic Philology. 

Professor Collitz. Weekly, through the year. 

A brief survey of the various Germanic languages from an 
historical and comparative point of view will be given. This will 
be followed by a discussion of the aims and the method of Ger- 
manic Philology. 

3. Old High German (Introductory Course). 
Professor Collitz. Weekly, first half-year. 

Students should procure Braune, Aoriss der Althochdent- 
sche?i Grammatik, 4. Auflage, Halle, 1906, and the same author's 
Althochdentsches Leseouch, 6. Auflage, Halle, 1907. 

4. Old High German Texts. 

Professor Collitz. Weekly, second half-year. 
Critical reading of specimens selected from Braune, Althoch- 
dentsches Leseouch. 

5. Middle High German (Introductory Course). 
Professor Collitz. Twice weekly, first half-year. 

Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 7. Auflage, Halle, 1908; 
Bachmann, Mittelhochdeutsches Leseouch, 4. Auflage, Zurich, 
1909. 

6. The Beginnings of Modern German Classicism. 
Professor Wood. Twice weekly, first half-year. 

The period in German Literature from 1750 to Goethe's Italian 
Journey (1786) will be studied. The authors to receive the 
chief share of attention will be Wieland, Klopstock, Lessing and 
Herder. 



50 Programmes [d8| 

7. The German Chap-Books of Eulenspiegel and Faust. 
Professor Wood. Twice weekly, first half-year. 

The particular subject treated will be the development of the 
"Schalksnarr," vagabond and "Wunderdoktor" into typical and 
national figures, in the legends of Tyll Eulenspiegel, Faust and 
Miinchhausen. The literary results of the evolution will then 
be examined in the Faust-play, in Simplicissimus, Immermann 
and de Coster. 

Students are requested to procure Deutsche Nationallitteratur, 
hrsg. Jos. Kurschner, Bde. 25, 33, 160 Teile 1 und 2 (Volksbiicher 
des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts, Grimmelshausen I., Immermanns 
Schriften I.), and Charles de Coster, Tyll Ulenspiegel, Deutsch 
von Fried, von Oppeln-Bronikowski, Jena, 1909. 

8. The Swabian Poets, their allies and opponents. 
Professor Wood. Twice weekly, second half-year. 

After studying Uhland and Justinus Kerner, that part of Jung 
Deutschland will be considered, which was particularly opposed 
to the Swabians (Heine, Borne). Lenau and Platen, as partici- 
pants in the feud, will also claim a share of attention. 

9. The Elegy in German Literature. 
Dr. Roulston. Weekly. 






Special Courses 

1*. Scientific German. Dr. Kurrelmeyer. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 
2*. Historical German. Dr. Eoulston. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 
3. German Conversation. Mr. Hofmann. 

Weekly, through the year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

German Elements. 
Vos, Essentials of German; Gerstacker, Germelshausen; 
Keller, Kleider machen Leute; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heiraten; von Wildenbruch, Das edle Blut; Prose 

Composition; Grammar. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Kurrelmeyer. 

This course is intended only for students who have matricu- 
lated in Greek. For such students, it absolves the requirements 
in German for the baccalaureate degree; other students must 
absolve course 1. 



♦Courses 1 and 2 are for graduates who lack the ability to 
read German at sight. 



085] German 51 

German 1. 

Modern Prose Readings : C. F. Meyer, von Saar, Fulda, 
Keller, Sudermann. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

In case of necessity, this class will meet in two sections. 

Prose Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Wood. 

Private Reading. 
German 2. 

Classical Authors: Schiller, Maria Stuart, Die Braut 
von Messina; Goethe, Hermann und Dorothea. 

Twice weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

Prose Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

Private Reading. 
German 3. 

Goethe, Faust, Tasso, Iphigenie. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wood. 

History of Literature (Classical Period). Lyrics and 
Ballads. 

Weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

The work in Goethe and in the History of Literature, etc., may 
be taken separately. 

German 4. 

Contemporary Literature, in rapid readings. 
Three hour's weekly, through the year. Dr. Kurrelmeyer. 
German 5. 
Historical Readings. 

Schiller, Der dreissigjdhrige Krieg ; Freytag, Aus dem Jahrhun- 
dert der grossen Krieges; von Sybel, Die Erhebung Europas. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

German 6. 

Scientific German. 

Lassar-Cohn, Die Chemie im tdglichen Leben; von Helmholtz, 

Ueber Goethes naturwissenschaftliche Arbeiten; Walther, 

Allgemeine Meereskunde. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Kurrelmeyer. 
This course is open to students who have completed Course 1. 

German 7. 

German Conversation. 

Weekly, through the year. Mr. Hofmann. 



52 Programmes [G86 

Romance Languages 

The department of Romance Languages offers facili- 
ties for work in manuscript sources and palaeography, in 
literature (old and modern), in language (phonetics, 
morphology, syntax, dialects), and in Popular Latin. 
For students who desire the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy, three years are usually required. The work 
is confined almost entirely to the three principal Romance 
languages (French, Spanish, and Italian), in all of which 
special attention is paid to the origins. 

Instruction is given in lectures and regular class exer- 
cises, the former being supplemented by subjects for 
special investigation assigned to the student. For each 
of the languages noted above, a seminary meeting is held 
once a week. In French the seminary for the old litera- 
ture alternates with that for the modern literature. A 
meeting of the Romance Club is also held weekly, at 
which original papers are read and reviews of recent 
journals presented. The courses marked with a star will 
be given at an afternoon hour or in the forenoon of 
Saturday. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

French 

Seminary (Old French Literature) : Marie de France; 
Work on Manuscripts. 

Professor Elliott. Two hours fortnightly. 
Seminary (Modern French Literature) : Flaubert. 

Associate Professor Terracher. Two hours fortnightly. 
Studies in French Word-History. 

Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 
French Syntax: Adjective and Verb. 

Professor Armstrong. Two hours weekly. 
French Phonology and Morphology. 

Professor Armstrong. Three hours weekly. 
* French Phonetics. 

Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 



6S7] Romance Languages 53 

•Readings in Old French Literature: Introductory 
Course (Paris, Extraits de la Chanson de Roland and 
other texts). 
Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 
Readings in Old French Literature: Advanced Course 
( Bartsch-Horning, Chrestomathie de Vancien pan- 
cais). 
Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
Readings in Old Provencal Literature (Appel, Proven- 
zalische Chrestomathie). 
Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
Les Chansons de Geste du Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange. 

Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
*La Tragedie Classique au XVIP Siecle. 

Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
*Life and Manners during the Classic Period of French 
Literature. 
Associate Professor Brush. Weekly. 
Le Lyrisme Romantique. 
Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 

Spanish 

Spanish Seminary: Gil Vicente. 

Professor Marden. Two hours weekly. 
The Spanish Drama of the Sixteenth Century. 

Professor Marden. Weekly. 
•Readings in Old Spanish Literature. 

Professor Marden. Weekly. 
Spanish Historical Grammar. 

Professor Marden. Weekly. 

Italian 

Dante and the Divine Comedy. 

Professor Elliott. Weekly. 
Italian Seminary: The Inferno of Dante. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Two hours weekly. 
Italian Phonology and Morphology. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Two hours weekly. 
*The Poetry of the "Dolce Stil Nuovo." 

Associate Professor Shaw. Weekly. 



54 Programmes [088 

General 

Eomance Club. 

Weekly. 
Popular Latin. 

Professor Elliott. Weekly. 
Methodology of the Eomance Languages. 

Dr. Keidel. Weekly, -first half-year. 
Palaeography. 

Dr. Keidel. Weekly, second half-year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

French 
French Elements. 

a. The Essentials of Grammar. Fraser and Squair, 

French Grammar, Part I. 
o. Easy French Texts. Verne, Les Enfants du Capir 
taine Grant; Labiche, La Grammaire; About, La 
Mere de la Marquise; Pailleron, VEtincelle; Augier, 
Le Gendre de M. Poirier. 
Four hours weekly, through the year. Mr. Austin. 
This course is intended only for students who have matricu- 
lated in Greek, and have fully met at entrance the matriculation 
requirements; for such students, it absolves the requirements in 
French for the baccalaureate degree. Other students must take 
French 1. 

French 1 (Intermediate Course). 

a. Modern French Prose Writers: Dumas, Daudet, 
Coppee, Maupassant, Merimee, Labiche and Martin, 
Augier, Theuriet, Balzac. Classics: Corneille, Le 
Cid; Moliere, Les Precieuses ridicules, VAvare. 
o. Grammar and composition based on a French text. 
Exercises in pronunciation and dictation. 

c. Private reading: Fortier, Histoire de France; La- 
martine, Scenes de la Revolution frangaise; Lafon- 
taine, Faoles. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush and Mr. Austin. 



589] Romance Languages 55 

French 2 (Advanced Course). 

a. The Nineteenth Century. Readings from Hugo, 
Lamartine, Gautier, Alfred de Vigny, Alfred de 
Musset, Balzac, Flaubert, Zola, Taine, France, Loti, 
Bazin. Canfield's French Lyrics. 

b. Prose composition; dictation. 

c. Lectures on French literature and on French life. 

d. Private reading. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 

French 3. 

Classics of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 
Readings from Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Voltaire, Rous- 
seau, and Warren's French Prose of the Seventeenth 
Century. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 

French 4. 

Epochs of French Literature. 
Lectures; private reading. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 

This course will be conducted in French. 
French 5. 

Advanced Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Armstrong. 

Spanish 

1. Hills and Ford, Spanish Grammar; Prose Composi- 

tion; Isla, Gil Bias; Alarcon, El Capitdn Veneno; 

Perez Galdos, Dona Perfecta. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Marden. 
This course is adapted to beginners. 

2. Alarcon, La verdad sospechosa; Calderon, La vida es 

sueno; Tellez, Don Gil de las colzas verdes; Cer- 
vantes, Don Quixote. 

Grammar and Prose Composition. 

History of Spanish Literature. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Marden. 

This course is open to students who have completed Course 1 
or its equivalent. 



56 Programmes 1 690 

Italian 

1. Grandgent, Italian Grammar; Marinoni: Italian 

Reader; Fogazzaro, Pereat Rochus; De Amicis, La 
Vita Militare. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Shaw. 

2. Grandgent, Italian Grammar, Italian Composition. 

Selections from classic authors. A text-book of 
Italian Literature. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Shaw. 



History 

Facilities for research are offered in the principal fields 
of history. Special attention is given to methods of in- 
vestigation and each advanced student comes under the 
personal direction of the instructors in his chosen field. 
This supervision is obtained through seminary meetings 
and frequent private consultation. 

In addition to the library of the university, students 
make use of the admirable collections of source material 
in the Peabody Library and the Maryland Historical 
Society, and are in constant touch with the great re- 
sources of the Library of Congress and the departments 
in Washington. The university library has recently re- 
ceived large and important accessions of historical works 
and documentary material. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

European History. The courses in European History 
direct attention to the social, economic, and constitu- 
tional development of European peoples. The subjects 
follow in consecutive order, the topics for each year form- 
ing a complete and independent group. The series re- 
quires three years for completion and offers opportuni- 
ties for close study of selected portions of the mediaeval 



G91] History 57 

and early modern history of the Continent. A weekly 
seminary is held for the study of problems in European 
history and institutions. 

Courses in Latin palaeography and in French palaeog- 
raphy are given in their respective departments. 

English History. The constitutional and social his- 
tory of England is treated in connection with the cor- 
responding periods in European history. A part of the 
seminary work is devoted to problems in this field and 
direction is given to further special research. A separate 
course is provided for the historical development of 
English common and statute law. 

American History. The courses in American History 
begin with the history of British colonization in America 
and deal with the constitutional and economic growth of 
the colonies and the constitutional and political history 
of the United States after 1783. A weekly seminary is 
held for research in special subjects in American History. 

Ancient History. The courses in Ancient History take 
into consideration the constitutional, social, artistic, and 
economic development of the peoples of Greece and Italy. 
Special attention is given to the historical evidence fur- 
nished by epigraphy and archaeology. The constitutional 
history of Greece and Rome is supplemented by lectures 
on the Roman Law. Certain portions of Oriental History 
are treated in the departments of Semitics and Sanskrit. 

Special Lectures. The Albert Shaw Lectures on Dip- 
lomatic History are given annually by investigators in 
selected fields of American and foreign relations. The 
scope of the lectures is not confined to the United States, 
but lectures on European diplomatic history will also 
find their due place. 

The James Schouler Lectures on History and Political 
Science are given annually by lecturers of prominence, 
upon topics indicated in the title of the lectureship. 
These lectures are open to the public as well as to the 
students and members of the University. The course for 



58 Programmes [ 692 

1909 was given by Dr. Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Presi- 
dent of Harvard University, and that for 1910 by George 
Walter Prothero, Litt. D., formerly professor of history in 
the University of Edinburgh, now editor of the Quarterly 
Review and Honorary Fellow of Queen's College, 
Cambridge. The lecturer for 1911 will be Professor 
John Bassett Moore, of Columbia University. 

Other lectures of interest to the students of this de- 
partment, either open to the public or designed for class 
instruction, are given from time to time by distinguished 
scholars outside the University. These lectures are, in 
part, provided for from the income of the fund bequeathed 
by the late Professor Herbert B. Adams. 

Historical and Political Science Association. This 
monthly meeting of the instructors and students of the 
departments of History, Political Economy, and Political 
Science affords an opportunity to hear addresses from 
prominent specialists, to consider important movements 
and undertakings, and to present critical reviews of re- 
cent publications in the fields of history, political econ- 
omy, and political science. 

For the year 1910-11 the courses will be as follows :- 
Professor Vincent. 

1. Early Mediaeval History of Europe. 

The study of the origins of the nations of Western Europe, 
giving emphasis to their social institutions and economic 
development. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

2. Theory and practice of Historical Method. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

3. Seminary in European and English History. 
Two hours, alternate weeks. 

Associate Professor Ballagh. 

1. History of the United States, 1830-1860. 
Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

2. History of American Slavery. 
Two hours weekly, second half-year. 

3. Seminary in American History. 
Two hours, alternate weeks. 



|93] History 59 

Dr. Magoffin. 

1. History of Greece to 338 B. C. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

2. History of Rome and Italy to 133 B. C. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. History of Greece and Rome. 

The political and constitutional history of Greece and Rome, 
approached through the translated texts of Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Suetonius, Tacitus, and others, with the aid of modern authorities. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Magoffin. 

2. European History (General History). 

From the decline of the Roman Empire to the nineteenth cen- 
tury, dealing with the Romano-Barbarian kingdoms, the empire 
of Charles the Great, feudalism, the crusades, empire and papacy, 
renaissance, the Protestant revolution, the religious wars, eigh- 
teenth century states and the doctrine of the balance of power, 
the French Revolution, the Napoleonic period, and the reorgani- 
zation of Europe in the nineteenth century. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Vincent. 

3. English History. 

Chiefly constitutional and political, dealing with the origins 
and development of parliamentary institutions, the relations of 
England w'th continental Europe, and the modern expansion of 
the British Empire. Open to students who have had, or are 
taking, History 2 or Political Economy 1. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. 

4. American History. 

Colonial history and institutions, the formation of the Union, 
the development of constitutional government and law, the 
growth of foreign policy, the expansion of the nation. Emphasis 
will be la i- d on the national period, and the subject will be brought 
to the close of the nineteenth century. Open to students who 
have had History 2 and 3 or Political Economy 1. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Ballagh. 

The History courses begin in the second year of the college 
work. Students in Group III will at that time begin with course 
1, and in the third year will be expected to take both 2 and 3. 
Course 4 completes the plan of instruction in History, and stu- 
dents of Group III who have had courses 2 and 3 are advised 
to take this in the fourth year. 



GO Programmes [ 69 i 

Political Economy 

graduate courses 

The graduate instruction in Political Economy is de- 
signed primarily to meet the needs of advanced students 
preparing for a professional career in economic science. 
The courses afford systematic instruction in general eco- 
nomic principles, intimate acquaintance with special 
fields of economic activity, and, most important of all, 
knowledge of and ability to employ sound methods of 
economic research. The work centres in the Economic 
Seminary, the membership of which is limited to the most 
advanced students, and the primary design of which is to 
develop scientific research in economic study and investi- 
gation. 

Formal graduate instruction is offered in Economic 
Theory and in Applied Economics, by parallel courses of 
lectures throughout the year. The particular topics 
treated vary from year to year. In 1908-09 Professor 
Hollander lectured two hours weekly on economic thought 
before Adam Smith, and two hours weekly on the theory 
and practice of exchange. During the year 1909-10 atten- 
tion was given, in the course on economic theory, to the 
economic system of David Kicardo. In the course on ap- 
plied economics, careful study was made of the history 
and theory of taxation. Associate Professor Barnett lec- 
tured during the first half-year on the development of fac- 
tory legislation and during the second half-year on the 
legal position of trade unions. Special courses of lectures 
were given during the year by Mr. John M. Glenn, Direc- 
tor of the Russell Sage Foundation, on "Problems of Re- 
lief ;" by Mr. Logan G. McPherson, of New York, on 
"Railway Transportation;" by Dr. James Bonar, Deputy 
Master of the Canadian Mint, on "Justice and Distribu- 
tion." 



695] Political Economy 61 

The courses offered for 1910-11 are as follows : 

1. The Economic Seminary. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hollander and 
Associate Professor Barnett. 

The work of the year will continue to be a systematic study of 
the history, structure, and activities of labor organizations in the 
United States. 

2. The Principles of Political Economy. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hollander. 

During the first half-year, attention will be paid to the proper 
method of economic inquiry; during the second half-year the 
fundamental theories of the science will be subjected to critical 
examination. Representative texts will be assigned for reading 
and study. 

3. Municipal Finance. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hollander. 

During the first half-year, the historical development of Ameri- 
can local finance will be studied; during the second half-year, at- 
tention will be paid to the present fiscal problems of the Ameri- 
can city. 

4. Industrial Corporations. 

One hour weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Bar- 
nett. 

During the first half-year attention will be given to the history 
of the industrial corporation and to its position in modern eco- 
nomic organization; during the second half-year a detailed study 
will be made of the administration and financing of industrial 
corporations. 

Special courses of lectures will be given by non-resident lec- 
turers upon such practical economic problems as charities and 
correction, railway transportation, industrial organization. 

A reading class is organized yearly by the more advanced 
students of the department for the co-operative study of economic 
texts and for the critical discussion of current economic liter- 
ature. 

In co-operation with the departments of history and political 
science, opportunity is offered in the Historical and Political 
Science Association for the presentation and discussion of orig- 
inal papers in economic science by instructors and invited speak- 
ers, and for the review by students of current publications of 
importance in these fields. 



(;U Programmes [ WM'> 



UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. (a) Economic History. 

The economic development of England from the tenth century 
to the present time and the most important experiences of the 
United States are studied. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Associate Professor Bar- 

NETT. 

(6) Elements of Economics. 

Particular attention is given to the theory of distribution and 
its application to leading economic problems. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Associate Professor Bar- 
nett. 

2. (a) Finance. 

The theory and practice of finance are considered, with par- 
ticular reference to problems of taxation as presented in the 
experience of the United States. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Hollander. 

(&) Money and Banking. 

The principles of monetary science are taught with reference 
to practical conditions in modern systems of currency, banking, 
and credit. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Hollander. 

3. (a) Statistical Methods. 

After a preliminary study of the value and place of statistics 
as an instrument of investigation, attention is directed to the 
chief methods used in statistical inquiry. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Associate Professor Bar- 
nett. 

(5) Economic Institutions. 

Labor unions, corporations, and trusts are studied primarily 
as elements in the organization of industry. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Associate Professor Bar- 
nett. 

Note. — Undergraduate course 2 is open only to such students as 
have completed course 1; and, save under exceptional circumstances, 
course 3 only to students who have completed 1 and 2. 



GOT] Political Science 63 

Political Science 

graduate courses 

The graduate work in Political Science has for its aim 
the preparation of advanced students for professional 
and original work in the fields of Constitutional Law, 
International Law and Diplomacy, and Political Phi- 
losophy. It seeks also to supply the necessary training for 
those desiring to enter the higher branches of the public 
service, and to furnish a broad and philosophical equip- 
ment to those who expect later to pursue the study and 
practice of the law. 

Seminary 

In addition to the Historical and Political Science As- 
sociation, at which the students of the departments of 
History, Economics, and Political Science meet jointly 
for the presentation of papers by the instructors and by 
invited speakers, a fortnightly Seminary is conducted by 
Professor Willoughby, at which reports upon special sub- 
jects are read by the students and discussed. 

Journal Club 

A weekly meeting of the advanced students, under the 
direction of Professor Willoughby, is held for the discus- 
sion of current political literature — books and periodicals. 

Lectures 

The lectures are so arranged as to give three or more 
years of continuous instruction, covering the following 
subjects: The Theory of the State (being a general in- 
troduction to the study of Constitutional and Interna- 
tional Law), Foreign Constitutional Law, United States 
Constitutional Law, the Legal Aspects of Economic and 



G4 Programmes [698 

Industrial Problems, the History of Political Theories 
and of Political Literature, and Historical Jurisprudence. 
During the year 1910-11 the following courses will be 
given : 

1. United States Constitutional Law. Professor WIL- 
LOUGHBY. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. [Extending over three 
years.] 

2. Political Theories and Political Literature in Eng- 
land since 1688. Professor Willoughby. 

One hour weekly, first half-year. 

3. Political Theories and Political Literature in 
France since 1750. Professor Willoughby. 

One hour weekly, second half-year. 

4. Principles of International Law. Dr. J. B. Scott. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

5. Historical Development of the English Law. Dr. 
Stbiner. 

One hour weekly, through the year. 

This course is a continuation of the one given in 1909-10, and 
will deal with the development of the substantive principles of 
the Common Law. 

Undergraduate instruction in Political Science is given 
in the departments of History and Economics. 



699] Philosophy 05 

Philosophy,, Psychology, and Education 
graduate courses 

The graduate work of the department takes different 
directions according as the chief interest of the student 
lies in the field of Philosophy, in Experimental and Com- 
parative Psychology, or in Education. The primary aim 
of the department is to provide special training in the 
methods of philosophical inquiry and psychological re- 
search, and in their application to the problems of educa- 
tional theory and practice. 

In Philosophy, opportunity is offered for specialization 
in systematic philosophy, history of philosophy, and 
ethics. In Psychology, the fields of human and animal 
psychology are represented in courses for training and for 
research. In Education, the work recognizes the bearing 
of the historical and theoretical material upon present 
practical problems. 

The program of the individual student during his first 
and second years, is adapted, so far as possible, to his 
special needs and future aims as teacher or investigator. 
In the third year the student concentrates, in the semi- 
nary and laboratory courses, upon the topic of his dis- 
sertation. 

1. Graduate Conference. A conference composed of 
all the instructors and university students meets fort- 
nightly. Papers are read, and reports on the progress of 
work, reviews of books, etc., are presented for general in- 
formation and criticism. Each member of the department 
is expected to contribute to the work of the Conference. 

2. The Conception of Evolution. 

Professor Lovejoy. Two hours a week, through the year. 

This course will consist of a historical and analytical 
inquiry into the meaning and the bearings upon epistemo 
logy, ethics, and metaphysics of the general notion of 



06 Programmes | TOO 

temporal Becoming, and of certain modern theories of 
cosmic and organic evolution. 

3. Systematic Ethical Theory. 

Professor Lovejoy. Two hours a week, through the year. 

4. Continental Philosophy from Descartes to Kant. 
Professor Griffin. One hour a week, through the year. 

5. English Ethics of the last half-century. 
Professor Griffin. One hour a week, through the year. 

6. Modern Pantheism and Pessimism : Schopenhauer's 
World as Will and Idea. 

Professor Buchner. One hour a week, through the year. 

7. Headings in German Philosophy. Text to be se- 
lected. 

Professor Buchner. One hour a week, through the year. 

8. Philosophy of Education (Seminary Course). 
Professor Buchner. Two hours a week, through the year. 

9. Educational Psychology. 

Professor Buchner. One hour a week, through the year. 

10. Introduction to Experimental Psychology. 

Dr. Dunlap. Lectures and laboratory exercises, Monday, Tues- 
day, and Wednesday, 2 to 4 p. ra- 
il. Experimental Psychology (Kesearch Course). 
Professor Watson and Dr. Dunlap. Two hours a week, through 
the year. 

12. Introduction to Comparative Psychology. Lec- 
tures and laboratory exercises. 

Professor Watson. Two hours a week, through the year. 

13. Comparative Psychology (Research Course). 
Professor Watson. Two hours a week, through the year. 

14. Advanced General Psychology. 

Professor Watson. Two hours a week, through the year. 

15. Attention and Feeling from the Experimental 
Point of View. 

Dr. Dunlap. Two hours a week, second half-year. 

16. Psychological Journal Club. 
Two hours a week, through the year. 



701] Philosophy 67 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. a. Deductive and Inductive Logic. 

Creighton's Introductory Logic is, at present, used as a text- 
book, with references to the works of Jevons, Mill, Bain, Keynes, 
and other writers. 

Professor Griffin. Three hours weekly, until Christmas. 

b. Psychology. 

Text-books liable to change from year to year are made the 
basis of instruction, but the subject is presented largely through 
informal lectures and discussions, and by means of passages in 
various authors assigned for reading. A series of lectures and 
demonstrations on physiological and experimental psychology is 
included in the course. One essay on an assigned subject is 
required from each member of the class. 

Professor Watson. Four hours weekly, January to April. 

c. Ethics. 

The subject is taught by lectures, recitations from a text- 
book — Mackenzie's Manual of Ethics being used at present, — and 
references to the works of the most important writers. 

Professor Griffin. Three hours weekly, after April 1. 

2. Outlines of the History of Philosophy. 

Rogers's Student's History of Philosophy, Weber's History of 
Philosophy, and other works of reference, are used as the basis 
of lectures, discussions, and recitations. 

Professor Griffin. Two hours weekly, through the year; a 
third hour, for readings from the works of leading philosophers, 
may oe taken. 

All candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts are 
required to follow course 1 during the last year of resi- 
dence. 



LECTURES ON ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING 



The Johns Hopkins University offers for the academic 
year 1910-1911 a course of thirty-six lectures on the 
science and art of Illuminating Engineering. This course 
owes its origin to the following considerations : 

The Illuminating Engineering Society recognizing the 
fact that there is an increasing demand for trained illu- 
minating engineers and that the present facilities avail- 
able for the specialized instruction required are inade- 
quate, determined, through an act of the Council of the 
Society, to encourage the establishment of a course of 
lectures on the subject of illuminating engineering. This 
course should have three objects: (1) to indicate the 
proper co-ordination of those arts and sciences which 
constitute illuminating engineering; (2) to furnish a 
condensed outline of study suitable for elaboration into 
an undergraduate course for introduction into the cur- 
ricula, of undergraduate technical schools; and (3) to 
give practicing engineers an opportunity to obtain a con- 
ception of the science of illuminating engineering as a 
whole. 

Inasmuch as such a course is most appropriately given 
at a University where graduate instruction is emphasized, 
and as the Johns Hopkins University has regularly 
offered courses by non-resident lecturers as part of its 
system of instruction and is now preparing to extend its 
graduate work into applied science and engineering, an 
arrangement has been effected by which the lectures will 
be given at this University under the joint auspices of 
the University and the Illuminating Engineering 
Society. The subjects and scope of the lectures have 
been proposed by the Society and approved by the Uni- 
versity. The lecturers have been invited by the Univer- 
sity upon the advice of the Society. 



68 



703] Illuminating Engineering G9 

The program of lectures together with the list of 
lecturers is given below. 

The University will provide facilities for demonstra- 
tions at lectures and will also have installed a working 
exhibit of apparatus for experimental work in light, 
illumination, and illuminating engineering. This appa 
ratus will be at the disposal of those who attend and an 
opportunity will be afforded to undertake laboratory 
work during the term of the lecture course under the 
supervision of trained experts of the University and of 
the Society. 

A fee of $25.00 will be charged for admission to the 
course and to the accompanying laboratory instruction. 
The complete course of thirty-six lectures will be given 
between the dates October 26 and November 8, 1910, 
inclusive. 

Lectures on Illuminating Engineering 

i. The Physical Basis of the Production of Light. 
Three lectures. 
Joseph S. Ames, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, The 
Johns Hopkins University. 

ii. The Physical Characteristics of Luminous Sources. 
Two lectures. 
Edward P. Hyde, Ph. D., President, Illuminating Engi- 
neering Society; Director of Physical Laboratory, 
National Electric Lamp Association. 

in. The Chemistry of Luminous Sources. One 
lecture. 
Willis R. Whitney, Ph. D., Director of Research 
Laboratory, General Electric Co.; Past President, 
American Chemical Society. 

iv. Electric Illuminants. Two lectures. 

Charles P. Steinmetz, Ph. D., Consulting Engineer. 
General Electric Co.; Professor of Electrical Engi- 
neering, Union University. 

v. Gas and Oil Illuminants. Two lectures. 

(1) M. C. Whitaker, B. S., M. S., Professor of Indus- 
trial Chemistry, Columbia University. 

(2) Alexander C. Humphreys, M. E., Hon. Sc. D.. 
President of Stevens Institute of Technology; Past 
President, American Gas Institute. 



70 Programmes [704 

vi. The Generation and Distribution of Electricity 
with Special Reference to Lighting. Two lectures. 
John B. Whitehead, Ph. D., Professor of Applied Elec- 
tricity, The Johns Hopkins University. 

vii. The Manufacture and Distribution of Gas, with 
Special Reference to Lighting. Two lectures. 

(1) Mr. Edward G. Cowdeby, President of the People's 
Gas Light and Coke Co., Chicago. 

(2) Mr. Walter R. Addicks, Vice-President of Consoli- 
dated Gas Co., New York. 

vin. Photometric Units and Standards. One lecture. 
Edward B. Rosa, Ph. D., Physicist, National Bureau of 
Standards. 

ix. The Measurement of Light. Tico lectures. 

Clayton H. Sharp, Ph. D., Test Officer, Electrical Test- 
ing Laboratory, New York City; Past President, 
Illuminating Engineering Society. 

x. The Architectural Aspects of Illuminating Engi- 
neering. Two lectures. 

Walter Cook, A. M., Vice-President, American Insti- 
tute of Architects; Past President, Society of Beaux 
Arts Architects. 

xi. The Decorative Aspects of Illuminating Engineer- 
ing. One lecture. 
Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, President of the Tiffany Studios, 
New York. 

xii. The Physiological Aspects of Illuminating Engi- 
neering. Ttvo lectures. 
P. W. Cobb, B. S., M. D., Physiologist of the Physical 
Laboratory of the National Electric Lamp Association. 

xiii. The Psychological Aspects of Illuminating Engi- 
neering. One lecture. 
John B. Watson, Ph. D., Professor of Experimental 
Psychology, Johns Hopkins University. 

xiv. The Principles and Design of Interior Illumina- 
tion. 8ix lectures. 

(1) L. B. Marks, B. S., M. M. E., Consulting Engineer, 
New York City; Past President, Illuminating Engi- 
neering Society. 

(2) Mr. Norman Macbeth, Illuminating Engineer, The 
Welsbach Co. 



705] Illuminating Engineering 71 

xv. The Principles and Design of Exterior Illumina- 
tion. Three lectures. 

(1) Louis Bell, Ph. D., Consulting Engineer, Boston, 
Mass.; Past President, Illuminating Engineering 
Society. 

(2) E. N. Wrightington, A. B., Boston Consolidated 
Gas Co. 

xvi. Shades, Keflectors, and Diffusing Media. One 
lecture. 
Van Rensselaer Lansingii, B. S., General Manager of 
Holophane Co. 

xvn. Lighting Fixtures. One lecture. 

Mr. Edward F. Caldwell, Senior Member of Firm and 
Designer, Edward F. Caldwell and Co., New York. 

xvm. The Commercial Aspects of Electric Lighting. 
One lecture. 
John W. Lieb, Jr., M. E., Third Vice-President of New 
York Edison Co.; Past President, American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. 

xix. The Commercial Aspects of Gas Lighting. One 
lecture. 
Walton Clarke, M. E., President of The Franklin 
Institute, Philadelphia; Third Vice-President, United 
Gas Improvement Co., Philadelphia. 

The laboratory demonstrations will be under the direc- 
tion of : 

Charles O. Bond, Manager of Photometric Laboratory, 

United Gas Improvement Co., Philadelphia. 
Herbert E. Ives, Ph. D., Physicist, Physical Laboratory, 

National Electric Lamp Association. 
Preston S. Millar, Electrical Testing Laboratories, New 
York; General Secretary, Illuminating Engineering 
Society. 



Cards of admission may be obtained by application to 
the Johns Hopkins University. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 

1910-11 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Educa- 
tion and Philosophy. 

John B. Van Meter, Dean of the Faculty of Goucher 
College. 

Harry L. Wilson, Professor of Roman Archaeology 
and Epigraphy. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these 
courses may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns 
Hopkins University, and are to be filled up and returned 
to the Chairman of the Committee, on or before Septem- 
ber 24, 1910. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first 
floor, daily from September 24 to October 7 (3-5 p. m., 
Monday to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday). Regular consul- 
tation hours, 11 a. m., daily, and 5 p. in., Tuesdays. 



<u< 



College Courses for Teachers 



INSTRUCTORS IN THE COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 

Ira Rem sen, LL. D., President 



Henry Wood, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
Edward Renouf, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 
Herbert Eveleth Greene, Ph. D., English 

Collegiate Professor of English. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., Education 

Professor of Education and Philosophy. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Associate Professor of French. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate in Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Robert Bruce Roulston, Ph. D., German 

Instructor in German. 
William H. Maltbie, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 
William E. Kellicott, Ph. D., Biology 

Professor of Biology in Goucher College. 
Clara Latimer Bacon, A. M., Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Mathematics in Goucher 
College'. 
Annie Heloise Abel, Ph. D M History 

Associate Professor of History in Goucher College. 



74 Programmes [708 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering 
from time to time extended and systematic courses of 
public lectures. These have included a great variety of 
subjects and have followed different methods of treat- 
ment. Almost continuously since 1890 special courses of 
class lectures or "lesson courses" have been given from 
year to year, and many teachers and other persons in 
Baltimore and vicinity have availed themselves of these 
opportunities for systematic instruction in the subjects 
selected. Many teachers have completed one or more of 
these courses of public educational lectures at the Univer- 
sity and have received certificates upon passing the 
required examinations. All this work has been done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and 
lectures open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to 
serve a larger constituency than its regular enrolled 
students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public 
service, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-opera- 
tion with Goucher College, offered during 1909-1910 
courses of instruction to teachers whose vocation pre- 
vents their attendance upon college lectures and recita- 
tions at the usual hours. The same arrangement is con- 
tinued as a basis for the courses announced below for 
1910-1911. It is the primary aim of these courses to pro- 
vide the teachers in our public and private schools with 
special opportunities for further personal culture and 
for increasing their professional equipment and em- 



709] College Courses for Teachers 75 

ciency. These courses are similar in character, so far as 
quality and extent of instruction are concerned, to the 
corresponding courses given in college classes. In order 
to give further encouragement to teachers in service to 
carry on extended systematic study, this plan of college 
courses for teachers also provides that satisfactory work 
accomplished in these courses will be credited, under 
suitable regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
tbat the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties 
of the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. 
These courses will be open to men and women alike, and 
will be carried on independently of the regular collegiate 
instruction of the institutions. In the case of women who 
may desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate 
degree, it is provided that such credits as they 
may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by 
Goucher College toward the degree. A similar provision 
is made by the Collegiate Department of the Johns 
Hopkins University in the case of those men who desire 
to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total credits 
of sixty units or hours are required for graduation in 
each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible 
at the Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, 
however, classes and laboratory exercises may be held at 
Goucher College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 



7G Programmes [710 

matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in 
its Collegiate Department, and to the entrance require- 
ments prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory 
training desirable for the successful pursuit of these 
courses is that represented by the completion of a 
standard four-year high school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either 
of the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 

(b) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 

(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 

In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy 
of preparation, the applicant may be admitted provision- 
ally and be given an opportunity to prove his or her 
ability to sustain the work undertaken. Admission to 
any particular course will depend upon adequate prepara- 
tion for the pursuit of that course. 

Applications for admission to these courses must be 
presented to the Committee in charge of College Courses 
for Teachers. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity are referred to the circular descriptive of "The 
Collegiate Instruction of the Johns Hopkins University/' 
1910, pp. 50-57, for a detailed statement of the require- 
ments for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Eegistrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for 
the same degree in Goucher College, are referred to 
the "Program of the Woman's College of Baltimore," 
1910, pp. 18-32, for a detailed statement of the correspond- 



711] College Courses for Teachers 77 

ing requirements in this institution. This circular may 
be had by addressing the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be con- 
ferred by either institution, the candidate must spend at 
least one year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the 
Johns Hopkins University upon men only. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1910-1911 represent for the 
most part the work usually required in the first and 
second college years. In case there is a sufficient demand 
on the part of properly qualified persons for courses 
in advance of these, an effort will be made to arrange 
for such instruction. In considering applications for 
advanced standing the Committee will be guided by the 
regulations in force, in such cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the 
same rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, 
namely : 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. 
Where laboratory fees are required they are additional. 
Three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one 
hour of recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in Octo- 
ber and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the 
Johns Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. 
Before payment of fees can be made, applicants must 
receive from the Committee in charge a card stating the 
courses to be taken. 



78 



Programmes 



[712 



SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 11, 1910, and close on Saturday, June 3, 1911. 
Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. 
Class-room and laboratory exercises will be given in the 
afternoon from Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual college recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admisssion are to be filed with the 
Chairman of the Committee in charge of the College 
Courses for Teachers, the Johns Hopkins University, on 
or before September 24, 1910. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

( Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10-5.00 P. M. 


5.10-6.00 P. M. 


Tuesday 


Education 
(Buchner) 
French (Brush) 
German (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Biology (Kellicott) 
Chemistry (Renouf) 
English Composition (French) 
English Literature (Greene) 
Algebra, Geometry (Maltbie) 


Wednesday 


History (Abel) 


Calculus (Bacon) 


Thursday 


French (Brush) 
German (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Biology (Kellicott) 
Chemistry (Renouf) 
English Composition (French) 
Algebra, Geometry ( Maltbie) 


Friday 


Education 
(Buchner) 
History (Abel) 


Calculus (Bacon) 

English Literature (Greene) 




9.00-10.00 A. M. 


10.00 A. M.-1.00 P. M. 


Saturday 


French (Brush) 
German (Roulston) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Algebra, Geometry 
(Maltbie) 


Biology (Kellicott) 
(Biological Laboratory, 

Goucher College) 
Chemistry (Gilpin) 



713] College Courses for Teachers 79 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten appli- 
cants may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts which will be allowed for successful 
completion of each of the courses mentioned below, can 
be determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Biology 

This course treats of the characteristics of living organ- 
isms, both plant and animal, their constant relations with 
one another and with the inorganic world, and the 
development of form, structure, and function in a series 
of types of increasing complexity. The course concludes 
with a brief discussion of the theory of organic evolution. 
Two hours class-work, three hours laboratory work 
weekly. A laboratory fee of $5.00 will be charged to 
cover the cost of material. 

Professor Kellicott. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 
p. m., Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by 
experiments and will be supplemented by occasional con- 
densed reviews written at home. The work is based on 
Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and will cover the 
field of inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the 
laboratory students will repeat experiments chosen from 
those performed in the class-room, and will make simple 
inorganic preparations. Two hours class-work, three 
hours laboratory work weekly. 

A laboratory fee of $5.00 will be charged to cover the 
cost of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, 
which is loaned with charge for breakage only. (The 



80 Programmes [714 

minimum expense for breakage is $1.6:j; the average 
|3.00). 

Professor Renouf and Dr. Gilpin. Tuesday and 

Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

i 

Education 

The course offered will present in outline the history 
of education. It will trace the development of those 
ideas, practices, and institutions of the past which have* 
been most effective in determining the essential features 
and problems of education in the present. The work is 
based on Monroe's Textbook in the History of Education. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

English Composition 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical 
study of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be 
required; these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. French. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

English Literature 

First half-year: The poems of Chaucer; History of 
English Literature from the seventh century to about 
1500. 

Second half-year: The poems of Spenser; History of 
English verse; History of English Literature from the 
Renaissance to about 1600, — not including the drama. 

Professor Greene. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

French 

In French, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered : 

1. A course in the elements of French adapted to those 
who wish to begin the study of French or who have had 



College Courses for Teachers ffl 

only a partial introduction to +h„ , 
will include the principles of ™ ^^ The ™* 
Nation and L P oiZ STtT Pr ° nUnciat ^ 
wiM be used: Fraser and « ° IIo ™« te *t books 

£* £ Labiche, LalaZLHTSJri UTS"' 
La Mere de la Marquise; Sandeau T; \ ?* a; About ' 
Associate Professor B Rt ^ , £. * ^'^ 

"0 p. m., Saturday, 9 00 am y ^ Thursd ^ 

' ^^££%£^f> «"*-* to that 

Bo^antic and ReaiistT ZLZ^Lf^ ° f «* 
history of French literature- ZT ' , lectures <» the 
based upon Grandgent's IrencTn*-™ Com P° si «™ 
fort's French Composition Com P°^on, and Com- 

Associate Professor R n . n m 
4.10 p. m . teSS ° r BRMH - Tuesday and Thursday, 

German 

«•« », „ kfe ., ,„„~; '"'W.'. « wt, „•„„ to 



g. programmes ('"' 

, b ) The German Drama, from Grillparzer (1816) to 
the Beginnings of German Naturalism (1885). Written 
themes in German will be required on subjects suggested 
by the material read in class. One hour weekly 

Professor Wood. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

History 

In History, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered, each fundamental in its nature and adapted to 
the particular needs of those electing it: 

1 A course in English History that shall emphasize 
the general progress of the English people socially, 
economically, intellectually, and politically as we as 
their relations with foreign lands. Attention will be 
called to the great historical collections and some train- 
ing given in their use. A combination of the library and 
lecture methods will be adopted. 

2. A course in Medieval History that shall confine 
itself to characteristic institutions and to great move- 
ments. Considerable collateral reading will be required 
and periodical work with sources made obligatory. A 
syllabus will be used, but no special text-book. 

Associate Professor Abel. Wednesday and Friday, 
4.10 p. m. 

Latin 

The class will meet three hours weekly, through the 
year. One hour weekly will be devoted to Latin Prose 
Composition (text-book by Gildersleeve and Lodge, 2nd 
edition). The remaining time will be given to the follow- 
ing authors: Livy (selections, ed. Burton); Terence 
{Phormio, ed. Laing) ; Catullus (ed. Merrill). Students 
will read also privately, for examination, Cicero's CaU 
Maior and one play of Plautus. 

Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 



717] College Courses for Teachers 83 

Mathematics 

1. Algebra and Analytic Geometry 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a stndy of 

special topics in Algebra inclnding theory of exponent/ 

h ory of logarithms, simu.taneons equations, Wnomial 

theorem elements of the theory of equations, and elements 

of the theory of determinants. 

The second part of the year will be devoted to an 
introductory course in Plane Analytic Geometry includ- 
ing a discussion of the right line and of the circle and 
other conies as represented by their equations both 
Cartesian and Polar. 

Pre-requisites: Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. '' 

Professor Maltbie. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. ' 

2. Calculus—An introductory course in Differential 
and Integral Calculus. 
Pre-requisite: Course 1. 
Associate Professor Bacon. Wednesday and Friday, 



COMMENCEMENT 

JUNE 14, 1910 



The public exercises of the thirty-fourth Commence- 
ment were held in the Academy of Music, Tuesday, June 
14, 1910, at 4 p. m. The degree of Bachelor of Arts was 
conferred on fourteen candidates, that of Master of Arts 
on three, of Doctor of Philosophy upon twenty-three, of 
Doctor of Medicine upon sixty-nine. The honors of the 
year and the recent appointments were announced by 
the President. 

The orator of the day was Count Johann Heinrich von 
Bernstorff, Imperial German Ambassador to the United 
States, whose subject was the "Historical Development 
of the German Empire." His address is printed below. 

The degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, was con 
ferred upon Count von Bernstorff, the presentation being 
made by Professor Henry Wood, in the following words: 

Professor Wood's Remarks 

The distinguished representative of the German govern- 
ment, who is about to address us, can look back upon 
five generations of statesmen in his family. All of thest 
have filled the highest ministerial and diplomatic posi 
tions in the gift of the state, and in view of our hered 
itary connection with England, it is a matter of especia 
interest, that the father of the present Count Bernstor 

84 



719] Professor Wood's Remarks 



85 



was the first ambassador of the new German Empire at 
the Court of St. James. 

Through the whole history of this illustrious family 
of statesmen runs a strain of high moral endeavor, in 
nothing more signally displayed than in the abolition of 
the African slave trade by Denmark, in the year 1792 as 
a direct result of the efforts of an eminent diplomatist of 
this family,— a movement which, followed years after- 
wards by England, associated the two nationalities in 
the common service of humanity. 

This cultivation of closer international relations by the 
maintenance and furtherance of high ideals is also the 
dominant feature of the present ambassador's career Bv 
training as well as by temperament a soldier, he was led 
while still young, to devote himself to the peaceful con- 
quests of diplomacy, and his distinguished services at 
Constantinople and St. Petersburg, at London and Cairo 
resulted in his appointment as ambassador to our Gov- 
ernment at a comparatively early age. 

In less than two years he has familiarized the Ameri- 
can public with the thought of the relative responsibility- 
of Germany and the United States as world-powers, and 
has inspired us with his own hope, that these the two 
youngest world-powers will also be on terms of the closest 
friendship. 

This conviction and this hope cannot fail to promote 
still more intimate commercial relations between the two 
countries, and to insure international peace, on the firm 
foundation of mutual respect and common ideals of dutv 
ana destiny. 



86 Commencement [720 

Mr. President: 

In behalf of the Academic Council, I present Count 
Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff to you for the Honorary 
Degree of Doctor of Laws in this University. 

President Remsen read a letter from the President of 
the "Class of 1890" stating that it was the desire of the 
class to institute a scholarship to be known as the "18JMJ 
Scholarship" and to continue through the next five years. 
This scholarship is to provide free tuition for an under- 
graduate student, to be selected by the Faculty, without 
regard to residence. The President stated that the 
Trustees had gratefully accepted this offer. 

In the evening the usual reception to the graduates and 
their friends was given in McCoy Hall. 






721] Count Bernstorff's Address 87 



HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 

AN ADDRESS BY 

COUNT JOHANN HEINRICH VON BERNSTORFF, 

IMPERIAL GERMAN AMBASSADOR 



I wish to thank you most sincerely for the privilege of 
appearing before you today. I very highly appreciate 
the great honor which this University of world-wide fame 
has conferred on me. This day is one of the proudest 
of my life, as it brings me in a lasting connection with 
this celebrated University which, under the leadership 
of its distinguished president, has become a centre of 
light and inspiration to the whole world. I am well 
aware that, in conferring such a great honor on me, you 
were less prompted by the wish to recognize my small 
personal merits than by the desire to express your friend- 
ship and sympathy for the nation I have the honor to 
represent. Such friendship is especially natural at Johns 
Hopkins University, because here the habits of thought 
are, more than at any other American University, cast 
in a German mould, and because in Baltimore so many 
descendants of the German stock have found a new home 
and now form a natural bond of an ever increasing 
friendship between Germany and the United States. 

The German Empire of today is very different from the 
country your German fellow citizens left, and neverthe- 
less it is in many ways still the same, because the polit- 
ical and social structure, which a nation forms, is never 
the result of arbitrary decision but the outcome of its 
history and character. This is especially the case in Ger- 
many, as our Empire is the work of the greatest states- 
man Germany has ever produced, who was imbued with 
the belief in the old rule, that no institution can work 
well unless it is the natural product of previous his- 
orical development. 



88 Commencement [722 

If we look back 2000 years to the time when the Romans 
first came in contact with the Teutonic race, we find three 
facts standing out prominently, in the national character 
and the institutions of our forefathers, facts which have 
survived the vicissitudes of many eventful centuries and. 
though they sometimes disappeared, stand out just as 
clearly in the German Empire of the present day as iu 
the early ages. 

Whilst the national unity of the other great European 
nations was formed by the blending of various elements, 
the Germanic race was a unity from the beginning and 
remained such till later on divisions were brought about 
by the events of their history. The Germans all claimed 
descent from a common ancestor, the terrigenous God 
Tuisco and his son Man. They remained the pure race 
they had been, because they never, like the Gauls and 
Britons, suffered conquest by the Romans or other na- 
tions. 

The second fact, I alluded to, is that the Germans 
have, from the beginning, always had a sovereign as head 
of their state. No revolution ever changed this system 
of government, but no German prince or king of the early 
ages was an absolute ruler in his land. 

This leads me to the third fact, w T hich I will state in 
the words of an American writer : "The germs of parlia- 
mentary institutions are to be found in the forests of 
ancient Germany. The Roman lawmakers found in Ger- 
many a new theory of the state. The Teuton does not 
derive law directly from the will of the nation ; he claims 
for himself an inborn right, which the State must protect, 
but which it does not create, and for wilieh he is ready 
to fight against the world." 

When the Germans had overthrown the Roman Empire, 
their sovereigns took up an idea which later on proved 
destructive to the natural growth of the nation. I allude 
to the revival of the imperial idea under the patronag( 
of the church, which for many centuries gave German, 1 



723] Count Bernstorff's Address 89 

the name of the Holy Roman Empire, and induced its 
sovereigns to aspire to a universal monarchy instead of 
consolidating their power within the limits of their own 
nationality. 

We have now come to the time when the feudal sys- 
tern reigned in Europe, correlating with the primitive 
monetary system of the day, which made paying in kind 
indispensable. The sovereigns, not being able to pay for 
services rendered to them, otherwise did so by endowing 
their nobles with large estates. Such benefices, revocable 
at pleasure in the beginning, became gradually valid for 
life and in the end hereditary. The nobles received the 
land, and accepted in return feudal duties. As long as 
the sovereigns were powerful, as in the times of the Saxon 
and Franconian Emperors, the nobles could not place 
themselves entirely beyond their control. In these times 
Germany was a more compact state than France. But 
when the Emperors let themselves be continually en- 
tangled in wars outside of Germany to maintain their 
power in Italy and over the church, they sacrificed their 
supremacy in their own country to the phantom of uni- 
versal monarchy. For the assistance rendered them by 
the territorial Lords they had to add privilege after priv 
ilege till there remained but feeble restraints on the real 
power of their vassals. Thus the Holy Roman Empire 
was doomed as a political body to become ill beyond hope 
of recovery. 

In the meanwhile the more practical French sovereigns 
had founded the unity of their nation by the subjection 
of their vassals. It was only natural, that they now 
began to prey on the weakness of Germany. Instead of 
aspiring to a universal monarchy the Emperors now had 
to defend the German frontiers against the encroach- 
ments of a powerful neighbor. The Imperial crown, 
formerly elective and much coveted by the territorial 
Lords, had now become practically hereditary in the 
House of Austria, who had formed a compact particular 



90 Commencement [724 

State in South Germany, but had little power outside 

of their own estates. The Empire was now, in truth, 
little more than the House of Austria, with the prestige 
which an empty title added, and such aid as it could 
obtain by threats or bargains from other independent 
members. In the Imperial Diet which during the last 
centuries of the Holy Roman Empire resided permanently 
at Eegensburg, all the particular States from the Elec 
torates down to the smallest countries and free cities 
were represented. Without the consent of this un wieldly 
Diet the Emperor could not move a soldier except those 
of his Austrian dominion. 

During the religious wars Emperor Ferdinand II made 
the last attempt to reaffirm the Imperial Power all over 
Germany. In this case it proved a blessing that he did 
not succeed, as the triumph of the Imperialists would 
have meant the destruction of religious freedom. Wallen- 
stein, the great General of the Catholic party, had already 
subdued all Germany, when he was suddenly dismissed 
by the Emperor at the instigation of the Catholic princes 
who were apprehensive of the sudden growth of imperial 
power. The dismissal of Wallenstein and the interven- 
tion of Gustavus Adolphus, the great King of Sweden, 
decided the victory of the cause of religious freedom. 
Neither the recall of Wallenstein nor the death of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus could stave off the ultimate defeat of 
the Imperial Tdea, and the thirty years' war ended with 
a large increase of the rights of the particular states 
which became practically independent and in whose de- 
velopment alone now lay the hope of a better future. 

The character of these states had in the meanwhile 
been very much changed by the introduction of Roman 
law and the development of the modern monetary system. 

The Roman law introduced a set of rules invented for 
a different society and hostile to the manly spirit of the 
German people. Roman methods of State pushei them- 
selves deeper in the habits of Public Life. The principle 






725] Count Bemstorff's Address 91 

of local self-government expired and the theories of abso 
lutism prevailed. The German states became latinized by 
the Roman law, a development from which England was 
saved because in consequence of its insular position it 
was little disturbed by alien influence and allowed to 
obey the law of national growth. 

The sovereigns of the German particular States were 
aided in establishing their absolute rule by the modern 
monetary system, that enabled them to introduce a paid 
and permanent soldiery. This development did much 
harm to many parts of Germany, which were ruled by 
unworthy petty princes, but on the other hand it enabled 
two of the greatest sovereigns who ever graced a German 
throne to lay the foundations of a new compact State 
in the North of Germany. The Great Elector and Fred- 
eric the Great were the typical representatives of the 
form of government which History has termed "En- 
lightened Absolutism." Imbued with a high sense of re- 
sponsibility they administered their lands as a trust in 
a most conscientious manner and never thought of using 
their absolute power for any other purpose than in the 
unselfish desire to serve the interests of their people. No 
man ever worked harder than Frederic the Great who 
proudly called himself the first servant of the State. 
These two sovereigns created the State of Prussia, which 
was able in the seven years' war to stand alone against 
the whole European continent. When Frederic the 
Great died, Prussia had become Austria's equal, and from 
that time dated what was termed the German dualism. 
Not very much later the German Empire was entirely 
overthrown by Napoleon, who tried to weaken Germany 
for ever by endowing the principalities which had com- 
peted for influence and authority in the councils of the 
German Empire with sovereign rights and by aggrandis- 
ing them at the expense of the two great German powers 
and of the quite small ones. Napoleon hoped thus to 
create a balance of power between the particular States 



92 Commencement [726 

which would keep Germany from becoming too strong by 
preventing it from becoming united. But Napoleon 1 ! 
tyranny was so great that he achieved just the contrary; 
he aroused the dormant German national feeling, and 
Prussia, the German State he treated most harshly, be- 
came the chief instrument of his downfall. At the first 
opportunity the Prussian people rose like one man to 
relieve themselves from the French yoke. This was, how- 
ever, not their only object. The imagination of all the 
students and other men of culture who joined Blucher's 
army as volunteers, was dwelling on the idea of restoring 
the German Empire, unity and self-government. This 
idea roused the enthusiasm of the volunteers and lived 
in verse and song till the day of its realization. It was 
therefore a great disappointment to the nation, when, at 
the end of the war of independence which in the nobility 
of its motives is surpassed by no other in the annals of 
warfare ancient or modern, none of these objects were 
attained. National independence was restored, but the 
jealousy of Germany's neighbors and the rivalry of the 
two great German Powers prevented any further polit- 
ical progress of the nation. The constitution Germany 
received was if possible worse than it had been before. 
The particular States having become sovereign states, 
there was no room for an Emperor. 

The Germanic Confederation created by the Congress 
of Vienna was only an aggregate of Communities, and 
Germany remained granulated into many political units. 
A Diet was instituted at Frankfurt, consisting of dele- 
gates of the several Kingdoms, Principalities and Free 
Cities. In this Congress of envoys from the respective 
States unanimity of votes was necessary on all important 
questions, so very little came out of their deliberations. 
The Austrian delegate presided, and when his views and 
instructions concurred with those of his Prussian col- 
league some work was done, as the smaller States did not 
dare to oppose the two combined great powers. But 



727] Count Bernstorff's Address 93 

mostly the delegates wasted their time in political gossip 
and intrigue, those of the smaller States continually try- 
ing to prevent the two great Powers from coming to 
agreements. The German Nation did not take the slight- 
est interest in these matters and dreaded federal legis- 
lation, as the tendencies of the Frankfurt Diet were 
always reactionary. The atrocities of the French revolu- 
tion had made continental Governments regard parlia- 
mentary institutions as a menace to established order. 
The German Governments therefore abhorred the idea 
of a German Parliament and even in the particular States 
parliamentary institutions were very slowly adopted. 
The first German Parliament was the result of the unrest 
which swept over Europe in the year 1848. The Govern- 
ments did not have the power to oppose the convocation 
of a Parliament in Frankfurt, where all German States 
were represented. This Parliament framed a constitution 
excluding Austria from Germany, and elected the King 
of Prussia German Emperor. But the constitution was 
deficient in one of the most essential points. There was 
no power available to enforce it, as King Frederick Wil- 
liam IV of Prussia refused to do so, a fact which has 
been often regretted, because Germany might otherwise 
have reaped the benefits of national unity 20 years sooner 
than it actually did. Frederick William IV was, how- 
ever, far too conservative to accept the Imperial crown 
from a Parliament against the will of the other German 
Sovereigns and to go to war with them and Austria to 
defend his claim to the Imperial crown. He was, as he 
once observed, no Frederick the Great, and he had not 
yet a Bismarck to advise him. So the hopes of the Ger- 
man Nation were again disappointed and the Constitu- 
tion of the Germanic Confederation continued to be the 
only link between the particular States. But the great 
statesman who was selected by Destiny to reunite the 
German Nation and to regain for it the position in the 
world to which it had a right by its numbers and quali 
ties, had as a young man closely followed the sad develop- 



94 Commencement [ 728 

ment of these hist years. He had learnt that, if Prussia 
wished to reunite Germany, this object could only be 
achieved by war. Events had proved thai Austria and 
Prussia could not both be included in the future German 
Empire. Prussia, as a purely German Slate, could not 
be excluded, whilst Austria had by its historical develop- 
ment been led to expand along the Danube and to out 
grow the limits of the German nationality. Although 
Austria's greatest political interests now lay outside of 
Germany, it could not be expected that the House of 
Habsburg would waive its old claim to the Imperial 
crown of Germany without being forced to do so on 
the battlefield. Likewise the particular German States 
were not prepared to relinquish their sovereign rights, 
which Napoleon had given them with the intention of 
preventing the creation of an efficient German unity. 
When Bismarck was appointed Prime Minister by King 
William I of Prussia he proposed reforms of the Consti 
tution of the Germanic Confederation, but without re- 
sult. Consequently the relations between Prussia and 
Austria became more and more strained. The last reform 
Bismarck proposed, before the inevitable war began, 
aimed at the convocation of a German Parliament elected 
by manhood suffrage, as it had been provided for by the 
Constitution of 1848. 

I need not speak of the brilliancy of the execution and 
the suddenness of the results of the campaign of 186<>. 
With a moderation on the part of victorious Prussia, 
hitherto unknown in history, peace was concluded after 
a few weeks. Austria was only obliged to sever its links 
with Germany and to allow Prussia to reconstitute the 
pest of Germany as a federal State. To show moderation 
in the season and high tide of success, is one of the 
surest characteristics of a great statesman, and Bismarck 
reaped the fruits of this moderation, when only a few 
years later he was able to renew the old bonds of friend- 
ship with Austria which are in our days closer than ever 
before. 



729] Count Bemstorff's Address 95 

German unity would now have been restored if Na- 
polern III bad not intervened. Bismarck did not wish 
to risk a second war before having made peace with 
Austria and having reorganized Germany, so he yielded 
to the French pressure, and South Germany had in con 
sequence to remain outside of the North German Confed- 
eration, which was now created. The river Main formed 
the frontier between North and South Germany. This 
French intervention, however, made war with France 
sooner or later inevitable. The German people could not 
for ever sacrifice their desire for national unity to for- 
eign wishes. So another victorious campaign was neces- 
sary before the German Empire could be re-established. 
King William I of Prussia now accepted for himself and 
his descendants the title of German Emperor, which was 
offered to him by the German Sovereigns and the German 
Parliament. 

In framing the Constitution of the Empire Bismarck 
showed the same statesmanlike moderation as in his 
conduct of foreign affairs and so gained the confidence 
of the Governments of the particular States. While aim- 
ing at the establishment of a durable central power, he 
paid the necessary regard to the existing centrifugal 
forces. He left to the particular States a sphere of 
action wide enough to satisfy the deep-rooted local senti- 
ment and yet not so wide as to imperil national unity. 
Bismarck had in 1866 submitted the draft Constitution 
to the North German Parliament. He acted in the same 
way in 1871. After having undergone some minor 
changes the Constitution was adopted by the first Im- 
perial Parliament as the supreme law of the nation and 
has since won the respect of our people, because it has 
its roots deep in the past. Many of you, Ladies and 
Gentlemen, will have read Alexis de Tocqueville's cele- 
brated book "La democratic en Amerique," in which he 
expresses the opinion that the Government of every coun- 
try should be centralized and the administration decen- 
tralized. In general this is the principle on which Bis- 



96 Commencement [7.30 

niarek and his legal advisers framed the German Const i 
tution. Under it the particular States have become great 
self-governing bodies, after having had finally to renounce 
their sovereignty and having become subject to the fed- 
eral authority. 

The Sovereigns of the particular Stales, however, re- 
tain the rank and all rights of their exalted position, and 
the political rights of the States are safeguarded by UK- 
fact that they share in the sovereignty of the Empire by 
being represented in the Federal Council. 

The common material interests have drawn the citizens 
of the several States so close together and intermixed 
them so much, that the unity of the nation is now for- 
ever assured. The North and the South of Germany are 
marked out by some differences, especially the religious 
one, but these are gradually diminishing in importance. 
The North has more of the vigorous and practical intel- 
ligence, the South more of the poetic and artistic feeling, 
which explains the historical fact that the political 
leadership of the nation fell to the share of the North. 

I will try to give a brief description of the Imperial 
Government in following the familiar lines of the Con- 
stitution of the United States. For drawing this parallel 
I claim the authority of one of your most eminent his- 
torians, who had much sympathy with German habits 
of thought and life. George Bancroft has said: "Ger 
man Institutions and ours most nearly resemble each 
other. Germany has taken the federative system from 
us." 

All legislative powers are vested in the Federal Council 
and the Imperial Parliament. For an Imperial law the 
agreement of the majority of the Federal Council and 
the Imperial Parliament is requisite and sufficient. Im- 
perial measures after passing the Federal Council and 
the Imperial Parliament must obtain the sanction of the 
Emperor and be countersigned by the Imperial Chan- 
cellor, but the Emperor has no veto. The Federal Council 
consists of delegates of the several Kingdoms, Princi- 






731] Count Bernstorff's Address 97 

palities and Free Cities. Each of the 25 States votes as 
a whole, though the number of their votes is propor- 
tioned to their population. The Federal Council is pre- 
sided over by the Imperial Chancellor, who as Prime 
Minister of Prussia is the first delegate of the leading- 
Kingdom. The spirit of moderation and reverence for his- 
torical development which prompted Bismarck in fram- 
ing the Constitution is particularly manifested in the 
fact that the Federal Council is an improved copy of the 
Frankfurt Diet. As you, Ladies and Gentlemen, will re- 
member, the latter institution did not work, because the 
States of the Germanic Confederation were Sovereign 
States and in consequence unanimity of votes was requi- 
site for every important measure. The system of de- 
cision by majority had to be introduced and this made it 
necessary that the particular States should be repre- 
sented in the Federal Council in proportion to their 
respective population. This principle strictly adopted 
would have been inconsistent with the Federative system, 
because Prussia would continually have commanded the 
majority of the Federal Council, as the Prussian citizens 
alone form the majority of the German population. Con- 
sequently a compromise was adopted, according to which 
Prussia has 17 votes, Bavaria 6, Wuerttemberg and 
Saxony each 4 and so on, the smallest Principalities and 
Free Cities each having one vote. 

The Federal Council is also a supreme administrative 
and consultative board and as such has nine standing 
committees. 

The Imperial Parliament is elected by manhood suf- 
frage and by ballot. It contains 397 members and can 
be dissolved by the Federal Council with consent of the 
Emperor. The members are elected for five years. The 
Parliament has the same right to initiate bills as the 
Federal Council. 

The Emperor, as executive power, represents the Em- 
pire internationally, declares war, concludes peace and 
enters into alliances and treaties with foreign powers. 



98 Commencement [732 

He appoints and receives Ambassadors. For a declara- 
tion of war the consent of the Federal Council is re- 
quired, unless an attack has been made upon German ter- 
ritory. The Emperor is the Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy. He convokes, opens, adjourns and 
closes the Federal Council and the Imperial Parliament; 
the former must, however, be convoked whenever one- 
third of the votes demand. The Emperor promulgates 
the laws and superintends their execution, but, as I men- 
tioned before, he has no veto. The Emperor appoints 
all Imperial officials, including the Chancellor, who is 
the only responsible Minister of the Empire. 

He cannot be dismissed from his post by any parlia- 
mentary vote of want of confidence. He is appointed by 
the Emperor and can only be dismissed by him. Never- 
theless it is obvious, that the Chancellor cannot remain 
at this post for any length of time if he does not com- 
mand a majority in the Imperial Parliament, because 
nearly all bills are prepared by the Chancellor and 
brought in by him after having been adopted by the 
Federal Council. If the Imperial Parliament rejects the 
budget or other important bills the Chancellor can pro- 
pose to the Federal Council and the Emperor to dissolve 
Parliament. If, however, such an appeal to the people 
should fail and the new Parliament again reject the bill 
at issue, a deadlock would ensue, which might stop the 
machinery of the Administration, and which could only 
be overcome by the Emperor appointing another Chan- 
cellor. Such a deadlock has never yet occurred, as par- 
liamentary difficulties were always overcome by a suc- 
cessful appeal to the people, by compromise, or by the 
Chancellor resigning, as in the case of Prince Buelow. 

As the Chancellor is responsible to Parliament for Im- 
perial measures he cannot allege as a defence for an act 
of his the command of the Emperor. If he receives an 
order of which he disapproves he ought to resign. 

Of the judiciary I need say nothing, because the Con- 
si i I u{ ion left this matter to be regulated by Imperial 



733] Count Bernstorff's Address 99 

Legislation and because, with the exception of the Su- 
preme Court of the Empire, all Courts are State Courts. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I will refrain from going into 
the details of our present Constitution as I am afraid 
of encroaching on your patience. I mentioned before that 
it has won the respect of our people, chiefly because it 
has its roots deep in the past. I should now only like to 
say a few more words about the forces at work under the 
present Constitution. Americans are in general inclined 
to think that the Emperor practically wields autocratic 
powers, which, as you, Ladies and Gentlemen, will have 
seen today, is not at all the case. If the authority of 
the Emperor seems to be greater than it really is under 
the Constitution of the Empire, this is partly explained 
by the fact that the Emperor is at the same time the 
Sovereign of Prussia, the most powerful State of the Em- 
pire. Moreover, the House of Hohenzollern has, in the 
course of Germany's eventful history, rendered such dis- 
tinguished services to the country that the Emperor re- 
tains a very great moral influence over the people, and 
last, not least, we are fortunate enough to have a Sov- 
ereign whose striking personality has obtained a hold 
on the imagination not only of our own people but also 
of the whole world. 

The Imperial Parliament has not gained so much polit- 
ical influence as it might have done, because it is split up 
into so many parties that it is very difficult to form a 
compact majority for any length of time. Nevertheless 
the Imperial Parliament has done very good work, espe- 
cially in promoting the unity of the nation. If some of 
the many political parties could make up their mind to 
sink minor differences and to combine in large parties, 
the Imperial Parliament and the democratic forces repre- 
sented in it would quickly gain an increasing political 
influence. 



100 Commencem en t f 73 J 

DEGREES CONFERRED 



Doctor of Philosophy 

David Simon Blondheim, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1906. Subjects: French, Spanish, and Latin. Dis- 
sertation: Contributions to French Lexicography based on Rab- 
binical Sources. Referees on Dissertation: Professor Armstrong 
and Professor Antoine Thomas, of Paris. 

Oscar Ellis Bransky, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, 1907. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, and 
Geology. Dissertation: The Diffusion of Crude Petroleum 
through Fuller's Earth. Referees on Dissertation: President 
Remsen and Dr. Gilpin. 

George Willlam Brown, of Baltimore, A. B., Hiram College, 
1897. Subjects: Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Arabic. Dissertation: 
The Human Body in the Upanisads. Referees on Dissertation: 
Professors Bloomfield and Collitz. 

William Henry Brown, of Richmond, Va., S. B., Richmond 
College, 1906. Subjects: Botany, Zoology, and Physiology. Dis- 
sertation: The Development of the Ascocarp of Lachnea Scutel- 
lata. Referees on Dissertation: Professors Johnson and Living- 
ston. 

William Mansfield Clark, of Salisbury, Conn., A. B., Williams 
College, 1907. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, and 
Physics. Dissertation: A Contribution to the Investigation of 
the Temperature Coefficient of Osmotic Pressure. A Redetermi- 
nation of the Osmotic Pressures of Cane Sugar Solutions at 20°. 
Referees on Dissertation: Professors Morse and H. C. Jones. 

Arthur Howard Estabrook, of Leicester, Mass., A. B., Clark 
University, 1905. Subjects: Zoology, Botany, and Physiology. 
Dissertation: Effect of Chemicals on Growth in Paramecium. 
Referees on Dissertation: Professors Jennings and E. A. 
Andrews. 

Rogers Harrison Galt, Jr., of Norfolk, Va., A. B., Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1907. Subjects: Physics, Applied Electricity, 
and Mathematics. Dissertation: The Cathode-Ray Fluorescence 
of Sodium Vapor. Referees on Dissertation: Professors Ames 
and R. W. Wood. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



735] Degrees Conferred »..„ 4£j» 



PRESIDENTS OI 



Arthur Mathews Gates, of Waterford, Conn., A. B., Wesleyan 
University, 1894. Subjects: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. Disser-- 
tation: The Form and Use of the Proper Name in Latin Litera- 
ture. Referees on Dissertation: Professors Smith and Wilson. 

Benjamin Harrison Grate, of Richmond, Ind., S. B., Earlham 
College, 1903. Subjects: Zoology, Botany and Physiology. Dis- 
sertation: Anatomy and Physiology of Atrina (Pinna) Rigida 
(Dillwyn). Referees on Dissertation: Professors Jennings and 
E. A. Andrews. 

Joseph Ellis Hodgson, of Stephenson, Va., A. B., Washington 
and Lee University, 1898. Subjects: Mathematics, Physics, and 
Philosophy. Dissertation: Orthocentric Properties of the Plane 
Directed N-Line. Referees on Dissertation: Professor Morley 
and Dr. Cohen. 

Henry Royer Kreider, of Baltimore, A. B., Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, 1898. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, 
and Mineralogy. Dissertation: The Dissociation of Electrolytes 
in Non-Aqueous Solvents as determined by the Conductivity and 
Boiling-Point Methods. Referees on Dissertation: Professors 
Morse and H. C. Jones. 

Andrew Hoffman Krug, of Baltimore, A. B., St. John's Col- 
lege, 1901. Subjects: English, French, and Philosophy. Disser- 
tation: Wordsworth's Indebtedness to Akenside, Beattie, and 
Cowper, and a Theory of Energy in "The Prelude." Referees on 
Dissertation: Professors Bright and Browne. 

Thomas Albert Lewis, of Dawn, Mo., A. B., William Jewell 
College, 1905. Subjects: Philosophy, Experimental Psychology, 
and Biology. Dissertation: The Belief Element in Judgment. 
Referees on Dissertation: Professor Buchner and Dr. Furry. 

Homer Payson Little, of Dalton, Mass., A. B., Williams Col- 
lege, 1906. Subjects: Geology, Mineralogy, and Physical Chem- 
istry. Dissertation: The Physical Features of Anne Arundel 
County, Maryland. Referees on Dissertation: Professor Clark 
and Mr. Berry. 

Sylvester Kline Loy, of Virginsville, Pa., A. B., Franklin and 
Marshall College, 1905. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chem- 
istry, and Mineralogy. Dissertation: The Reactions of Sodium 
Ethylate with Alkyl Halides. Referees on Dissertation: Presi- 
dent Remsen and Professor Acree. 

Chester Newton Myers, of Valley Falls, N. Y., A. B., Williams 
College, 1906. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, and 
Physics. Dissertation: Deposition of Copper Ferrocyanide Mem- 



102 Commencement \ 7**0 

brane by the Electrolytic Method. Referees on Dissertation: 
Professors Morse and H. C. Jones. 

Henry Clarence Robertson. Jr., of Spartanburg, S. C, A. B., 
Wofford College, 1905. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chem- 
istry, and Biology. Dissertation: The Reactions of Alkyl 
Halides with Sodium Phenolate. Referees on Dissertation: 
President Remsen and Professor Acree. 

Joseph Eugene Rowe, of Emmitsburg, Md., A. B., Pennsyl- 
vania College, 1904. Subjects: Mathematics, Physics, and 
Astronomy. Dissertation: A Complete System of Invariants for 
the Plane Rational Quartic Curve, and other Facts in regard to 
Rational Curves. Referees on Dissertation: Professors Morley 
and Coble. 

Karl Singewald, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, 1907. Subjects: Political Science, Law, and History. Dis- 
sertation: The Doctrine of Non-Suability of the State in the 
United States. Referees on Dissertation: Professor Willoughby 
and Dr. Dodd. 

Edward Raymond Turner, of Baltimore, A. B., St. John's Col- 
lege, 1904. Subjects: History, Political Economy, and Philoso- 
phy. Dissertation: Slavery, Servitude, and Freedom of the 
Negro in Pennsylvania. Referees on Dissertation: Professors 
C. M. Andrews and Ballagh. 

Anthony Pelzer Wagener, of Charleston, S. C, A. B., College 
of Charleston, 1906. Subjects: Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. Dis- 
sertation: Popular Associations of Right and Left in Roman 
Literature. Referees on Dissertation: Professors Smith and 
Wilson. 

George Frederic White, of Franklin Park, Mass., S. B., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1906. Subjects: Chem- 
istry, Physical Chemistry, and Biology. Dissertation: The Con- 
ductivity and Dissociation of Organic Acids in Aqueous Solution 
at different Temperatures. Referees on Dissertation: Professors 
Morse and H. C. Jones. 

Charles Branch Wilson, of Westfield, Mass., A. B., Colby Col- 
lege, 1881. Subjects: Zoology, Physiology, and Botany. Disser- 
tation: The Development of Achtheres Ambloplitis Kellicott. 
Referees on Dissertation: Professors E. A. Andrews and 
Jennings. 

(23) 






737] Degrees Conferred 103 

Doctor op Medicine 

Mary Dayton Allen, of Holland Patent, N. Y., A. B., Mt. Holy- 
oke College, 1905. 

Edward McPherson Armstrong, of Hagerstown, Md., A. B., 
Princeton University, 1904; B. Sc, University of Oxford, 1908. 

Moses Haven Baker, of Stockwell, Ind., S. B., Purdue Univer- 
sity, 1905. 

Henry Gray Barbour, of Hartford, Conn., A. B., Trinity College 
(Conn.), 1906. 

Emil Boehm, of St. Louis, Mo., S. B., St. Louis University, 1906. 

William Symington Bole, of Bozeman, Mont., S. B., Montana 
Agricultural College, 1906. 

Carl Ferdinand Bookwalter, of Danville, 111., S. B., Purdue 
University, 1900. 

Ethan Flagg Butler, of Washington, D. C, A. B., Princeton 
University, 1906. 

Walter Austin Calihan, of Rochester, N. Y., A. B., University 
of Rochester, 1906. 

Ross Stagg Carter, of San Diego, Cal., A. B., Leland Stanford 
Jr. University, 1905. 

Thomas Rodney Chambers, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1906. 

Joseph Lynn Choate, of Los Angeles, Cal., A. B., Leland Stan- 
ford Jr. University, 1906. 

Claude Carr Cody, Jr., of Georgetown, Texas., A. B., South- 
western University, 1904. 

Henry Theodore Collenberg, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1906. 

Haskett Lynch Conner, of New Albany, Ind., A. B., De Pauw 
University, 1906. 

Henry Nicholas Costello, of Hartford, Conn., A. B., Yale 
University, 1906. 

Walter Edward Dandy, of Sedalia, Mo., A. B., University of 
Missouri, 1907. 

Clinton Demas Deming, of Hartford, Conn., A. B., Yale Univer- 
sity, 1907. 

Bernard Solomon Denzer, of New York City, A. B., Columbia 
University, 1906. 

Thomas Alan Devan, of New Brunswick, N. J., S. B., Rutgers 
College, 1906. 

Baruch Mordecai Edlavitch, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1906. 

Ralph Landis Engle, of Palmyra, Pa., A. B., Lebanon Valley 
College, 1905. 

Horace Burnett Fenton, of Portland, Ore., A. B., University of 
Oregon, 1906. 

Edgar Lorrington Gilcreest, of Gainesville, Tex., A. B., Univer- 
sity of Texas, 1906. 



104 Commencement [738 

Hyman Ginsberg, of De Funiak Springs, Fla., S. B., University 
of Georgia, 1906. 

Lemuel Whittington Goriiam, of Albany, N. Y., A. B., Yale 

University, 1906. 

William Lawrence Grimes, of Lexington, N. C., S. B., Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1906. 

Crowell Clairinton Hall, Jr., of Dover, Me., A. B., Bowdoin 
College, 1906. 

Runkle Fisher Hegeman, of New Germantown, N. J., A. B., 
Princeton University, 1906. 

Henry Gildersleeve Jarvis, of Gildersleeve, Conn., A. B., Yale 
University, 1906. 

Albert Eugene Johann, of Canton, Mo., A. B., Christian Uni- 
versity, 1906. 

Samuel Laban Ledbetter, Jr., of Birmingham, Ala., S. B., Uni- 
versity of Alabama, 1906. 

Ralph Herman Major, of Liberty, Mo., A. B., William Jewell 
College, 1902. 

Albert Francis Mattice, of Sedro, Wash., S. B., South Dakota 
Agricultural College, 1904. 

Sydney Robotham Miller, of Newark, N. J., S. B., New York 
University, 1905. 

Dana Elbra Monroe, of Cameron, Tex., A. B., University of 
Texas, 1906. 

Raymond Bartlett Morris, of Olean, N. Y., A. B., Yale Univer- 
sity, 1907. 

Angus Washburn Morrison, of Minneapolis, Minn., A. B., Yale 
University, 1906. 

Douglass Howell Morse, of San Francisco, Cal., S. B., Univer- 
sity of California, 1907. 

James Craig Neel, of Marietta, O., Ph. B., Marietta College, 
1906. 

William Bradford Newcomb, of Sassafras, Va., A. B., College 
of William and Mary, 1906. 

Firmadge King Nichols, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1906. 

Samuel Timothy Nicholson, Jr., of Bath, N. C, A. B., Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1906. 

Willey Higby Norton, of Athens, O., A. B., Ohio University, 
1906. 

Thomas Grover Orr, of Bosworth, Mo., A. B., University of 
Missouri, 1907. 

Jean Paul Pratt, of Wellington, O., A. B., Ohio State Univer- 
sity, 1906. 

Chesney Macauley Ramage, of Fairmont, W. Va., S. B., West 
Virginia University, 1907. 

Robert Lewis Rhodes, of Louisville, Ga., A. B., Emory College, 
1906. 

Hauky Hungate Robinson, of Walla Walla Wash., A. B., Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1907. 



739] Degrees Conferred 105 

Walter Black Rogers, of Washington, Pa., A. B., Washington 
and Jefferson College, 1906. 

Alice Rohde, of Chicago, 111., S. B., University of Chicago, 1903. 

James Wendel Rosenfeld, of Portland, Ore., A. B., Leland 
Stanford Jr. University, 1906. 

Raymond Sanderson, of Indianola, Fla., S. B., Princeton Uni- 
versity, 1905. 

Raphael Eustace Semmes, Jr., of Memphis, Tenn., A. B., Uni- 
versity of Missouri, 1907. 

Herbert Mtlford Senseny, of Cleveland, O., A. B., Adelbert 
College, 1906. 

John William Sheetz, of New Oxford, Pa., Ph. B., Franklin 
and Marshall College, 1906. 

Henry Augustus Stephenson, of Homeville, Va., A. B., Ran- 
dolph-Macon College, 1906. 

Howard Lester Taylor, of Weeseville, N. Y., A. B., Oberlin 
College, 1906. 

William Lawson Thornton, of Talladega, Ala., S. B., Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, 1903. 

Thomas Palmer Tredway, of Fawn Grove, Pa., A. B., Western 
Maryland College, 1906. 

Arthur de Talma Vale:, of Annapolis, Md., A. B., St. John's 
College, 1906. 

Herbert Francis Vanorden, of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Ph. B., Yale 
University, 1907. 

Clyde Emil Watson, of Kingwood, W. Va., S. B., West Virginia 
University, 1905. 

Helen Watson, of East Braintree, Mass., A. B., Wellesley 
College, 1905. 

Milton Weinberg, of Manning, S. C, A. B., University of South 
Carolina, 1906. 

Theodore Henry Wenning, of Cincinnati, O., A. B., St. Xavier 
College, 1904. 

Miley Barton Wesson, Jr., of El Paso, Tex., S. B., University 
of Texas, 1902. 

James Harvey Whitcraft, of Carrollton, O., S. B., University 
of Wooster, 1905. 

Luke V. Zartman, of Columbus, O., A. B., Ohio State Univer- 
sity, 1906. 

(69) 



106 Commencement [740 

Master of Arts 

Frank Gottlob Breyer, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1908. Subjects: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, and 
Physics. Essay: The Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, particu- 
larly in the Manufacture of Nitric Acids and Nitrates. Referees 
on Essay: Professors H. C. Jones and Renouf. 

William Stuart Gorton, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1908. Subjects: Physics, Applied Electricity, and 
Mathematics. Essay: Properties of Dielectrics at High Voltages. 
Referees on Essay: Professors Ames and Whitehead. 

John B. Lalime, of Montreal, Canada, A. B., Laval Uni- 
versity, 1900. Subjects: Physics, Physical Chemistry, and Ap- 
plied Electricity. Essay: Electric Oscillations. Referees on 
Essay: Professors Ames and Whitehead. 



(3) 



Bachelor of Arts 

Otis Herbert Draper, of Baltimore County, Md. 

Raymond Fon Dersmith Gable, of York, Pa. 

John Mallory Holmes, of Baltimore. 

Carl Henry Levan, of Baltimore. 

Norman Clyde Marvel, of Talbot County, Md. 

Austin Ralph Middleton, of Baltimore. 

Francis Key Murray, of Howard County, Md. 

Aaron Robinson, of Baltimore. 

Gilbert White Rosenthal, of Baltimore. 

George Ross Veazey, of Baltimore. 

August Vogeler, of Baltimore County, Md. 

Benjamin Franklin Wallis, of Baltimore. 

Theodore Sinclair Will, of Baltimore. 

Alan Churchill Woods, of Baltimore. 



(14) 



741] Appointments and Honors 107 



NEW APPOINTMENTS, PROMOTIONS, AND 
HONORS ANNOUNCED 



In the Philosophical Faculty 

Herbert S. Jennings, Ph. D., now Professor of Experimental 
Zoology, to be Henry Walters Professor of Zoology and Di- 
rector of the Biological Laboratory. 

Arthur O. Lovejoy, A. M., Professor of Philosophy. 

Charles K. Swartz, Ph. D., now Associate Professor, to be Col- 
legiate Professor of Geology. 

John B. Whitehead, Ph. D., now Associate Professor, to be Pro- 
fessor of Applied Electricity. 

James E. Shaw, Ph. D., now Associate, to be Associate Professor 
of Italian. 

Louis Adolphe Terracher, Associate Professor of French Litera- 
ture. 

Herbert D. Austin, A. M., Instructor in French. 

Edward W. Berry, now Instructor, to be Associate in Paleo- 
botany. 

Rheinart P. Cowles, Ph. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Biology. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Psychology. 

William W. Holland, Ph. D., now Assistant, to be Associate in 
Chemistry. 

Ralph V. D. Magoffin, Ph. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Greek and Roman History. 

Carroll M. Sparrow, A. B., now Fellow, to be Instructor in 
Physics. 

In the Medical Faculty 

Samuel Amberg, M. D., now Associate, to be Associate Professor 
of Pediatrics. 

William S. Baer, M. D., now Associate, to be Associate Professor 
of Orthopedic Surgery. 

Donald R. Hooker, J£. D., now Associate, to be Associate Profes- 
sor of Physiology. 

Carl Voegtlin, Ph. D., now Associate, to be Associate Professor 
of Pharmacology. 

George H. Whipple, M. D., now Associate, to be Associate Profes- 
sor of Pathology. 

Eliot R. Clark, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in Anat- 
omy. 



108 Commencement [712 

Herbert M. Evans, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in Anat- 
omy. 

John T. Geraghty, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Genito-Urinary Surgery. 

Francis C. Goldsborough, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate 
in Obstetrics. 

John H. King, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in Pathology. 

Arthur H. Koelker, Ph. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Physiological Chemistry. 

William L. Moss, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in Medi- 
cine. 

Leonard G. Rowntree, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Experimental Therapeutics. 

Milton C. Winternitz, M. D., now Instructor, to be Associate in 
Pathology. 

Paul W. Clough, M. D., now Assistant, to be Instructor in Medi- 
cine. 

Ernest K. Cullen, M. D., Instructor in Gynecology. 

Charles R. Essick, M. D., now Assistant, to be Instructor in 
Anatomy. 

Clyde G. Guthrie, M. D., now Assistant, to be Instructor in Medi- 
cine. 

Arthur H. Morse, M. D., to be Instructor in Obstetrics. 

Frank J. Sladen, M. D., now Assistant, to be Instructor in Medi- 
cine. 

Thomas P. Sprunt, M. D., now Assistant, to be Instructor in 
Pathology. 

Howard E. Ashbury, M. D., to be Assistant in Surgery. 

Charles R. Austrian, M. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

Walter A. Baetjer, M. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

George S. Bond, M. D., now Voluntary Assistant, to be Assistant 
in Medicine. 

William E. Burge, Ph. D., to be Assistant in Physiology. 

Trigant Burrow, M. D., Ph. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

Samuel J. Crowe, M. D., to be Assistant in Surgery. 

Walter E. Dandy, M. D., to be Assistant in Surgery. 

Franklin Hazlehurst, Jr., M. D., to be Assistant in Laryngology 
and Rhinology. 

F. McPhedran, M. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

J. T. Sample, M. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

Martin F. Sloan, M. D., to be Assistant in Medicine. 

Hedley V. Tweedie, M. D., to be Assistant in Ophthalmology and 
Otology. 

Ernest I. Werber, Ph. D., to be Assistant in Anatomy. 

Karl M. Wilson, M. D., to be Assistant in Obstetrics. 






743] Appointments and Honors 109 

Johnston Scholarships 

henry e. johnston scholar 

Joseph Theophilus Singewald, Jr., A. B., Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, 1906, Fellow, 1907-08, and Ph. D., 1909. Geology. 

JAMES BUCHANAN JOHNSTON SCHOLAR 

Robert Lee Ramsay, A. B., Fredericksburg College, 1899; Fel- 
low, Johns Hopkins University, 1904-05, Ph. D., 1905, and As- 
sistant, 1905-07; Instructor in English, University of Missouri, 
1907-09. English. 

HENRY E. JOHNSTON JR. SCHOLAR 

Ebenezer Emmet Reid, A. M., Richmond College, 1892; Fellow, 
Johns Hopkins University, 1897-98, and Ph. D., 1898; Professor 
of Chemistry, Baylor University, 1901-08. Chemistry. 



Fellowships 

adam t. bruce fellow 

William Henry Brown, of Richmond, Va., S. B., Richmond 
College, 1906; Fellow, Johns Hopkins University, 1909-10, and 
Ph. D., 1910. Botany. 

UNIVERSITY FELLOWS 

Henry Gray Barbour, of Hartford, Conn., A. B., Trinity College 
(Conn.), 1906; M. D., Johns Hopkins University, 1910. Pathology. 

Samuel Claggett Chew, Jr., of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1909. English. 

William Sherwood Fox, of Brandon, Manitoba, A B., McMaster 
University, 1900. Classical Archaeology. 

William Stuart Gorton, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1908. Physics. 

Clarence Pembroke Gould, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1907. History. 

Gustav Grunbaum, of Bucarest, Roumania, University of 
Bucarest. Romance Languages. 

J. Sam Guy, of Fredericksburg, Va., S. B., Davidson College, 
1905. Chemistry. 

Ernest Leslie Highbarger, of Rockford, 111., A. B., Mt. Morris 
College, 1908. Greek. 

Sarah Fenton Hoyt, of New York, A. B., Barnard College, 
1905; B. D., Union Theological Seminary (N. Y.), 1908. Semitic 
Languages. 



110 Commencement [744 

Nathaniel Edward Loomis, of Randolph, Wis., S. B., Beloit 
College, 1908; M. S., Syracuse University, 1909. Chemistry. 

Frank Abbott Magruder, of Woodstock, Va., A. B., Washington 
and Lee University, 1905. Political Science. 

Joseph Llewellyn McGhee, of Emory, Va., A. B., Hiwassee 
College, 1893, and Emory and Henry College, 1903. Chemistry. 

John Beaver Mertie, Jr., of Raton, N. Mex., A. B., Johns Hop- 
kins University, 1908. Geology. 

Charles Ferdinand Meyer, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1906. Physics. 

Harry Hess Reichard, of Hellertown, Pa., A. B., Lafayette 
College, 1901. German. 

C. F. Curtis Riley, of Mankato, Minn., A. B., Doane College, 
1901, and University of Michigan, 1904. Zoology. 

Thomas DeCoursey Ruth, of Baltimore, A. B., Johns Hopkins 
University, 1906. Latin. 

Joshua Irving Tracey, of Upperco, Md., S. B., Dickinson Col- 
lege, 1906. Mathematics. 

John Linck Ulrich, of Baltimore, S. B., University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1908. Psychology. 

French Eugene Wolfe, of Dryden, Va., A. B., Emory and 
Henry College, 1907. Political Economy. 



Prizes 



THE JOHN MARSHALL PRIZE 

The John Marshall Prize for the year 1910 has been awarded to 
George Ernest Barnett (Ph. D., 1901), in recognition of the 
value of his work entitled "The Printers: A Study in American 
Trade Unionism." This prize consists of a bronze likeness of 
Chief Justice Marshall, and has been awarded annually to a 
graduate of the university who had produced the best work dur- 
ing the preceding year upon some subject in historical or politi- 
cal science. 



THE MALLOCH PRIZE 

The Medical Faculty received during the session 1908-1909 the 
sum of one hundred and fifty dollars from Dr. A. E. Malloch, of 
Hamilton, Ontario, with the request that it be awarded as a 
prize to the student presenting in competition the best essay 
upon "The Life and Work of Lister." The gift was accepted by 
the Faculty and the announcement was made that the prize 
would be awarded in February, 1910. The nine essays received 
were examined by a Committee appointed by the Faculty, who, 
by unanimous vote, awarded the prize to Mr. Charles Chauncey 
Wi.nsor Judd. The successful essay will be published in the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. 



745] Appointments and Honors 111 



THE JOSEPH KERNOCHAN GARR SCHOLARSHIP 

Through the liberality of Mrs. Henry Lee Smith, of Baltimore, 
the Medical Faculty is authorized to provide a scholarship 
amounting to one hundred dollars a year to aid a deserving 
student. The scholarship is to be known as the Joseph Kerno- 
chan Garr Scholarship, and it has been awarded this year to 
Mr. Norman Harris Williams. 



THE SEVERN TEACKLE WALLIS MEMORIAL PRIZE 



This prize was established in 1905 by the Wallis Memorial 
Association, of Baltimore. It consists of fifty dollars in money, 
and is offered to an undergraduate or a graduate student of 
the university for an essay on some subject connected with 
Spanish Literature or History, or for some original work done 
in either of said subjects. The award this year is made to 
Elmer Lewis Greensfelder, of the third-year class of under- 
graduates, for his essay entitled "Lazarillo de Tormes." 



Honors of the Medical Students 



The following list includes the first twenty-five members of the 
graduating class in Medicine, arranged in order of merit. Prom 
this list appointments as Resident House Officers in the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital will be made by the Trustees of the Hospital. 



L. W. Gorham. T. H. Wenning. 

H. B. Fenton. R. E. Semmes, Jr. 

S. R. Miller. D. H. Morse. 

Miss M. D. Allen. W. E. Dandy. 

Miss H. Watson. J. W. Sheetz. 

R. H. Major. R. L. Engle. 

R. F. Hegeman. J. C. Neel. 

A. W. Morrison. M. H. Baker. 

T. A. Devan. H. A. Stephenson. 

J. P. Pratt. W. B. Newcomb. 

E. McP. Armstrong. M. B. Wesson, Jr. 

J. W. ROSENFELD. A. E. JOHANN. 

A. deT. Valk. 



112 Commencement [746 

Hopkins Scholarships 

These scholarships, in accordance with the wishes of the 
founder, are awarded to candidates from Maryland, Virginia, and 
North Carolina who are considered to be the "most deserving of 
choice because of their character and intellectual promise." 

TO GRADUATE STUDENTS FROM NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA 

F. Allison, of Virginia (A. B., Emory and Henry, 1904). 

T. B. Ashcraft, of North Carolina (A. B., Wake Forest, 1906). 

R. Binford, of North Carolina (S. B., Earlham, 1901). 

J. R. Booth, of Virginia (A. B., Randolph-Macon, 1907). 

N. M. Canter, of Virginia (A. B., Randolph-Macon, 1909). 

A. Coleman, of Virginia (A. B., Univ. of Virginia, 1901). 

C. W. Cooke, of Virginia (A. B., Johns Hopkins, 1908). 

P. B. Davis, of Virginia (A. B., Roanoke, 1908). 

T. W. Dickson, of North Carolina (A. B., Univ. of North Caro- 
lina, 1907). 

P. S. Flippin, of Virginia (A. B., Richmond College, 1906). 

O. C. Foote, of North Carolina (A. B., Wake Forest, 1906). 

W. L. Gills, of Virginia (A. B., Randolph-Macon, 1905). 

Julia P. Harrison, of Virginia (A. B., Richmond, 1906). 

O. B. Hopkins, of Virginia (A. B., Johns Hopkins, 1909). 

O. Kinsey, Jr., of North Carolina (A. B., Univ. of Virginia, 
1907). 

G. A. L. Kolmer, of Virginia (A. B., Roanoke, 1907). 

C. O. Meredith, of North Carolina (A. B., Guilford, 1900). 
E. L. Morgan, of North Carolina (S. B., Wake Forest, 1907). 
G. W. Morris, of Virginia (A. B., Washington and Lee). 
H. H. Newman, of Virginia (A. B., Randolph-Macon, 1909). 
J. W. Nowell, of North Carolina (A. B., Wake Forest, 1903). 
L. W. Parker, of North Carolina (A. B., Univ. of North Caro- 
lina, 1907). 

G. G. Peery, of Virginia (A. B., Roanoke, 1905). 

W. A. Price, of Virginia (A. B., Davidson, 1909). 

O. P. Rhyne, of North Carolina (A. M., Univ. of North Caro- 
lina, 1909). 

J. H. Russell, of Virginia (A. B., Emory and Henry, 1907). 

E. F. Shewmake, of Virginia (A. B., William and Mary, 1908). 

W. E. Speas, of North Carolina (A. B., Wake Forest, 1907). 

T. Stearns, of North Carolina (A. B., Davidson, 1906). 

E. P. Wightman, of Virginia (A. B., Richmond College, 1908). 

S. J. Williams, of Virginia (A. B., William and Mary, 1908). 

Lula G. Winston, of Virginia (S. B., Richmond College, 1899). 



747] Appointments and Honors 113 

to undergraduates from maryland 
third year 

Edward Henry Sehrt. Edward Olson Hulburt. 

Joseph Noble Stockett, Jr. Lingurn Burkhead Bobbitt. 

second year 

Ellis Miller. Howard Huntley Lloyd. 

Edwin Charles White. Bertram Benedict. 

first year 

Julian Ducker Sears. Edward Novak. 

John Sharpe Dickinson. John Curlett Martin. 

Honors of the Undergraduates 
The following students are entitled to honorable mention: 

in the graduating class 
Gilbert White Rosenthal. 

in the third-year class 

Edward Henry Sehrt. Lingurn Burkhead Bobbitt. 

Joseph Noble Stockett, Jr. Calvin Hooker Goddard. 
Edward Olson Hulburt. Harold Brooks Hering. 

in the second-year class 

i Ellis Miller. Leo Wolman. 

I Edwin Charles White. Arthur Feddeman Gorton. 

Howard Huntley Lloyd. Thomas Brooke Price. 

Bertram Benedict. Harry Milton Wagner, Jr. 

, Ferdinand Christian Kuehn. Adolph Louis Taylor Starck. 
( William Oswald Weyforth, Jr. Max George Paulus. 

in the first- year class 

Julian Ducker Sears. John Curlett Martin. 

John Sharpe Dickinson. Abel Wolman. 

Edward Novak. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES 



Philological Association: 

March 18, 1910.— Two hundred and sixty-first regular meeting. 
Professor Gildersleeve in the chair. Attendance, 35. 
Micah's Capucinade. P. Haupt. 

Changes in Verse Technique in Sixteenth Century English 
Drama. R. L. Ramsay. 
April 15, 1910. — Two hundred and sixty-second regular meeting. 
Professor Gildersleeve in the chair. Attendance, 29. 
Decipherment of the Johns Hopkins Curse-Tablets. W. S. 
Fox. 
May 20, 1910. — Two hundred and sixty-third regular meeting. 
Professor Gildersleeve in the chair. Attendance, 21. 
Repeated Verses in the Rig-Veda. M. Bloomfield. 

Historical and Political Science Association: 

March 18, 1910. — The Work of the National Monetary Commis- 
sion. Hon. A. P. Andrew, Director of the U. S. Mint and 
Special Assistant to the Monetary Commission. 

Brady's The South African Union. G. M. Griffith. 

Slater's English Peasantry and the Enclosure of Common 
Fields. C. P. Gould. 

St. Ledger's Australian Socialism. F. E. Wolfe. 
April 15, 1910. — Liberia. Roland P. Falkner, Esq., U. S. Com- 
missioner to Liberia. 

Chadwick's The Relations of the United States with Spain: 
Diplomacy. W. B. Hunting. 

Putnam's Abraham Lincoln. F. G. Holmes. 
May 13, 1910.— Manuscripts. Mr. Gaillard Hunt, of the 
Library of Congress. 

Trevelyan's Garibaldi and the Thousand. W. V. Johnson. 

Maitland's Equity. J. P. Wright. 

Scientific Association: 

February 24, 1910.— Methods of Examining Fungi for Poisons. 
W. W. Ford. 
Recent Work on the Absorption Spectra of Solutions. W. W. 

Strong. 
Two Methods of copying Rowland's Gratings. J. A. Ander- 
son. 
March 9, 1910.— Halley's Comet. J. S. Ames. 
April 7, 1910.— Surgery of the Blood Vessels, particularly the 
Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta. W. S. Halsted. 
Methods of Performing Operations on the Brain. H. W. 

Cushing. 
Correction of Rowland's Standard Wave-lengths of Light. 
A. H. Pfund. 
April 13, 1910. — Movements of the Ground at the San Francisco 
Earthquake. H. F. Reid. 
The New Edison Storage Battery. J. B. Whitehead. 



The experimental psychologists of the eastern portion of the 
United States held their annual informal meeting in the psycho- 
logical laboratory of this university April 19, 20, 21, 1910. The 
meeting was attended by about twenty psychologists. 



114 



JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR, No. 227 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Calendar, 2 

General Statements as to the Courses of Instruction, . 3 

Faculties of Philosophy and Medicine, 1910-11, . . 5 
Programmes for 1910-11 : 

Mathematics, ......... 10 

Physics and Astronomy, 13 

Chemistry, 17 

Geology, 21 

Zoology and Botany, 25 

Physiology, 30 

Greek, 31 

Latin, 33 

Classical Archaeology and Art, 35 

Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, .... 38 

Modern Russian, 41 

Oriental Seminary, 42 

English, 45 

German, 48 

Romance Languages, ....... 52 

History, 56 

Political Economy, 60 

Political Science, 63 

Philosophy, Psychology, and Education, .... 65 

Lectures on Illuminating Engineering, .... 68 

College Courses for Teachers, 72 

Commencement, 1910: 84 

Address by the German Ambassador, .... 87 

Degrees Conferred, . 100 

Appointments and Honors, 107 

Proceedings of Societies, 114 



115 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS OF BALTIMORE f 

»/t *u *ir« Frank Morlby, Editor. Quarterly. 

^iS^V^^l^^^ ?5 PeF V ° 1Ume * (F ° reign P ° 8tage ' 
fifty cents.) . Remsen, Editor. Monthly. 8vo. 

American Chemical J ^ r u /" aL $5 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Volume LXIII in progres . *5 per y L ea ^ EBSLEEVE> Edit or. Quarterly. 

^™£™V^»™™ * 3 Per V ° 1Ume - (F ° reign P ° StaSe ' 
fifty cents.) j*i> A il*lr.l Science. Under the direction of the 

Studies in HittoTwl***™*™*? Economy, and Political Science. 
SS^?m Vol^&vniinprogreBB. $3 per volume. (Foreign 

postage, fifty cents.) including the President's Report, 

Jn-W^^^SS" 1 ^^* Catalogue. Mont,., 8vo. 

progress. * 2 Pf .f^Reoorts °vo Volume XV in progress. $5 per 
Johns Hopkins Hospital K e P°" s - t ^ 

volume (Foreign postage, fifty eents.) iDpTM(1 

Contributions to Assyriology and Semitic Ph 'ology.^^ 

Fbiedkich Deutzsch, Editors vera T0 lumes have appeared. 

Memoirs from the Biological Laboratory. * w Brlght ^ 

Modern Language Notes. A. M. E^ott, *• ^_ ^ yolume ^ 

Collitz, Associate Editors. '"S 1 " uSralm o ostage, tweBty-five cents.) 
in progress. $1.50 Per volume. foreign post^, ^^ m 

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Reprfnrof Ecr^TaceT^U^a, Editor. Third seric 

in progress. $2.00. 
Report of the Maryland Geological Survey. 

ROWLAND'S PHOTOGRAPH 0, THE ^^^^^^J^^^ 

Photographic Reproduction of the Kashmirian athabva vj^a 



field, Editor. 3 vols. Folio. $50. 



8vo. 



PoemTdeXnIn LnT^ Edited hy C. Carroll Harden. 284 PP. 
The'tI^of Rauf Collyear. Edited by William Hand Browne, 164 p, 

A NEW-CRmC^EDlTION OF THE HEBREW TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

Paul Haupt, Editor. Prospectus on application. 
Studies in Honor of Professor Ghdersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. **■ 
The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. 8vo. *f.s>u- 
The Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. 225 pp. 8vo. $1. 50 p> 

Ecclesiastes: A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 

8vo. 50 cents. ^ ^ „ -p Q „i Haupt 

The Book of Nahum: A New Metrical Translation. By Paul nauy 

63 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 
Ancient Sinope. By David M. Robinson. 112 pp. 8vo. *l. 
Notes on Stahl's Syntax of the Greek Verb. By Basil L. Gildersieei 

TheHague ^^Conferences of 1899 and 1907. By James Brown Scott 
Vol. I, The Conferences, 887 pp.; Vol. II, Documents, 548 pp. »vu. 

Communications should be addressed to 
The Johns Hopkins Press. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

PRESIDENTS OFFTC* 



j/l 1911 No. 6 

THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



PROGRAMMES OF COURSES 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



Baltimore, Maryland 

Published by the University 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

June, 1911 



[New Series, 1911, No. 6] 
[Whole Number, 236] 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



PROGRAMMES OF COURSES 
1911-12 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 
1911-12 




BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1911 



CALENDAR, 1911-1912 



1911 

Wednesday, July 5-Wednesday, August 16 — Summer Session. 

Tuesday-Friday, September 26-29 — Entrance Examinations of 
Undergraduates. 

Tuesday, October 3 — Instruction begins. 

Tuesday, October 10 — College Courses for Teachers begin. 

Thursday, November 30 — Thanksgiving Day. All classes sus- 
pended. 

Saturday, December 16 — Last day for application for the Univer- 
sity Scholarships. 

Tuesday-Friday, December 19-22 — Undergraduate Examinations. 

Saturday, December 23 — The Christmas Recess begins. 

Monday, December 25 — Christmas Day. 



1912 

Tuesday, January 2 — Instruction resumed. 

Thursday, February 22 — Commemoration Day. All classes sus- 
pended. Public exercises at 11 o'clock. 

Monday, April 1 — Last day for application for the Johnston Schol- 
arships and the Bruce Fellowship. 

Friday, March 30-Wednesday, April 3 — Undergraduate Examina- 
tions. 

Thursday, April 4 — The Easter Recess begins. 

Thursday, April 11 — Instruction resumed. 

Wednesday, May 1 — Last day for application for the University 
Fellowships. 

Wednesday, May 1 — Last day for application for the Hopkins 
Scholarships offered to graduate students from North Caro- 
lina and Virginia. 

Friday, May 30-Thursday, June 6 — Final Undergraduate Exami- 
nations. 

Saturday, June 1 — College Courses for Teachers close. 

Monday-Thursday, June 3-6 — Oral Examinations for the Degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Tuesday-Friday, June 4-7 — Entrance Examinations of Under- 
graduates. 

Tuesday, June 11 — Commencement Day. Public exercises at 4 
o'clock. 

Tuesday-Friday, September 24-27— Entrance Examinations of 
Undergraduates. 

Tuesday, October 1 — Instruction begins. 

Thursday, November 28— Thanksgiving Day. All classes sus- 
pended. 

Saturday, December 14 — Last day for application for the Univer- 
sity Scholarships. 

Tuesday, December 24 — The Christmas Recess begins. 

Wednesday, December 25 — Christmas Day. 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 

New Series, 1911, Wo. 6 JUNE, 1911 Whole Number, 23 

GENERAL STATEMENTS AS TO THE 
COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



The Johns Hopkins University will begin its thirty- 
sixth year of instruction in October, 1911. The work will 
be carried on in these divisions : 

The Graduate department, in which arrangements are 
made for the instruction of advanced students (men and 
women) in the higher branches of literature and science. 
The degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts 
are offered. 

The Medical department, in which students (men and 
women), who have already received a liberal education, 
are received as candidates for the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine, and in which Doctors of Medicine may attend 
special courses. 

The Undergraduate or Collegiate department, in which 
young men receive a liberal education leading to the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

Courses are also offered to (1) teachers in public and 
private schools wishing to pursue courses similar in 
character to the corresponding courses given in the col- 
iCLiiate department of this University; under a plan of 
co-operation with Goucher College, of Baltimore, women 
are admitted to these courses; (2) persons seeking op- 
portunities for instruction during the summer session, 
with or without reference to an academic degree; men 
and women are admitted to such courses as they are 
found qualified to pursue with advantage. 

3 



4 General sic' en;' nts 

An academic building, called McCoy Hall, in com- 
memoration of its donor, contains the library and the 
class-rooms in languages, the historical and economic 
sciences, and philosophy. Laboratories are provided for 
Chemistry, Physics, Geology and Mineralogy, Zoology, 
Botany, Experimental Psychology, Anatomy, Physiology, 
and Pathology. Seminaries are organized in the Greek, 
Latin, Romance, German, English, Sanskrit, and Semitic 
languages, in Classical Archaeology and Art, in Mathe- 
matics and Physics, and in History. Political Economy, 
Political Science, and Philosophy. There are various 
scientific associations and journal clubs which hold 
regular meetings. 

The University Library contains one hundred and fifty- 
five thousand volumes, part of which are kept in the cen- 
tral reading-room, while the remainder of the books are 
distributed according to their subjects in the different 
laboratories and seminaries. The Library of the Peabody 
Institute contains one hundred and eighty-one thousand 
volumes. These books are selected with reference to the 
wants of scholars, and are accessible daily from nine in 
the morning until half -past ten in the evening. The 
proximity of Baltimore to Washington enables the 
students to visit the libraries, museums, and scientific 
foundations of the Capital. 

The academic year extends from the first Tuesday in 
October to the middle of June. Instruction will begin 
October 3, 1911. 

The charge for tuition is one hundred and fifty dollars 
per annum in the graduate and undergraduate depart- 
ments, and two hundred dollars in the medical depart- 
ment. 

The Register, containing statements as to the regula- 
tions and work of the University in general, and separate 
announcements of the Medical and Collegiate Courses, 
the College Courses for Teachers, and the Summer Ses- 
sion, will be sent on application. 



599] 



Faculties 



FACULTIES OF PHILOSOPHY AND MEDICINE 
1911-12 



IRA REMSEN, Ph. D., 
President and B. N. Baker Professor of Chemistry. 



Basil L. Gildersleeve, Ph. D., 

Francis White Professor of 

Greek. 

Paul Haupt, Ph. D., 

W. W. Spence Professor of 

Semitic Languages. . 

William H. Welch, M. D., 

Baxley Professor of Pathology. 

Edward H. Griffin, D. D., 
Professor of History of Philoso- 
phy, Dean of the College 
Faculty. 
William Osler, M. D., 
Honorary Professor of Medicine. 
Hexry M. Hurd, M. D., 
Emeritus Professor of 
Psychiatry. 
Howard A. Kelly, M. D., 
Professor of Gynecology. 
Maurice Bloomfield, Ph. D., 
Professor of Sanskrit and Com- 
parative Philology. 
William S. Halsted, M. D. 

Professor of Surgery. 
Harmon N. Morse, Ph. D., 
Professor of Inorganic and Ana- 
lytical Chemistry. 
Hexry Wood, Ph. D., 
Professor of German. 
Johx J. Abel, M. D., 
Professor of Pharmacology. 
William H. Howell, Ph.D., M.D., 
Professor of Physiology. 
Franklin P. Mall, M. D., 

Professor of Anatomy. 

James W. Bright. Ph. D., 

Caroline Donovan Professor of 

English Literature. 

William Hand Browne. M. D., 

Emeritus Professor of English 

Literature. 

Herbert E. Greene, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of English. 

William B. Clark, Ph. D., 

Professor of Geology. 



LORRAIN S. HULBURT, PH. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 
Joseph S. Ames, Ph. D.. 
Professor of Physics. 
J. Whitridge Williams, M. D., 

Professor of Obstetrics and 

Dean of the Medical Faculty. 

Frank Morley, M. A., Sc. D., 

Professor of Mathematics. 

William J. A. Bliss, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Physics. 

Harry F. Reid, Ph. D., 

Professor of Dynamic Geology 

and Geography. 

Robert W. Wood, A. B., 

Professor of Experimental 

Physics. 

Kirby F. Smith, Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin. 

Jacob H. Hollander, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Economy. 

Edward B. Mathews, Ph. D., 

Professor of Mineralogy and 

Petrography. 

Harry C. Jones, Ph. D.. 

Professor of Physical Chemistry. 

Lewellys F. Barker, M. D., 

Professor of Medicine. 

William S. Thayer, M. D., 

Professor of Clinical Medicine. 

John M. Vincent, Ph. D., 

Professor of European History. 

C. Carroll Marden, Ph. D., 

Professor of Spanish. 

Westel W. Willoughby, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Science. 

I Duncan S. Johnson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany. 

Harry L. Wilson, Ph. D., 

Professor of Roman Archaeology 

and Epigraphy. 

Hermann Collitz, Ph. D., 

Professor of Germanic Philology. 



Faculties 



[(JOO 



Herbert S. Jennings, Ph. D., 
Henry Walters Professor of 

Zoology. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., 

Professor of Education and 

Philosophy. 

John B. Watson, Ph. D.. 

Professor of Experimental and 

Comparative Psychology. 

Ethan A. Andrews, Ph. D., 

Professor of Zoology. 

Christopher Johnston, Ph. D., 

Professor of Oriental History 

and Archaeology. 

Walter Jones, Ph. D., 

Professor of Physiological 

Chemistry. 

Adolf Meyer, M. D., 

Professor of Psychiatry. 

Edward C. Armstrong, Ph. D., 

Professor of the French 

Language. 

Burton E. Livingston, Ph. D., 

Professor of Plant Physiology. 

M. Llewellyn Raney, Ph. D., 

Librarian of the University. 

Arthur O. Love joy, A. M., 

Professor of Philosophy. 

John B. Whitehead, Ph. D., 

Professor of Applied Electricity. 

Charles K. Swartz, Ph. D., 
Collegiate Professor of Geology. 

James C. Ballagh, Ph. D., 

Professor of American History. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D., 

Professor of Statistics. 
William D. Booker, M. D., 
Clinical Professor Emeritus of 
Pediatrics. 
John N. Mackenzie, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Laryn- 
gology. 
Samuel Theobald, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Ophthal- 
mology and Otology. 
Henry M. Thomas, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Neurology. 
J. Williams Lord, M. D., 
Clinical Professor of Derma- 
tology. 
Thomas C. Gilchrist, M. R. C. S„ 
Clinical Professor of Derma- 
tology. 



Henry J. Berkley, M. D. 



Clinical Professor of Psychiatry. 

Edward H. Spieker, Pii. D., 

, Associate Professor of Greek 

and Latin. 

John M. T. Finney, M. D., 

Associate Professor of Surgery. 

C. W. Emil Miller, Ph. D., 
j Associate Professor of Greek. 
William W. Russell, M. D., 
Associate Professor of 
Gynecology. 
Thomas S. Cullen, M. B., 
Associate Professor of 
Gynecology. 
Robert L. Randolph, M. D., 
i Associate Professor of Ophthal- 
mology and Otology. 
Thomas B. Futciier, M. B„ 
Associate Professor of Medicine. 

Joseph C. Bloodgood, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Surgery. 

Harvey Cushinc, M. D., 
I Associate Professor of Surgery. 

Hugh H. Young, M. D., 
| Associate Professor of Genito- 
urinary Surgery. 
Warren H. Lewis, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Anatomy. 

Florence R. Sabin. M. D., 
! Associate Professor of Anatomy. 

Thomas McCrae, M. D., 

| Associate Professor of Medicine 

and Clinical Therapeutics. 

Caswell Grave, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Zoology. 

William W. Ford, M. D., 

j Associate Professor of Hygiene 

and Bacteriology. 

Max Broedel, 

Associate Professor of Art as 

Applied to Medicine. 

I Solomon Farley Acree, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of 

Chemistry. 

Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of French. 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Classical 
Archaeology. 
J. Morris Slemons, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Obstet- 
rics. 
Arthur B. Coble, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 



(101] 



Faculties 



Louis Adolphe Terrachee, 
Associate Professor of French 
Literature. 
Samuel Amberg, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Pediatrics. 
James Eustace Shaw, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Italian. 
William S. Baer, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Orthope- 
dic Surgery. 
George H. Whipple, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Pathology. 

Donald R. Hooker. M. D., 
Associate Professor of Phys- 
iology. 
Carl Voegtlin, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Pharma- 
cology. 
Samuel O. Mast, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Zoology. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Chem- 
istry. 
Thomas R. Boggs, M. D., 
Associate Professor of Medicine. 
William Kurrelmeyer, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of German. 

John A. Anderson, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Astron- 
omy. 
Charles D. Snyder, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology. 
August H. Pfund, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Physics. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., 
Associate Professor of Psychol- 
ogy. 
B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. D.. 
Associate Professor of Chem- 
istry. 
Arno Poebel, Ph. D., 
Lecturer in Oriental History 
and Archaeology. 
Philip R. Uhler, LL. D., 
Associate in Natural History. 
Abraham Cohen, Ph. D., 
Associate in Mathematics. 
George C. Keidel, Ph. D., 
Associate in Romance Lan- 
guages. 
Frank R. Smith, M. D., 
Associate in Medicine. 
Guy L. Hunter, M. D., 
Associate in Gynecology. 



William Rosenau, Ph. D., 

Associate in Post-Biblical 

Hebrew. 

Henry O. Reik, M. D., 

Associate in Ophthalmology and 

Otology. 

Louis P. Hamburger, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Thomas R. Brown, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

George Walker, M. D., 

Associate in Surgery. 

Richard H. Follis, M. D., 

Associate in Surgery. 

Frederick H. Baetjer, M. D., 

Associate in Surgery, in charge 

of Actinography. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D., 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

Elizabeth Hurdon, M. D., 

Associate in Gynecology. 

Louis V. Hamman, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Clarence B. Farrar, M. D., 

Associate in Psychiatry. 

Arthur D. Hirschfelder, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Curtis F. Burnam, M. D., 

Associate in Gynecology. 

J. H. Mason Knox, Ph. D., M. D., 

Associate in Pediatrics. 

John C. French, Ph. D., 

Associate in English. 

Aaron Ember, Ph. D., 

Associate in Semitic Languages. 

Rheinart P. Cowles, Ph. D., 

Associate in Biology. 

Edward W. Berry, 

Associate in Paleobotany. 

John T. Geraghty, M. D., 

Associate in Genito-Urinary 

Surgery. 

John H. King, M. D., 

Associate in Pathology. 

Eliot R. Clark, M. D., 

Associate in Anatomy. 

Leonard G. Rowntree, M. D., 

Associate in Experimental 

Therapeutics. 

Herbert M. Evans, M. D., 

Associate in Anatomy. 

Ralph V. D. Magoffin, Ph. D., 

Associate in Greek and Roman 

History. 

William W. Holland, Ph. D., 

Associate in Chemistry. 



Faculties 



[002 



Milton C. Winternitz, M. D., 

Associate in Pathology. 

William L. Moss, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D., 

Associate in German. 

Frank J. Sladen, M. D., 

Associate in Medicine. 

S. Edwin Whiteman, 

Instructor in Drawing. 

Nathan E. B. Iglehart, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Mactier Warfield, M. D., 

Instructor in Laryngology and 

Rhinology. 

Alfred R. L. Dohme, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Pharmacy. 

J. Hall Pleasants, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Richard A. Urquhart, M. D., 

Instructor in Pediatrics. 

Julius Hofmann, 

Assistant in German. 

Edgar R. Strobel, M. D., 

Instructor in Dermatology. 

W. Rush Dunton, Jr., M. D., 

Instructor in Psychiatry. 

James J. Mills, M. D., 

Instructor in Ophthalmology 

and Otology. 

Edward M. Singewald, M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

Ronald T. Abercrombie, M. D., 

Director of the Gymnasium. 

Joseph A. Chatard, M. D., 

Instructor In Medicine. 

John A. Luetscher, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

G. Lane Taneyhill, Jr., M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

John McP. Bergland, M. D., 

Assistant in Obstetrics. 

Charles W. Larned, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Henry Lee Smith, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Samuel Wolman, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Charles A. Rouiller, Ph. D., 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

Harry S. Greenbaum, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Alexius M. Forster, M.D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 



Pail W. Clough, M. D., 

Instructor in Medicine. 

Rhoades ITayebweathsb, M. D„ 

Assistant in Orthopedic Surgery. 

Clyde G. Gitiikii:, M. D., 

Instrutcor in Medicine. 

Bertram M. Berxheim, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Charles M. Byrnes, M. D., 

Instructor in Neurology. 

J. Staige Davis, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Charles R. Essick, M. D., 

Instructor in Anatomy. 
William A. Fisher, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Willis D. Gatch, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Eugene J. Leopold, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

David I. Macht, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Charles A. Myers, Ph. D., 

Instructor in English. 

Omar B. Pancoast, M. D., 

Instructor in Surgery. 

Edward H. Richardson, M. D., 

Instructor in Gynecology. 

Thomas R. Sprunt, M. D., 

Instructor in Pathology. 

George S. Bond, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Alexius McGlannan, M. D., 

Voluntary Assistant in Surgery. 

Howard E. Ashbury, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Charles R. Austrian, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Walter A. Baetjer, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

William E. Burge, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Physiology. 

Trigant Burrow, M. D., Ph. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Samuel J. Crowe, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Walter E. Dandy, M. D., 

Assistant in Surgery. 

Franklin Hazlehurst, M. D., 

Assistant in Laryngology and 

Rhinology. 

Flora Pollack, M. D., 

Assistant in Gynecology. 



603] 



Faculties 



J. T. Sample, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 
Martin F. Sloan, M. D., 
Assistant in Medicine. 
Hedley V. Tweedie, M. D., 
Assistant in Ophthalmology and 
Otology. 
Ernest I. Werber, Ph. D., 
Assistant in Anatomy. 
Karl M. Wilson, M. D., 
Instructor in Obstetrics. 
Clinton D. Deming, M. D., 
Assistant in Pathology. 
Lloyd P. Shippen, M. D., 
Assistant in Hygiene and Bac- 
teriology. 
Frederick A. Blossom, A. B., 
Instructor in Romance Lan- 
guages. 
Solon A. Dodds, M. D., 
Assistant in Obstetrics. 



Julia A. Gardner, Ph. D., 
Assistant in Paleontology. 
Gustav Grunbaum, 
Instructor in Romance Lan- 
guages. 
Eli K. Marshall, Jr., Ph. D., 
Assistant in Physiological 

Chemistry. 

Charles F. Meyer, A. B., 

Assistant in Applied Electricity. 

Chester N. Myers, Ph. D., 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

Isaac R. Pels, M. D., 

Assistant in Dermatology. 

Maxwell Ross, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Ralph H. Major, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Sidney R. Miller, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 

Helen Watson, M. D., 

Assistant in Medicine. 



PROGRAMMES FOR 1911-12 



The following courses in literature and science are 
offered for the academic year which begins October 3, 
1911. They are open to properly qualified students ac- 
cording to conditions varying in each department. 

Mathematics 

The advanced courses are so arranged that a qualified 
student gets in three years the more important points of 
view of the whole subject. The courses are elastic in 
character, subjects being introduced as they are needed. 
In general, the plan pursued is to foster independent 
inquiry on the part of the student. Once embarked on 
investigation, he uses all the apparatus of lectures and 
library with intelligent purpose. The seminary, which 
meets weekly, is primarily intended for the presentation 
of the results of the student's own thinking. Literature 
either intrinsically important or opportune is presented 
and discussed in the reading class, which also meets 
weekly. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

1. Mathematical Seminary. 

One hour weekly. Professor Morley. 

2. Reading Class. 

One hour weekly. Professor Morley. 

3. Higher Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Morley. 

This is a general course in Geometry, covering in three 
years such matters as Projective Geometry, the Invari- 
ants of algebraic forms, Line Geometry, Conformal Geom- 
etry, Geometry on an algebraic curve or surface. 

10 



005] Mathematics 11 

4. Theory of Functions. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Morley. 

Algebraic Functions and their integrals ; Elliptic, ellip- 
tic modular, and general automorphic functions; Theory 
of the potential. 

5*. Dynamics. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year (every other year). Pro- 
fessor Morley. 
Special stress is laid on Rigid Dynamics. 

6. Vector Analysis. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year (every other year). Pro- 
fessor Morley. 

7. Elementary Theory of Functions. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 
An introduction to the theories of functions of a real 
and a complex variable. 

8. Differential Equations. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 

Including, in three years, Ordinary Differential Equa- 
tions, their integral curves and singular points; Partial 
Differential Equations; Lie's theory. 

9. Differential Geometry. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 

Including a study of Curves in space; Surfaces and 
lines upon them; Spherical representation; Applicability 
of surfaces. 

10*. Calculus of Variations. 
Two hours weekly, one half-year. Dr. Cohen. 

11*. Theory of Numbers. 

Two hours weekly, one half-year. Dr. Cohen. 

12. Theory of Groups. 

Two hours weekly. Associate Professor Coble. 

Including Theory of Equations, Finite Geometries, 
Theory of algebraic forms. 



♦Courses thus marked will not be given in 1911-12. 



12 Programmes [000 

13. Theory of Correspondence. 

Two hours weekly. Associate Professor Coble. 

Including such matters as Cremona Transformations, 
general birational transformations. 

14*. Theory of Probability. 

Two hours weekly, one half-year. Associate Professor Coble. 

Including the applications to statistics and the Theory 
of Errors. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Solid Geometry; Algebra (special topics). 
Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Hulburt. 

Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Hulburt. 
Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

2. Differential and Integral Calculus. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hulburt. 
Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

3. Differential Equations; Calculus (special topics). 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Cohen. 

Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Projective Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Associate Professor 
Coble. 
Descriptive Geometry. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Associate Professor 
Coble. 

Conference. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 

In connection with the three hours' class-room instruction, the 
instructor in each course meets his students weekly in a two-hour 
session, for the purpose of supplementary explanation and appli- 
cation of the principles taught in the class-room. This is the 
part of each course designated as "Conference." It is not in- 
tended thus to increase the amount of work required of the 
student, but rather to aid him in the understanding and prep- 
aration of the work of the class. 



♦Courses thus marked will not be given in 1911-12. 



GOT] Physics and Astronomy 13 



Physics and Astronomy 

The Physical Laboratory offers facilities in the form of 
apparatus, libraries, and machine shops to students who 
wish to pursue experimental investigations in any field of 
Physics. If the results of these are to be offered as a dis- 
sertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the 
work must be done under the general direction of the 
Director of the Laboratory, or of one of the other profes- 
sors. For students carrying on experimental researches 
the laboratory is open daily, except Saturdays, from 9 
a. m. until 5 p. m., and on Saturdays from 9 a. m. until 
1 p. m. 

Regular courses of instruction in both Physics and 
Astronomy are given in the form of lectures and labora- 
tory exercises. They may be classified as Advanced and 
Elementary. The former are designed primarily for 
graduate students; the latter, for undergraduates. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

Seminary and Journal Meetings 

All advanced students meet with the instructors twice 
each week, — once in the Physical Seminary, and once for 
the discussion of the current Physical Journals. 

During the year 1911-12 the questions to be considered 
in the Seminary will refer to the history of the develop- 
ment of Electrical Theories. 

Lectures 

1. General Physics. Professor Ames. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. 

This is a course of lectures in Mathematical Physics 
continuing for three years and including the subjects of 
Theoretical Mechanics, Elasticity, Hydrodynamics, Sound, 



14 Programmes [608 

Thermodynamics, Heat Conduction, Electricity and Mag- 
netism, and Light. During the year 1911-12 the lectures 
will be on Electricity. 

2. Selected Problems in Advanced Physical Optics. Pro- 

fessor Wood. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. 

3. Applied Electricity. Professor Whitehead. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Applied Electricity (Advanced Course). Professor 

Whitehead. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

5. Celestial Mechanics. Associate Professor Anderson. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

6*. General Astronomy. Associate Professor Anderson. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. {See 6 oelow.) 

7. Theory of Optical Instruments and Spectroscopy. 
Associate Professor Pfund. 
Two hours weekly, -first half-year. 

Laboratory Courses 

1. Special Exercises in Physics in preparation for in- 
dependent research, under the direction of Professors 
Ames, Wood, Bliss, and Whitehead, and Associate Pro- 
fessor Pfund. 

2. Applied Electricity. Professor Whitehead. 

3. Use of Astronomical and Astrophysical Instru- 
ments. Associate Professor Anderson. 

For students following these courses the laboratory is 
open daily, except Saturdays, from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. ; the 
observatory is open every favorable night. 



*This course may be chosen as an elective by undergraduates. 



600] Physics and Astronomy 15 



ELEMENTARY COURSES 

1. Elements of Physics. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Ames and 
Associate Professor Pfund. 

This course of lectures is based upon Ames's "Text-book of Gen- 
eral Physics," and is intended to include the field of Physics in 
an elementary manner. It presupposes a knowledge of the ele- 
ments of plane trigonometry. Course 4 of laboratory work (see 
below) is arranged to accompany these lectures. 

2 and 3. The four following series of lectures are given 
each year and are combined, together with the corre- 
sponding laboratory work (see Physics 5 below), into 
two courses known as Physics 2 and Physics 3. The 
mode of combination varies from year to year accord- 
ing to the needs of the students applying. 

(a) Elementary Theoretical Mechanics. 

Three hours weekly, twelve to fifteen weeks. Professor Bliss. 

This course is designed to serve as an introduction to Mathe- 
matical Physics, and students following it must have a knowledge 
of the elements of the Calculus. 

(b) Elementary Electricity and Magnetism. 

Three hours weekly, fifteen to twenty weeks. Professor Bliss. 

This is an introduction to the mathematical theory of the elec- 
trostatic and magnetic fields and electric currents. Course "a" 
or an equivalent preparation is assumed. 

(c) Elementary Thermodynamics. 

Three hours weekly, twelve to fifteen weeks. Professor Bliss. 

The object of this course is to familiarize the student with the 
fundamental ideas of Thermodynamics, such as Temperature, 
Entropy, and Reversibility. By way of illustration applications 
are made to very elementary problems in heat engines, solutions, 
and electrochemistry, so far as time will permit. Course "a" or 
an equivalent preparation is assumed. 

id) Physical Optics. 

Three hours weekly, fifteen weeks. Associate Professor Pfund. 

This course is a moderately advanced treatment of the subject 
of optics, special emphasis being laid on interference, diffraction, 
polarization, and their application to modern instruments of 
high efficiency. 



16 Programmes 

4. Laboratory Work for Beginners. 

Two afternoons weekly, through the year. Professor Bliss and 
Assistants. 

In this elementary work the students are taught methods of 
exact observation and measurement, and, so far as possible, they 
study the fundamental phenomena of Physics in a quantitative 
manner. The exercises given in Ames and Bliss's "Manual of 
Experiments in Physics" serve as a basis for this work. 

5. Laboratory Work, in connection with Physics 2 and 3. 
To complete each of these courses the student is required to 

pursue two of the four following groups, making together two 
afternoons a week for the year. 

(a) Mechanics. 

Two afternoons weekly, twelve weeks. Professor Bliss. 

In this course the students are taught methods of exact meas- 
urement of time, length, and mass, and methods for the de- 
termination of the various mechanical and elastic constants. 

(6) Electricity and Magnetism. 

Two afternoons weekly, ticenty weeks. Professor Bliss. 

Special attention is given to instruction in modern methods 
of measurement of various electrical quantities and in the use 
of improved apparatus. Those qualified and desiring such in- 
struction may substitute work with dynamos, motors, and trans- 
formers for part of the course. 

(c) Heat. 

Two afternoons weekly, one half-year. Professor Bliss. 

This includes methods of measuring temperature, including the 
use of thermocouples, resistance thermometers and pyrometers, 
together with other exercises illustrating lecture course "c" above. 

(d) Optics. 

Two afternoons weekly, one half-year. Associate Professor 
Pfund. 

The students are given a thorough working knowledge of 
experiments dealing with fundamental principles, as well as of 
experiments involving the use of modern types of optical instru- 
ments, such as the plane and concave grating, Michelson and 
Fabry and Perot interferometers, polarimeters, etc. 

6. General Astronomy. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Anderson. 

The theory of astronomical instruments and observations will 
be outlined (based on Young's "General Astronomy"), a general 
treatment of spherical astronomy and the elements of celestial 
mechanics will be given, together with as much physical astron- 
omy as time will permit. The students will spend one evening 



Gil] Chemistry 17 

per week throughout the year in the observatory, where instruc- 
tion in the actual use of instruments will be given. 

7. Elements of Applied Electricity. 

Two hours of lectures and five hours in laboratory weekly, 
through the year. Professor Whitehead and Assistant. 

This course is designed to meet the needs of graduate students 
in other departments than Physics, who wish to become familiar 
with the simple principles of Applied Electricity. It is not open 
to undergraduate students. 



Chemistry 

The Chemical Laboratory is equipped with apparatus 
for nearly all kinds of scientific chemical investigations, 
and it is the policy of the University to provide every 
needed facility for promising investigations of a special 
or unusual character. 

The laboratory is open daily, except Saturdays, from 
9 a. m. until 5 p. m., and on Saturdays from 9 a. m. until 
1 p. m. 

COURSES FOR GRADUATES 

i. Journal Meetings 

These meetings are held at 9 a. m. on Saturdays, 
throughout the year, and are under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Kemsen. Toward the end of the academic year, 
those who have been engaged in research give an account 
of the progress of their investigations. 

ii. Systematic Inorganic Chemistry 

This course consists of two lectures and one confer- 
ence weekly through one year. It is given by Associate 
Professor Lovelace, and is adapted to the needs of stu- 
dents who have already had one year of chemistry. 

in. Systematic Organic Chemistry 

This course, which is given by Associate Professor 
Acree, consists of two lectures and one conference 
weekly through the year. Like Course II, it is adapted 
to the needs of those who have had one year of chemistry. 



18 Programmes [G12 

Usually students will take Courses II and III concur- 
rently during their first year of graduate work. 

iv. Physical Chemistry 

The course in physical chemistry consists of three 
lectures weekly throughout the year by Professor Jones. 

v. Advanced Chemistry 

A course of two lectures weekly through two years, 
upon selected topics in the various branches of the 
science, will be given for the benefit of those students 
who have already completed Courses II and III. It may 
be taken, during the first year, concurrently with Course 
IV. The instruction is given principally by the resident 
members of the teaching staff, but from time to time 
teachers from elsewhere, who have become eminent in 
special lines of research, will be invited to participate. 

vi. Laboratory Courses 

1. Inorganic reactions and qualitative analysis, under 
the direction of Associate Professor Lovelace. 

2. Organic reactions and preparations, under the direc- 
tion of Associate Professor Acree. 

3. Quantitative methods, under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Morse. 

4. Physical-chemical methods, under the direction of 
Professor Jones. 

Examinations 

Written examinations are given upon all lecture and 
laboratory courses, except I, and students who are 
candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy are re- 
quired to give evidence of adequate proficiency in each 
course before undertaking more advanced work. Those 
who show themselves unable to pass the required exam- 
inations in a creditable manner are discouraged from 
trying to take the doctor's degree. 






613] Chemistry 19 

Dissertations 

Having completed the routine work of the various lab- 
oratories and having passed with credit the required ex- 
aminations, the student is assigned by the director of the 
laboratory to one of the staff, who proposes to him a 
problem for investigation which may be made the basis 
of the doctor's dissertation,* and who thenceforth directs 
his work in the laboratory. It sometimes happens that the 
student has good reason for preferring some particular 
line of research, and this course is allowed if the circum- 
stances permit. 

Special Students 

For those who do not look forward to the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, the rules are less rigid. Any 
person admitted to the University as a special student 
is permitted to take any of the lecture or laboratory 
courses for which he is qualified by previous training. 



UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Introduction to General Chemistry. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Associate Professor Gilpin. 

(6) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Associate Professor Gilpin and assistants. 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The class- 
room work is based on Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and 
covers the field of inorganic chemistry, as far as possible. The 
last twelve class-room exercises give a brief sketch of organic 
chemistry, particularly for the benefit of those students whose 
study of chemistry is confined to the first-year course. In the 
laboratory the student repeats the experiments performed in the 
class-room, and, in addition, has some practice in simple quanti- 
tative analysis and in making inorganic preparations. Each 
student is required to keep a notebook of his work. 



♦The length of time required for the completion of the disserta- 
tion work cannot be definitely stated, but, as a rule, from one 
year to one and one-half years should be allowed for it in the 
plans of the candidate. 



20 Programmes [G14 

2. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry and Qualitative Anal- 

ysis. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Associate Professor Lovelace. [Same as Course II for 
Graduates.] 

(b) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Associate Professor Lovelace and assistants. 

The class-room work in the second year is intended to give a 
more thorough knowledge of chemical and physical-chemical 
laws, of the properties of chemical compounds, and of the prin- 
ciples of qualitative analysis. The laboratory work is in qual- 
itative analysis and inorganic preparations. 

3. Chemistry of the Compounds of Carbon. 

(a) Lectures and recitations, three hours weekly, through the 
year. Associate Professor Acree. [Same as Course III for Grad- 
uates.] 

(&) Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. 
Associate Professor Acree and assistants. 

The class-room work of the third year is devoted to the study 
of Organic Chemistry. The laboratory work is the making 
of organic preparations, but also includes practice in the analytic 
detection of organic substances and in analytical methods of 
value to those intending to study medicine. The text-book used 
is Remsen's Organic Chemistry. 

This course is open only to those who have completed Courses 
1 and 2. 

4. Laboratory Work only. 

Laboratory work, six hours weekly, through the year. Asso- 
ciate Professor Lovelace and assistants. 

The laboratory work comprises advanced qualitative analysis, 
including technical methods, difficult inorganic preparations, and 
assaying. Those contemplating graduate work in chemistry will 
devote half of the year to the study of Volhard and Zimmer- 
mann's "Experiments in General Chemistry;" others may sub- 
stitute quantitative analysis. 

Students of the fifth group whose principal subject is 
chemistry are required to pursue the courses in chemistry 
during the first, second, and third years. Those who look 
forward to the study of medicine are advised to follow the 
courses in the first and second years, and to take the 
course in the compounds of carbon in their last year of 
residence. 



615] Geology 21 

The fourth-year course is intended for those students 
only who have satisfactorily absolved the courses of the 
three preceding years. It will be a help to those who 
intend to follow graduate work in chemistry, and also to 
those who desire to make practical use of their knowl- 
edge of chemistry after receiving the bachelor's degree. 



Geology 

The Geological Laboratory offers facilities in the form 
of collections, instruments, and libraries to students wish- 
ing to pursue special researches in geology and its allied 
subjects — paleontology, petrography, mineralogy, etc. 
Such researches may be carried on independently, or 
with the co-operation of the members of the geological 
staff; but, if the student intends to become a candidate 
for a degree, the work must be conducted under the gen- 
eral direction of the head of the department or of his 
associates. 

The laboratory, collections, and libraries are open to 
the advanced students daily, from 9 a. m. until 5 p. m. 

Regular courses of instruction in geology are given in 
the form of lectures, laboratory exercises, and field work. 
The advanced courses are adapted to the requirements of 
students of maturity, the general courses to students 
desiring an elementary or cultural training in the subject. 
The former are designed primarily for graduate students 
in geology ; the latter for undergraduates or for students 
from other departments wishing a more general knowl- 
edge of the subject. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

Seminary and Journal Meetings 

The advanced students meet with the instructors once 
each week for the discussion of current publications deal- 
ing with geology. During the latter half of the year 



22 Programmes [616 

papers are presented giving the results of researches con- 
ducted in the laboratory, or summarizing the present 
state of knowledge regarding geological questions of 
general interest. 

Lectures 

1. Historical Geology. Professor Clark. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

2. Sytematic Paleontology. Professor Clark. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

3. Economic Geology. Professor Clark. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

4. Geological Physics. Professor Keid. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

5. Exploratory Surveying. Professor Reid. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. 

6. Advanced Mineralogy. Professor Mathews. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. 

7. Petrography. Professor Mathews. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. 

8. Paleobotany. Mr. E. W. Berry. 
Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

Laboratory Courses 

1. Paleontology. Professor Clark and Mr. Berry. 
Weekly, through the year. 

2. Petrography. Professor Mathew t s. 
Weekly, through the year. 

3. Advanced Mineralogy. Professor Mathews. 

Weekly, through the year. 

4. Geological Field Methods. Professor Mathews. 
Weekly, during the fall and spring. 

Laboratory studies in advanced courses are carried on daily 
from 9 a. m. until 5 p. m. under the general direction of the 
professors in charge, who are accessible at all times. An after- 
noon is devoted especially to each course, when the subject-matter 
is more fully developed by quizzes, demonstrations, etc. 



617] Geology 23 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Elements of Geology. 

Three lectures or recitations and three hours of laboratory work 
weekly, through the year. Professor Swartz. 

This course is open to all students. It is designed to give a 
general view of the subject of Geology, and may profitably be pur- 
sued by those who wish to have some knowledge of the chief 
events of the earth's history. It includes an account of the origin 
of the features of the surface of the earth, a discussion of the 
phenomena of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain-making, and an 
outline of the past history of the earth. 

Materials illustrative of the lectures are studied in the labora- 
tory. Emphasis is placed upon the observation of geological 
phenomena in nature, the vicinity of Baltimore and the State of 
Maryland presenting features of unusual interest for such study. 
Frequent excursions are made to neighboring points where the 
principles of the science are studied in the field, while a longer 
trip is made in the spring to places of special interest for geolog- 
ical study. The longer excursion may be omitted by students 
who desire to do so, the field trips in the vicinity of Baltimore 
only being taken. This course is illustrated by maps, lantern 
views, and the rich collections of the University. 

2. Mineralogy and Elementary Petrography. 

Part I. — Two lectures and four hours of laboratory work 
weekly, through the year. Professor Swartz. 

This course includes the study of crystallography, a discussion 
of the more important minerals, and a brief consideration of the 
origin and characteristics of the chief types of rocks. Numerous 
excursions are made to points of interest in the vicinity of Balti- 
more, which is unusually rich in the variety of its rocks and 
minerals. 

Emphasis is laid upon laboratory work, which includes the 
study of crystal models, the identification of minerals by means 
of the blowpipe and by inspection, and the examination of rocks 
in the laboratory and in the field. A knowledge of chemistry is 
required for the pursuit of this course. 

Part II. — One lecture and two hours of laboratory work weekly, 
through the year. Professor Swartz. 

Part II is open to students who are pursuing Part I and who 
wish a more thorough knowledge of crystallography and min- 
eralogy than is afforded by that course. It offers a more ad- 
vanced discussion of those subjects, while a larger number of the 
more important minerals are studied in the laboratory. 



24 Programmes [('AS 

3. Applied Geology. 

Three hours weekly, through the year, with laboratory work. 
Professor Mathews. 

This course is devoted to a discussion of the non-metallic 
minerals and rocks which are worked commercially. The knowl- 
edge of geology and mineralogy gained in the preceding courses 
is applied to the recognition of useful minerals, their mode of 
occurrence, properties, values, and uses. The main sources or 
coal, oil, clay, building-stones, abrasives, gems, etc., the way they 
are won, and their economic importance, are treated with more 
or less detail. The aim of the course is to supply such informa- 
tion regarding mineral resources as an educated man should 
possess. The treatment of the technical questions of metallurgy 
or mining must be sought in technical schools. 



State Scientific Bureaus connected with the Depart- 
ment. — Two scientific bureaus, established by the legisla- 
ture and maintained at the expense of the State, are car- 
ried on in connection with the geological department. 
They are the Maryland Geological and Economic Survey 
and the Maryland State Weather Service. Professor 
Clark is the director of both these organizations, which 
are concerned with a study of the geology and physical 
features of the State of Maryland. The work is carried 
on under his direction mainly by the instructors and 
students of the department. A State Forestry Bureau, of 
which Professor Clark is Executive Officer, is also located 
in one of the buildings of the geological department. 

Advantages afforded by Proximity to Washington. — 
Washington is less than an hour distant from Baltimore. 
This renders it possible to take frequent advantage of the 
facilities afforded by that city, where the officers of the 
various scientific bureaus and societies give the students 
of the university every opportunity to examine the rich 
collections and libraries under their control. 

Field Work. — The area of the State of Maryland in- 
cludes, notwithstanding its comparatively small size, a re- 
markable sequence of geological formations. The ancient 



G19] Zoology and Botany 25 

rocks of the earth's crust, as well as those still in the pro- 
cess of deposition, are found, while between these wide 
limits there is hardly a geological epoch which is not rep- 
resented. As a result most excellent facilities are af- 
forded for a study of the various geological horizons. 
Excursions to points of interest are made during the 
autumn and spring months. 



Zoology and Botany 



The Biological Laboratory furnishes adequate rooms, 
with the usual apparatus, for carrying on research in ani- 
mal and plant morphology, embryology, and experimental 
zoology. For special investigations unusual apparatus 
will be obtained. 

It is planned that, before receiving the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy, each student shall have the opportunity to 
study marine and terrestrial life in some tropical region. 
In the spring and summer of 1910 this work was carried 
on in Jamaica, West Indies. 

A collection of living plants in the botanical garden 
and conservatory, a physiological laboratory in the latter, 
and propagating grounds nearby are available for mor- 
phological and experimental study. A collection of care- 
fully "fixed" and preserved alcoholic material of several 
hundred species of plants is available for histological and 
developmental study. The herbaria of the laboratory in- 
clude the Schimper collection of European seed plants, 
the Field Club collection of local plants, the Fitzgerald 
collection of mosses, and smaller collections of fungi, 
marine algae, and Jamaican plants. 

The library in the laboratory is supplemented by the 
main library of the university and other libraries in the 
city, including the excellent botanical library of John 
Donnell Smith, whose courtesy has always made his 
library and herbarium available for advanced students. 



26 Programmes [020 

Prompt publication of abstracts of results is provided 
for in the University Circular. From time to time the 
results of extensive investigations in zoology are pub- 
lished by the University Press in a series of illustrated 
quarto monographs. The Adam T. Bruce Fellowship is 
awarded to men capable of carrying on research in 
biology. One of the graduate students in zoology may be 
appointed each year to occupy the University table at the 
marine laboratory of the U. S. Fisheries Bureau, at 
Woods Holl, Mass. 

The laboratories are open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., and 
for necessary research in the evenings, but only by special 
permission. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

I. Zoology 

The advanced work in zoology is directed toward the 
development of investigators, and the student will receive 
such assistance and training toward that end as his in- 
dividual needs seem to require. The set courses of the 
department are perhaps the less important part of that 
work. The courses in Zoology include: (1) Introduc- 
tory and General Courses; (2) The study of the struc- 
ture, morphology, classification and distribution of ani- 
mals; (3) Study of the activities and functions of the 
developed organisms; (4) Study of the production of the 
structures and functions of the organism, in the history 
of the individual, and in the history of the race. The 
first two lines of work are provided in the Undergraduate 
Courses, and in many cases graduate students will find 
it well to follow certain of these. The third and fourth 
lines are provided for in the Advanced Courses. Any of 
the lines of work may lead directly to research, and such 
research will be carried on under the immediate oversight 
of the member of the staff in whose special field the prob- 
lem falls. The later year or years of the candidate for 
the doctorate should be devoted to investigation, with 



621] Zoology and Botany 27 

little distraction by attendance on set courses. As a rule 
the student presents before the members of the depart- 
ment at some time during his work a discussion of the 
subject with which his investigations deal, in the form of 
a number of lectures. 

The Advanced Courses are elastic, subjects being dealt 
with that appear especially useful to the students taking 
part; different students may devote themselves primarily 
to diverse parts of the subject. In the latter part of each 
course as a rule some special subject or problem will be 
taken up by each student, leading directly to research. 

Journal Club. — All graduate students take part with 
the instructors in a weekly discussion of the current 
literature. 

Seminary. — Professors Jennings and Andrews. The 
instructors and advanced students meet once a week in 
the evening for the discussion of some of the fundamental 
problems of biology. Usually some book of philosophical 
trend is read and discussed. In recent years the semi- 
nary has taken up thus Driesch's Science and Philosophy 
of the Organism; Lloyd Morgan's The Interpretation of 
Nature; v. Uexkuell's Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere. 
In 1911-1912 it is proposed to take up Bergson's Creative 
Evolution. 

Production of the Structures and Functions of Organ- 
isms. — Professor Jennings. Three lectures or confer- 
ences and two laboratory periods weekly from the begin- 
ning of the session till February 1. 

This subject will be dealt with in two courses, to be 
given in alternate years, as follows: 

(a) Genetics. The production of structures and func- 
tions in the history of the race. The changes in organ- 
isms as they pass from generation to generation; the ex- 
perimental study of reproduction, heredity, variation and 
evolution. This course will be given in 1911-1912. 



28 Programmes [622 

(5) Development of the Individual. The experimental 
and analytical study of the production of structures and 
functions in the development of the individual; "experi- 
mental embryology," regeneration and regulation. This 
course will not be given in 1911-1912. 

General Physiology of Animals; Functions and Activi- 
ties of Developed Organisms. — Associate Professor Mast. 
Three lectures or conferences and two laboratory periods 
weekly through the year. 

This course deals with the chemical and physical prop- 
erties of organisms, the relation between animals and 
their environment, and fundamental processes which oc- 
cur in organisms: metabolism, growth, movement, re- 
sponse to stimuli, behavior. 

The work will be confined largely to a general and com- 
parative study of the life processes in the Invertebrates. 
Plants and the Vertebrates will be considered only in a 
general way, since they are fully dealt with in the de- 
partment of Botany or in the department of Physiology 
of the Medical School. The second half-year will proba- 
bly be devoted mainly to Animal Behavior. Problems foi 
investigation may be taken up in this or in other lines. 

The attention of students of zoology should be called to th€ 
courses on the behavior of higher animals, given in the psyche 
logical department by Professor Watson. 

II. Botany 

1. Journal Club and Seminary. 

a. The Journal Club meets weekly through the year, 
in conjunction with the Zoological Journal Club. 

b. The Botanical Seminary meets twice weekly, froi 
December 1 to May 1. Professor Johnson. 

2. Lectures and Laboratory Work. 






623] Zoology and Botany 29 

i. Reproduction and Phylogeny in Plants. Professor 
Johnson. 

a. Three lectures weekly through the year. 

b. Laboratory work associated with the lectures, twice weekly 
through the year. 

c. Definite problems in field work assigned for study in the 
autumn and spring. 

ii. The Histology and Ecological Anatomy of Plants. 
Professor Johnson. 

a. Two lectures or conferences weekly from January 1 to 
April 1. 

b. Laboratory work twice weekly from January 1 to April 1. 

in. The History of Botany. Professor Johnson. 

Two lectures weekly from October 1 to December 20. 
The following themes will be discussed in alternate years: 
The Theory of Sex in Plants; The Cell Theory. 

iv. Plant Physiology. Professor Livingston. 

Lectures and laboratory work on the chief plant processes. 
Green's Plant Physiology will be read. A good general knowl- 
edge of physics and chemistry is highly desirable. 

a. Three lectures or conferences weekly till February 1. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work weekly till February 1. 

v. Physiology of the Cell. Professor Livingston. 

An advanced course on protoplasmic processes, such as proto- 
plasmic movement, the chemistry of nutrition and respiration, 
enzymes, etc. 

a. Two lectures weekly from February 1 to June 1. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work weekly from February 1 to 
June 1, with reading of original articles. 

The laboratory work will aim to give the student illustrative 
iraterial bearing on the subject as well as to bring him into con- 
tact with problems and methods of research, and will require 
the reading of selected original literature, much of it in French 
or German. Open to students who have had Course IV or its 
equivalent, or a similar course in animal physiology. 

vi. Problems in Plant Physiology. Professor Living- 
ston. 

a. Two lectures weekly through the year. 

b. Six hours of laboratory work and a one-hour conference 
weekly throughout the year. 

This course plans to give perspective and to prepare the student 
for profitable research in either pure or applied physiology. Each 
student will carry on experimentation upon and will work up the 



30 Programmes [t?2 4 

literature of restricted phases of plant activity, reporting on both 
literature and experiments. A considerable knowledge of the 
principles and methods of physics and chemistry is prerequisite. 



UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

The collegiate courses in zoology and botany are known 
as Biology 1, Biology 2, Biology 3, and the Natural His- 
tory Course. 

1. General Biology and Embryology. 

Six hours laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. Professor Andrews and assist- 
ants. 

This introductory course is open to all students and may be 
taken without previous training in chemistry or physics. It may 
be taken profitably by students interested in political economy, 
history, psychology, or ethics; it will be found useful to those 
looking forward to the ministry; and it is required of all who are 
to enter the medical school. 

{a) General Biology. [Till March 15.] 

In the laboratory each student studies with the microscope, or 
dissects, selected animals and plants, from the more simple such 
as amoeba and yeast, to the more complex such as the fern and 
frog. In the lectures some of the fundamental facts of Biology 
are emphasized. 

(6) Embryology. [After March 15.] 

Each student studies the cleavage of the living frog's egg and 
the formation and transformation of the tadpole. Subsequently 
he studies the hen's egg and the formation of organs in the em- 
bryo chick, learning to make his own serial sections, etc. 

2. Comparative Anatomy and Bacteriology. 

Six hours of laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. Dr. Cowxes. 

This course continues the training of Biology 1 in limited 
fields, and is recommended to those who expect to study medicine, 
or to specialize in any department of Biology. 

(a) Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. [Till 

March 15.] 

The student dissects the skate, shark, codfish, necturus, turtle, 
alligator, pigeon, and dog. The lectures emphasize the principles 
of animal morphology. 



G25] Physiology 31 

(ft) Bacteriology. [After March 15.] 

The student learns the methods of handling, cultivating, and 
studying non-pathogenic bacteria. The practical work gives valu- 
able training in careful laboratory methods. The lectures treat 
of bacteria from a biological point of view, as very important 
agents in natural processes. 

3. Zoology and Botany. 

Six hours of laboratory work and three lectures or other exer- 
cises weekly, through the year. 

(a) Zoology. [First half-year.] 

Professor Andrews and Dr. Cowles. 

A comparative study of the chief groups of non-vertebrate ani- 
mals. This may be made a whole course when botany is not 
needed. 

(b) Botany. [Second half-year.] 
Professors Johnson and Livingston. 

The Structure of Boot, Stem, Leaf, Flower, and Fruit. 
[January to May.] 

An Introduction to Plant Physiology, with selected 

laboratory experiments. [After May 1.] 

This is a course for beginners, giving a general survey of the 
nature and activities of plants, the out-door work serving to give 
students some familiarity with native plants in the field. This 
may be made a full course by those desiring it for general culture, 
or as a preparation for graduate work in botany or for work in 
forestry. 

Elementary Zoology (Natural History.) 

Nine hours weekly, second half-year. Associate Professor 
Grave. 

This course is intended for those having no training in these 
subjects and is chiefly a laboratory course. It is required of 
students in Groups I, II, III. 



Physiology 



Facilities are offered in the Physiological Laboratory 
for special students, graduates in medicine and others, 
who are interested in special lines of investigation, and 



32 Programmes [026 

also for those who wish to follow courses leading to the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physiology or allied 
subjects. 

Regular courses of instruction are given as follows : 

1. Journal Club. Professor Howell. 
Weekly, through the year. 

2. Physiology of the Animal Body. Professor Howell, 

Associate Professors Hooker and Snyder. 
Lectures, three hours weekly, through the year; laboratory, 
twelve hours weekly, first trimester. 

[The laboratory course may be repeated in the third trimester.] 

3. Advanced Laboratory Work. Professor Howell. 
This work is done individually. 



Greek 



GREEK SEMINARY 






Professor Gildersleeve will conduct the Greek Semi- 
nary, the plan of which is based on the continuous study 
of some leading author or some special department of 
literature. 

The Seminary consists of the Director, Fellows, and 
Scholars, and such advanced students as shall satisfy the 
Director of their fitness for an active participation in the 
work by an essay, a critical exercise, or some similar test 
of attainments and capacity. All graduate students, 
however, may have the privilege of attending the course. 

During the next academic year the study of the Greek 
Historians will constitute the chief occupation of the 
members and Thukydides will be the centre of the work. 
There will be two meetings a week during the entire ses- 
sion. Especial attention will be paid to the development 
of historical style and method. 



$27] Greek 33 

In connection with the Seminary there will be held a 
series of conferences on Greek Historiography. 

The students should possess Herodotos, Thukydides, Xenophon, 
Polybios, Dionysios of Halikarnassos (rhetorical works), and 
Schafer's Quellenkunde der griechishen Geschichte. 

ADVANCED AND GRADUATE COURSES 

1. Professor Gildersleeve will also conduct a course 
of Practical Exercises in Greek, consisting chiefly in ex- 
temporaneous translation from Greek into English and 
English into Greek, two meetings a week from the begin- 
ning of the session to the first of January. 

2. Notice of other courses is reserved. 

Associate Professor Miller will conduct the following 
courses : 

1. Headings twice a week in Thukydides during the 
first half of the year. 

2. Lectures and Practical Exercises in Greek Palaeo- 
graphy, twice weekly during the latter half of the year. 

3. Exercises in advanced Greek composition for the 
benefit of candidates for the degree of Doctor of Phi- 
losophy. 

Dr. A. M. Soho will conduct a course throughout the 
year in Modern Greek. 

The object is to impart a practical knowledge of the 
language by reading standard authors and by conversa- 
tion, upon which especial emphasis will be laid. During 
the second half-year a portion of the time will be devoted 
to the consideration of the phonetic and morphological 
laws which the modern language followed through its de- 
velopment from the classical Greek. 



34 Programmes [628 

[JNDBBGBADUATE COUB 

1. Xenophon, Mem ova bilia (selections). 

Plato, Apology. 
Herodotus ( selections ) . 
Three hours weekly, first year. Associate Professor Milleb. 

Prose Composition. 
One hour weekly, first year. Associate Professor Miller. 

Private Reading: Plato, Crito; IToiner, Odyssey (two 
books). 

2. Andocides I; Lysias (selections i. 
Euripides (one play). 

Prose Composition. 
Three hours weekly, second year. Associate Professor Spiekee. 

Private Reading: Xenophon, Hellenica (book 1); 
Euripides (one play). 

3. Plato, Protagoras. 
Lyric Poets. 
Sophocles (one play). 
Survey of Greek Literature. 
Prose Composition. 

Three hours weekly, third year. Associate Professor Spiekee. 
Private Reading: Elegiac and Iambic Poets; Aeschy- 
lus (one play). 

4. Thucydides (book vn). 
Aristophanes, Frogs. 

Two hours weekly, fourth year. Associate Professor Spiekee. 

Greek Life: lectures and conferences. 
One hour weekly, fourth year. Associate Professor Robixsox. 
Private Reading: Demosthenes (select orations); 
Aristophanes, Clouds. 



Associate Professor Spiekek offers, for beginners in Greek, a 
course of three hours weekly throughout the year. This course 
is intended primarily for the benefit of such graduate students of 



829] Latin 35 

language as may feel the need of a knowledge of Greek in the 
prosecution of their work; but undergraduate students who have 
the ministry in view, and who have not had any previous training 
in Greek, may also be admitted. The class will be advanced as 
rapidly as is consistent with thoroughness of work. 



Latin 

The most important organ of training is the Latin 
Seminary which meets twice a week throughout the year, 
under the direction of Professor Smith. It consists of the 
director, fellows, scholars, and such advanced students as 
shall give satisfactory proof of their ability and training. 
Any graduate student is at liberty to attend the Semi- 
nary exercises, but each regular member is required to 
take his turn in the work. Each year some author or 
group of authors in a given department of literature is 
made the centre of study. The subjects treated during 
the last three years are as follows : 

1908-1909. The Roman Historians, especially Livy and Tacitus. 

1909-1910. The Roman Epic, especially Vergil. 

1910-1911. The Roman Drama, especially Plautus and Terence. 

In addition to the regular work of the Seminary, 
courses of lectures are given every year by the director, 
and from time to time by other qualified persons. 

During the academic year 1911-1912 the Seminary will 
be given to the Roman Satire, and the centre of this work 
will be Horace and Juvenal. 

Students are requested to provide themselves with texts 
of Horace (ed. Wickham, Oxford Classical Text), Juvenal 
and Persius (ed. Owen, Oxford Classical Text), Petronius 
(ed. Buecheler, Berlin, Weidmann), and Apuleius. Meta- 
morphoses (ed. Helm, Teubner Text). 



36 Programmes [630 

ADVANCED AND GRADUATE COURSES 

1.* Professor Smith will lecture on the Roman Satire 
once a week throughout the year. 

2. During the first half-year he will hold a series 
of weekly conferences on the Cena Trimalchionis of 
Petronius. 

3. During the second half-year he will lecture once a 
week on the Metamorphoses of Apuleius and will com- 
ment on selected portions of the text, more especially, the 
Story of Cupid and Psyche. 

4.* Professor Wilson will lecture once a week through- 
out the year on Latin Epigraphy. The course will be ac- 
companied by a series of practical exercises in the inter- 
pretation of inscriptions from original stones and from 
published texts. 

5. The advanced students will meet once a week dur- 
ing the year for the rapid reading of Horace, Persius and 
Juvenal. 

For Dr. Magoffin's courses in Greek and Roman History 
see the programme in History. 

Notice of other courses is reserved. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Livy (selections) ; Terence (one play) : Vergil, Bu- 

colics; Catullus (selections). 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 
Private Reading: Cicero, Cato Maior; Vergil, Aeneid 

(book viii ). 
Prose Composition. 
Weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 

2. Tacitus, Annals (selections) ; Pliny's Letters (selec- 

tions) ; Horace, Odes and Epodes. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustabd. 



*This course will be given at an afternoon hour for the benefit 
of those who canrot attend in the forenoon. 



631] Classical Archaeology 37 

Private Reading: Tacitus, Germania; Horace, Satires and 
Epistles ( selections ) . 

3. Lucretius (selections) ; Vergil, Georgics; Horace, Ars 

Poetica. 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 
Private Reading: Cicero, First Tusculan; Quintilian 

(book x). 
Roman Literature (with reading of selected passages). 
Weekly, through the year. Professor Smith. 

4. Juvenal (selections) ; Petronius (selections) ; Apuleius 

(selections). 
Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 
Private Reading: Martial (selections) ; Seneca's Letters 

(selections) ; Roman Elegy (selections). 
Roman Life: lectures and conferences. 
Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

5. Advanced Latin Composition. 

Weekly, through the year. Professor Mustard. 

Note. — Courses 2, 3, and 4 may be taken only by those who have 
pursued the courses preceding them. 

Roman Literature (Course 3) and Roman Life (Course 4), each 
one hour weekly, are open to all students, and taken together are 
counted as half a course. 



Classical Archaeology and Art 

The work in Classical Archaeology and Art is carried 
on by means of a Seminary, various courses of lectures, 
conferences with individual students and practical exer- 
cises in the museums. The archaeological material in the 
possession of the university includes good collections of 
Greek and Roman inscriptions, marbles, bronzes, vases 
and other terracottas, coins, gems, etc., which not only 
serve the purpose of illustration, but also form the basis 
of original investigation. These are supplemented by 
squeezes, photographs, and lantern slides, as well as by 
the casts belonging to the university and to the Peabody 
Institute. The new Walters Gallery, which is not far 
from the university, contains a very valuable collection 
of Greek and Roman antiquities. 



38 Programmes \ »;:J2 

SEMINARY AND ADVANCED COURSES 

The subjects treated in the Seminary, or presented in 
lectures, vary from year to year, so that in three or four 
years of continuous residence students are brought into 
contact with the most important of the ancient authors 
and with the principal fields of archaeological research. 
These subjects include Greek and Roman architecture, 
epigraphy, private life, topography, sculpture, painting, 
ceramics, coinage, gems, bronzes, and the Etruscan and 
Mycenaean civilizations. The following courses are of- 
fered for the year 1911-12 : 

1. Archaeological Seminary. Selected topics in the 
Latin Inscriptions. Professor Wilson. 

Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

2. Archaeological Seminary. Selected topics in the 
Greek Inscriptions. Associate Professor Robinson. 

Two hours weekly, second half-year. 

Note. — The University collection contains nearly two hundred 
original inscriptions, extending in date from 500 B. C. to 500 A. D. 
These, together with casts, squeezes and other reproductions, fur- 
nish material for original investigation in this field. 

3. The history of Ancient Roman Painting, with 
especial reference to interior decoration. Professor 
Wilson. 

Weekly, second half-year. 

4. The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 
with particular reference to the Roman Forum. Profes- 
sor Wilson. 

Weekly, through the year. 

5.* An introduction to Latin Epigraphy, with practi- 
cal exercises in the interpretation of inscriptions from 
original stones and published texts. Professor Wilson. 

Weekly, through the year. 

6. Life and Art in the Mycenaean Age and their rela- 
tion to Homer. Associate Professor Robinson. 
Weekly, first half-year. 



033] Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 39 

7. Outlines of Greek Architecture. Associate Profes- 
sor Kobinson. 

Weekly, second half-year. 

8. Greek Epigraphy, with practical exercises in read- 
ing from squeezes and original stones. Associate Profes- 
sor Robinson. 

Weekly, first half-year. 

9.* The history of Greek Sculpture. Associate Pro- 
fessor Robinson. 
Weekly, through the year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. Outlines of Classical Archaeology; lectures and con- 

ferences. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson and 
Associate Professor Robinson. 

This course is intended to furnish a rapid survey of the prin- 
cipal fields of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman archaeology and art. 
Knowledge of Latin and Greek is not required. 

2. The Private Life of the Romans. 
Weekly, through the year. Professor Wilson. 

3. The Private Life of the Greeks. 

Weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Robinson. 

Courses 2 and 3 are parts of Latin 4 and Greek 4, respectively, 
but may be pursued by any student of the University. Taken 
together they count as half a course, and with the course in 
Roman Literature (Latin 3) as a full course. 



Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 

Slavic Philology 

Courses of instruction, directed by Professor Bloom- 
field, with the assistance of an Instructor or Fellow in 
Sanskrit, are provided in the Indo-Iranian languages 



♦This course will be given at a late hour in the afternoon for 
the benefit of those who are unable to attend in the morning. 



40 Programmes [634 

(Vedic and Classical Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, Avestan 
and Old Persian), in Comparative Grammar of the Indo- 
European languages, in historical Ethnology of the Indo- 
European peoples, and in general Linguistic Science. 
During recent sessions several courses in Lithuanian, 
one of the Balto-Slavic languages, were given, and last 
session Dr. Edgerton conducted a course in Russian. 
During the coming session courses in Old Bulgarian and 
Russian are offered by Dr. Edgerton; see the statement 
of these courses at the end of this rubric. 

These courses aim to meet the wants of those who wish 
to devote themselves to the study of these branches exclu- 
sively and for their own sake, i. e., those who wish to 
become specialists in Sanskrit Philology or Comparative 
Philology ; and also the needs of students of languages in 
general, who wish to obtain a broader linguistic basis for 
special studies in other departments of philology. 

The advanced work aims specially to meet the wants of 
those who wish to make Indian Philology or Comparative 
Philology their special study. This work centres in the 
Sanskrit Seminary and not infrequently involves the use 
of Sanskrit manuscripts. 

A prolonged course in Sanskrit, involving two lectures 
a week during two years and attendance in the Sanskrit 
Seminary for a half-year (one hour a week), is planned, 
so as to furnish a good knowledge of Classical Sanskrit, 
and to include an introduction into the dialect of the 
Vedas. This amount of work represents material suffi- 
cient for the first subsidiary subject for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. A course in the same study for 
one and a half years, involving two hours a week, is the 
amount required for a second subsidiary subject leading 
to the same degree. 

A synopsis of the courses offered during past years may 
be presented under the following heads : 

I. Courses in the general principles of comparative philology or 
linguistic science, and on special chapters thereof; lectures on 
ethnology and the history of religions. 



B35] Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 41 

II. Courses in the general comparative grammar of the Indo- 
European languages; comparative grammar of Sanskrit and 
Avestan; comparative study of Indo-European accentuation; com- 
parative study of Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, and Teutonic, including 
vocalism, consonantism, noun-formation, and inflections. 

III. The Vedic, Sanskrit, and Prakrit dialects; Rig-Veda; 
Atharva-Veda; literature of the Brahmanas and Upanishads. The 
law books of Manu and Yajiiavalkya; the Drama Qakuntala and 
introduction into Prakrit; Pancatantra, Hitopadega, Kathasaritsa- 
gara, and Nala. Sanskrit grammar and prose composition. 

IV. The Pali language and Buddhist literature. 

V. The Avestan language and the sacred books of the Avesta. 

VI. The Lithuanian language and literature; Russian language 
and literature. 

The following courses, in charge of Professor Bloom- 
field, will be given during the session of 1911-1912: 

A. Linguistic Science and Comparative Grammar of tiie 

Indo-European Languages. 

1. The elements of Linguistic Science, with an account 
of the Ethnology and Religions of the Indo-European 
peoples. Weekly, through the year. 

2. Comparative grammar of the more familiar Indo- 
European languages (Greek, Latin, German, and Sans- 
krit) : The phonetics and history of the Indo-European 
consonants. Weekly, through the year. 

B. Indo-Aryan Philology. 

3. Sanskrit Seminary: The Hindu Beast Fables of 
the cycle of the Pancatantra. Weekly, through the year. 

4. Advanced course in the Veda: Selected Vedic 
prose (Brahmanas and Upanishads). Weekly, through 
the year. 

5. The Elements of Vedic philology : Vedic grammar, 
metres, and interpretation of selected hymns of the Rig- 
Veda. Weekly, second half-year. 

6. The Pali language and selections from Buddhist 
literature. Weekly, through the year. 

7. Beginners' course in Sanskrit: grammar (Whit- 
ney's Sanskrit Grammar) and interpretation of an easy 



42 Programme* [036 

text (Lanman's Reader). Twice weekly, through the 
year. 

8. Selections from the Hitopadeca and the Law-Book 
of Manu (second year's course in Classical Sanskrit). 
Twice weekly, first half-year. 



Note. — No knowledge of Sanskrit is presupposed for courses 1, 
2, and 7. Course 1 sketches briefly the history of the Science of 
Language; presents a systematic account of the ethnology and 
religions of the Indo-European peoples; deals with the principles 
that govern the life and growth of language, and finally treats of 
the origin of language. Course 2 is intended as an elementary 
introduction into the methods and results of the Comparative 
Grammar of the more important Indo-European languages. 



The following courses in Slavic Philology, offered by 
Dr. Edgerton, are intended to meet the needs, first, of 
students who desire some acquaintance with Historical 
and Comparative Slavic Philology. For this purpose, 
course 9 is basic, dealing with the most ancient and funda- 
mental of the Slavic languages. Course 10 is also con- 
ducted with due regard to Historical Grammar, and those 
who desire will be able to obtain from it a general idea of 
the relation of the Slavic group to the rest of the Indo- 
European family, even without previous knowledge of Old 
Bulgarian. Secondly, courses 10 and 11 are intended for 
those who desire a practical reading knowledge of Rus- 
sian, and some first-hand acquaintance with the great 
authors of Russian literature. Course 10 is for those who 
know no Russian : Course 11 for more advanced students 
who desire practice in rapid reading, combined with some 
literary comment and criticism. 

9. Old Bulgarian. Historical study of the forms and 
inflections of the language, with practice in reading and 
analysis of representative texts (Leskien's Handbuch der 
Altbulgarischen Sprache). Weekly, through the year. 

1 0. Elements of the Russian language. Brief survey of 
grammar, followed by selected readings from modern 



037] Oriental Seminary 43 

writers (Berneker's Russische Grammatik and Boehme's 
Russische Literatur (2 vols.) both published in the Samm 
lung Goschen). Twice weekly, through the year. 

11. Modern Russian Fiction. First half-year: Se- 
lected short stories of Gogol, Turgeniev, Tolstoi, Gorky, 
Chekhov and Andreev. Second half-year: One longer 
novel each by Turgeniev and Dostoievsky. Weekly, 
through the year. 



Oriental Seminary 



The various courses are adapted to the requirements of 
four classes of students, namely: (a) students of theology 
wishing to obtain a thorough acquaintance with the 
sacred tongue and its sister idioms as a means of eluci 
dating Scripture and problems of the comparative history 
of religion; (o) students of linguistics intending to make 
comparative grammar of the Semitic languages their 
specialty; (c) students of Oriental history and archae- 
ology desirous of drawing directly from the original 
sources; (d) persons looking for instruction in the living 
Oriental languages (as modern Arabic, Turkish, Persian, 
modern Hebrew, Amharic, Malay, Tagalog, etc.) for prac- 
tical purposes. 

A room has been set apart containing a well-equipped 
working library for all the branches of Oriental research 
( including the library of the late Professor A. Dillmann, 
of Berlin, the Leopold Strouse Semitic Library, a special 
collection of works on Philippine dialects, etc.), and some 
advanced students are usually present to help in the 
preparation for the recitations conducted by the Director 
of the Seminary, and to furnish any other aid that may be 
desired. Near the Dillmann Library, on the same floor, 
are some archaeological and antiquarian collections, in- 
cluding the Cohen Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, 
The Sonneborn Collection of Jewish Ceremonial Objects, 



44 Programmes [631 

collections of Hebrew and other Oriental manuscripts, 
Babylonian seal-cylinders and clay tablets, etc. 

The following courses are offered for the academic 
1911-12: 

Oriental History, Literature, and Archaeology 

1. History of the Ancient East (Egypt, Babylonia, 
Assyria, Persia, Israel, and Judah). Dr. Poebel. Thurs- 
day, 4 p. m. 

2. The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament. 
Dr. Poebel. Thursday, 5 p. m. 

3. Jewish Ceremonial Institutions. Dr. Rosenau. 
Tuesday, 2 p. m. 

4. The Literature of the Old Testament (with special 
reference to date and authorship). Dr. Blake. Thurs- 
day, 5 p. m. 

5. Interpretation of Selected Chapters of the Old Tes- 
tament (on the basis of the Authorized Version). Pro- 
fessor Haupt and Dr. Blake. Friday, 4 p. m. 

Biblical Philology 

6. Elementary Hebrew. Dr. Ember. Three hours 
weekly. 

7. Hebrew: Second Year's Course. Dr. Ember. Two 
hours weekly. 

8. Hebrew Phonology. Dr. Blake. Friday, 3 p. m. 

9. Unpointed Hebrew Texts. Dr. Rosenau. Monday, 
9 a. m. 

10. Prose Composition (Hebrew, Arabic, Assyrian, 
and Sumerian). Professor Haupt. Monday, 5 p. m. 

11. Comparative Semitic Grammar. Professor Haupt. 
Monday, 4 p. m. 

12. Old Testament Seminary (Critical Interpretation 
of the Books of Haggai, Malachi, and Obadiah). Profes- 
sor Haupt. Tuesday, 3 to 5 p. m. 



639] Oriental Seminary 45 

13. Cursory Heading of the Hebrew Bible. Dr. 
Blake. Tuesday, 10 a. m. 

14. Post-Biblical Hebrew. (Selections from the Mish- 
nah and the Talmud). Dr. Rosenau. Monday, 2 p. m., 
Tuesday, 9 a. m. 

15. Jewish Philosophers of the Middle Ages. Dr. 
Rosenau. Monday, 10 a. m. 

16. Modern Hebrew. Dr. Ember. Tuesday, 11 a. m. 

17. Hebrew Conversation. Dr. Ember. Monday and 
Fnday, 11 a. m. 

18. Biblical Aramaic Grammar and Interpretation of 
the Aramaic Portions of the Book of Daniel. Dr. Blake. 
Friday, 5 p. m. 

Syriac 

19. Syriac (Roediger's Chrestomathy) . Dr. Blake. 
Wednesday, 3 p. m. 

Arabic 

20. Elementary Arabic (with special reference to stu- 
dents of Romance Languages). Dr. Ember. Monday, 
5 p. m. 

21. Arabic for Beginners (with special reference to 
students of Hebrew). Dr. Ember. Tuesday, 5 p. m. 

22. Selections from the Coran and the Arabian Mghts. 
Dr. Ember. Wednesday and Thursday, 10 a. m. 

23. Arabic Prose Composition. Professor Haupt. 
[See No. 10.] 

Ethiopic. 

24. Elementary Ethiopic. Dr. Blake. Wednesday, 
5 p. m. 

Assyriology. 

25. Assyrian for Beginners. Dr. Poebel. Wednes- 
day, 4 p. m., Thursday, 3 p. m. 

26. The Cuneiform Annals of the Assyrian Kings. 
Dr. Poebel. Tuesday and Friday, 10 a. m. 



4(> Programmes [f)40 

27. Selected Suinerian Texts. Dr. Pobbbl. Tuesday, 
11 a. m. 

28. The Literature of Babylonia and Assyria. Dr. 
Poebel. Friday, 11 a. m. 

29. Interpretation of the Babylonian Nimrod Epic. 
Professor Hauit. Tuesday, 5 p. m. 

30. Assyrian and Sumerian Prose Composition. Pro- 
fessor Hat pt. [See No. 10.] 

Egyptology 

31. Egyptian for Beginners. Dr. Ember. Wednes- 
day, 9 a. m. 

32. Selected Hieroglyphic Texts. Dr. Ember. Tues- 
day, 1 p. m. 

33. Elementary Coptic. Dr. Ember. Tuesday, 2 p. m. 

Malayo-Polynesian Philology 

34. Malay. Dr. Blake. Monday, 4 p. m. 

35. Elementary Tagalog. Dr. Blake. Monday, 5 p. m. 

Journal Meeting 

36. Journal Meeting. Professor Haupt. Monday, 3 
p. m. 



English 



graduate courses 



In the graduate courses the subject of English is 
studied with reference to the historical and technical 
aspects of linguistic and literary science. The usual 
sequence of courses enables a student, in three or four 
years, to study with precision the important departments 
of grammar and of literature, and to become trained in 
the process of original investigation. Instruction is im- 



G41] English 47 

parted by lectures, by freer conferences, by the methods 
of the Seminary, and by class-room recitation. A Journal 
Club is conducted for the purpose of supplementing the 
regular courses with reports of the current work of 
scholars. 

1. English Seminary 

Graduate students are admitted to the Seminary as 
soon as they have satisfied initial requirements for inde- 
pendent research. 

In the academic year 1911-12, the Seminary will be 
engaged in the study and investigation of the following 
subjects : 

(a) English Literature of the Nineteenth Century. 
First half-year. 

(6) English Literature of the Fourteenth Century. 
Second half-year. 

The Seminary will be conducted by Professor Bright. 
Tuesday and Thursday, 3-5 p. m. 

2. Lectures on Historical Grammar, Versification, and 
Literary Criticism. Professor Bright. Tuesday and 
Thursday, 12 m. 

3. Interpretation of selected texts. Professor Bright. 
Monday, 12 m. 

4. The Journal Club of the English Seminary. Pro- 
fessor Bright. Alternate Fridays, 3-5 p. m. 

5. Professor John William Cunliffe, of the University 
of Wisconsin, will give a course of lectures on the com- 
parative study of the drama, especially on Renascence 
Tragedy in Italy, France, and England. Beginning of 
the second half-year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

Introductory courses in (a) Rhetoric and English Com- 
position, (b) Platform Speaking and Forensics, and (c) 



48 Programmes [642 

English Literature, are prescribed for all undergraduate 
students. For those who may wish to continue their 
study in any of these departments, elective courses are 
provided in the various forms of discourse and in the 
more important periods of English and American litera- 
ture. Further practice in debating is provided in connec- 
tion with the elective course in exposition and argument, 
and in the annual inter-class and inter-collegiate debates. 

English Composition 

1. Khetoric and English Composition. 

Theory based upon text-books, lectures, and discussions ; critical 
study of prose writers; frequent practice in writing. This course 
is prescribed during the first year. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French and Dr. 
C. A. Myers. 

la. English Composition. 

This course is prescribed during the second year. Students 
who have attained a mark of "8" on the work of the first year 
are excused from this course. 

One hour a week, through the year. Dr. Myers.. 

2. Description and Narration. 

Readings in standard prose. Practice in writing. 
One hour a week, through the year. Professor Greene. 

3. Exposition and Argument. 

During the first term the theory of exposition with frequent 
practice in expository writing. During the second and third 
terms, the theory of argument; practice in writing; platform 
speaking and debate. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French. 

Public Speaking 

1. Reading and Platform Speaking. 

In this course attention is paid to correct habits of breathing 
and to enunciation and expression. Practice in the preparation 
*nd delivery of speeches adapted to various special occasions is 
obtained in the second half-year. The course is prescribed dur- 
ing the second year. 

One hour a week, through the year. Dr. French. 



643] English 49 

2. Public Speaking. 

The principles of argumentation; practice in argumentative 
writing and in debate; parliamentary procedure. This course is 
prescribed during the third year. 

One hour a iveek, through the year. Dr. French. 

Note. — Additional practice in platform speaking and in debate 
is provided in English Composition 3. A more specific statement 
respecting these courses is made on page 71. 

English Literature 

1> English Literature: introductory course. 

The class will become acquainted with the course of English 
Literature from the seventh century until about 1600. Much of 
the poetry of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare will be read in 
the class-room and in private reading. This course is prescribed 
during the second year. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

2. English Literature, 1600-1774. 

First half-year: English Literature from 1600 to 1674; special 
attention will be given to the English Bible and to the works of 
Bacon and Milton. 

Second half-year: From the Restoration to the death of Gold- 
smith (1660-1774); special attention will be given to the wri- 
tings of Dryden, Addison, Steele, Swift, Pope, Gray, Goldsmith, 
and Johnson. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

3. English Literature, 1765-1892. 

First half-year: English Literature from the publication of 
Percy's Reliques to the death of Coleridge (1765-1834); the study 
will include English and Scottish Popular Ballads, and the wri- 
tings of Burns, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Shelley, Byron, and 
Scott. 

Second half-year: Tennyson and Browning; novelists and es- 
sayists since 1832. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Greene. 

4. American Literature. 

Literary history in outline; critical study of selected authors; 
written reports on assigned reading. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. French. 

5. English Literature. 

First half-year: The English Drama from its beginnings to the 
closing of the theatres in 1642. After a rapid survey of the origin 
and development of the drama in England, the greater dramatists 
of the Elizabethan and Post-Elizabethan periods will be studied 
in some detail. 



50 Programmes [G44 

Second half-year: The Rise and Development of the English 
Novel. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Mykks. 

6. English. 
First half-year: Anglo-Saxon,— Language and Literature. 
Second half-year: Middle English,— Language and Literature. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Myers. 



German 

Under this head are included German Language and 
Literature and subjects in the wider field of Germanic 
Philology. Regular instruction, through seminary and 
lectures, is given in German Literature of the older and 
newer periods, and in Gothic, Comparative Germanic 
Grammar, Old High German, and Middle High German; 
while occasional courses are offered in Old Norse, Old 
Saxon, and Old Frisian. 

Seminary 

The library of the German Seminary, to which all ad- 
vanced students have the fullest access, is open Mondays 
to Fridays from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., and Saturdays from 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m. The Seminary treats, in successive half- 
years, some theme from the period of German Classicism 
or Romanticism, and a subject from the literature of Mid- 
dle High German. During the year 1911-12 the Seminary 
will meet three times weekly. The subject for the first 
half-year will be Goethe's Faust. In the study of the 
Firsl Part, beginning with the Urfaust, the questions of 
conception and composition of the drama will be con- 
sidered, in chronological order, from the point of view of 
Goethe's mind and art. The Second Part will be in- 
terpreted in selected portions, and Goethe's draft of par- 
ticular scenes and of the uncompleted plot will be ex- 
amined, together with the Paralipomena. The Seminary 



645] German 51 

for the first half-year will be conducted by Professor 
Wood. During the second half-year two of the representa- 
tive Middle High German courtly epics will be studied, 
viz. : Hartmann von Aue's Iwein and Gottfried von Strass- 
burg's Tristan. The Seminary will be in charge of Pro- 
fessor Collitz during the second half-year. 

Students are requested to procure Goethe's Faust, the First 
Part, edited by Calvin Thomas, second edition, Boston, 1898; 
Goethe's Sammtliche Werke, Jubilaums-Ausgabe, 13 Bd. Faust, 
hrsg. Erich Schmidt Stuttgart (Cotta); Fr. Strehlke, Parali- 
pomena zu Goethe's Faust, Stuttgart, 1891; Iwein, hrsg. Benecke 
und Lachmann, 4 Ausgabe, Berlin, 1877; Tristan, hrsg. K. Marold, 
1 Band, Text, Leipzig, 1906 (Teutonia, 6. Heft). 

Germanic Society 

The Germanic Society, which includes as members all 
the instructors and advanced students in German, meets 
fortnightly. Before it are presented not only reports on 
articles in current journals, but also successive results of 
studies by the members. The chief object of the Society 
is to foster and guide the aptitude for more sustained 
individual investigation than the collective work of the 
Seminary offers scope for. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

1. The German Komantic School. 

Professor Wood. Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

The beginnings of Romanticism in German Literature will be 
studied in works of Tieck, Friedrich and August Wilhelm 
Schlegel, and Novalis. The relation of the German classicists 
(Goethe) to the new literary movement will then be considered, 
and this will be followed by the reading of representative works 
of the later German romanticists. 

2. History of German Literature in the later Seventeenth 

and the earlier Eighteenth Century. 

Professor Wood. Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

After a review of the Second Silesian literary movement, the 
critical reforms at the close of the seventeenth century will be 
considered in detail, after which a series of representative 
eighteenth century works will be read, extending to the begin- 



52 Programmes [040 

nings of German Classicism. The movements will be considered 
from the point of view of literary form, and the attempt will be 
made to characterize the various representative forms as nation- 
ally German, or as adaptations from foreign sources, or, finally, 
as an evolution from both. 

3. Gothic and the elements of Comparative Germanic 

Grammar. 
Professor Collitz. Two hours weekly, through the year. 
Students are requested to procure Braune, Gotische Grammatik, 
7. Auflage, Halle, 1909. 

4. Old High German (Introductory Course). 
Professor Collitz. Weekly, through the year. 

Braune's Abriss der Althochdeutschen Grammatik, 4. Auflage, 
Halle, 1906, will be used; also the same author's Althochdeut- 
sches Lesebuch, 6. Auflage, Halle, 1907. 

5. Keynard the Fox in Middle Low German. 
Professor Collitz. Weekly, -first half-year. 

Students are requested to procure the edition of Reinke de Vos 
by A. Lubben, Oldenburg, 1867. 

G. Middle High German (Introductory Course). 

Associate Professor Kurrelmeyer. Twice weekly, first half-year. 

Paul, Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 7. Auflage, Halle, 1908; 
Bachmann, Mittelhochdeutsches Leseouch, 4. Auflage, Zurich, 1909. 

7. Goethe's Clavigo and Die Mitschuldigen. 

Associate Professor Kurrelmeyer. Weekly, second half-year. 

From the point of view of recent text criticism, the attempt 
will be made to reconstruct the authentic form of the two dramas, 
as compared with the text in the Ausgabe letzter Hand. 

Special Courses 

*1. Scientific German. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Kur- 
relmeyer. 

*2. Historical German. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

'■>. German Conversation. 

Weekly, through the year. Mr. Hofmann. 

*Courses 1 and 2 are for graduates who lack the ability to read 
German at sight. 



G47] German 53 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

German Elements. 

Yos, Essentials of German; Gerstacker, Germelshausen; 

Keller, Kleider machen Leute; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 

heiraten; von Wildenbruch, Das edle Blut; Prose 

Composition; Grammar. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Kur- 

RELMEYER. 

This course is intended only for students who have matricu- 
lated in Greek. For such students, it absolves the requirements 
in German for the baccalaureate degree; other students must 
absolve course 1. 

German 1. 

Modern Prose Readings : C. F. Meyer, von Saar, Fulda, 
Keller, Sudermann. 

Section I. Dr. Roulston. Three hours weekly, through the 
year. 

Section II. Associate Professor Kurrelmeyer. Three hours 
weekly, through the year. 

Prose Composition. 

Weekly through the year. Professor Wood (First half-year) ; 
Dr. Roulston (Second half-year). 

Private Reading. 

German 2. 
Classical Authors: Schiller, Maria Stuart, Die Braut 

von Messina; Goethe, Hermann und Dorothea. 
Twice weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 
Prose Composition. 
Weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 
Private Reading. 

German 3. 

Goethe, Faust, Tasso, Iphigenie. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Wood (First 
half-year); Dr. Roulston (Second half-year). 

History of Literature (Classical Period). Lyrics and 
Ballads. 

Weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

The work in Goethe and in the History of Literature, etc., may 
be taken separately. 

German 4. 

Contemporary Literature, in rapid readings. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Associate Professor Kur- 
relmeyer. 



54 Programmes [048 

German 5. 

Historical Headings. 

Schiller, Der dreissigjdhrige Krieg ; Freytag, Aus dem Jahrhun- 
dert der grossen Krieges; von Sybel, Die Erhebung Europas, 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Roulston. 

German 6. 

Scientific German. 

Lassar-Cohn, Die Chemie im tdglichen Leben; von Helmholtz, 
TJeoer Goethes naturwissenschaftliche Arbeiten; Walther, Allge- 
meine Meereskunde. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor Kub- 

RELMEYER. 

This course is open to students who have completed Course 1. 
German 7. 
German Conversation. 
Weekly, through the year. Mr. Hofmanx. 



Komance Languages 



Instruction is provided in the three leading Romance 
languages and literatures, and the advanced work is so 
arranged that the student may elect any one of the three 
as his principal subject of study. 

In addition to lectures and regular class exercises, 
there is a French, a Spanish, and an Italian Seminary, 
each one of which provides practical training in methods 
of independent research and may be participated in 
by such students as show sufficient preparation. The 
Romance Journal Club, composed of the staff and 
graduate students of the department, furnishes an oppor- 
tunity, at its weekly meetings, for discussion of some of 
the more important current literature bearing on the 
Romance Languages and for the presentation of such 
original papers by its members as do not fall within the 
scope of the Seminaries. 

The library facilities of the University, recently en 
larged by the addition of the A. Marshall Elliott Library 
are further supplemented by the numerous Romanc< 
works in the Peabody and Enoch Pratt Libraries, am 



041)] Romance Languages 55 

by the readily accessible material in the Library of 
Congress. 

Certain of the courses are conducted entirely in French ; 
preliminary instruction is provided in the undergraduate 
department for students who are not equipped to follow 
these courses as regular members. 

Courses marked (*) will be given at an afternoon hour, 
or in the forenoon of Saturday. 

ADVANCED COURSES 

French 

French Seminary (Language) : Studies in Word His- 
tory. 

Professor Armstrong. Two hours fortnightly. 
French Seminary (Literature) : Flaubert, Salammbo. 

Associate Professor Terracher. Two hours fortnightly. 
French Syntax: Verb. 

Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 
French Phonology and Morphology. 

Professor Armstrong. Two hours weekly. 
•Phonetics and French Pronunciation. 

Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 
•Interpretation of Early Old French Texts (Foerster and 

Koschwitz, Altfranzbsisches Ueoungsbuch). 

Professor Armstrong. Weekly. 
Les premieres epopees francaises : conferences et interpre- 
tation des textes (Gormond et Isembart, he pelerinage 

de Charlemagne, La chanson de Guillaume, La chanson 

de Roland). 

Associate Professor Terracher. Two hours weekly. 
La litterature francaise au XVI e siecle (Darmesteter et 

Hatzfeld, Le seizieme siecle en France). 

Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
•French Literature in the Seventeenth Century (lectures 

and extensive reading). 

Associate Professor Brush. Weekly. 



56 Programmes [G50 

♦Voltaire. 

Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 
Explications franchises (Marcou, Morceaux choisis, poetes 

et prosateurs). 

Associate Professor Terracher. Weekly. 



A course of fortnightly lectures, under the auspices of the 
Alliance Francaise of Baltimore, will be given by Pro- 
fessor P. F. Giroud on "Le theatre en France pendant 
la Revolution et sous FEmpire." 



Spanish 

Spanish Seminary: The Spanish Ballad. 

Professor Marden. Two hours weekly. 
Spanish Historical Grammar. 

Professor Marden. Two hours weekly. 
'Readings in Old Spanish Literature (Poema del Cid and 

other texts). 

Professor Marden. Weekly. 
The Beginnings of Spanish Literature. 

Professor Marden. Weekly. 

Italian 

Italian Seminary: The Inferno of Dante. 
Associate Professor Shaw. Two hours weekly. 

Italian Historical Grammar. 
Associate Professor Shaw. Two hours weekly. 

*The Poetry of Giosue Carducci : lectures and text inter- 
pretation. 
Associate Professor Shaw. Weekly. 

General 

Introduction to Gallic Folk Latin. 
Professor Armstrong. Two hours weekly, first half-year. 

Romance Paleography. 

Db. Keidel. Weekly. 

Romance Journal Club. 

Weekly. 



651] Romance Languages 57 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

French 
French Elements. 

a. The Essentials of Grammar. Fraser and Squair, 

French Grammar, Part I. 
J). Easy French Texts : Dumas, Le Chevalier de Maison 
Rouge; Labiche, La Grammaire; About, La Mere de 
la marquise; Augier, Le Gendre de M. Poirier. 
Four hours weekly, through the year. Mr. GrUnbaum. 
This course is intended only for students who have matricu- 
lated in Greek, and have fully met at entrance the matriculation 
requirements; for such students, it absolves the requirements in 
French for the baccalaureate degree. Other students must take 
French 1. 

French 1 (Intermediate Course). 

a. Modern French Prose Writers: Dumas, Daudet, 
Coppee, Maupassant, Merimee, Labiche and Martin, 
Augier, Theuriet, Hugo, Balzac. Classics: Cor- 
neille, Le Cid; Racine, Andromaque; Moliere, Le 
Bourgeois Gentilhomme, les Femmes savantes. 

o. Grammar and composition based on a French text. 
Exercises in pronunciation and dictation. 

c. Private Beading : Foncin, Le Pays de France; For- 
tier, Eistoire de France; Lamartine, Scenes de la 
Revolution jrancaise. 

Four hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush, Mr. Grunbaum, and Mr. Blossom. 

French 2 (Advanced Course). 

a. The Nineteenth Century. Readings from Hugo, La- 
martine, Gautier, Alfred de Vigny, Alfred de Mus- 
set, Balzac, Flaubert, Zola, Maupassant, France, 
Loti, Bazin. Bowen's French Lyrics. 
&. Prose composition; dictation. 

c. Lectures on French literature and on French life. 

d. Private reading. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 



58 Programmes [ 052 

French 3. 

Classics of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 
Headings from Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Lesage, Vol- 
taire, Rousseau. Warren's French Prose of the Seven* 
teenth Century. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 

French 4. 

The Development of the Novel. 

Lectures; private reading. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Brush. 

French 5. 
Advanced Composition. 
Weekly, through the year. Mr. Blossom. 

French 6. 
Readings in Historical and Scientific French Prose. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Mr. Grunbaum. 

Open to students who have had one year of preparatory French. 

French 7. 
Exercises in French Conversation. 

Weekly, through the year. Mr. Blossom. 
University credit is not given for courses 6 and 7. 

Spanish 

1. Hills and Ford, Spanish Grammar; Prose Composi 
tion ; Isla, Gil Bias; Alarcon, El Capitdn Yeneno, 
Palacio Valdes, Jose. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Marden. 
This course is adapted to beginners. 

2 Perez Galdos, Dona Perfecta; Pereda, Pedro Sanchez 
Ruiz de Alarcon, La verdad sospechosa; Calderoi 
La vida es sueno; Cervantes, Don Quixote. 
Grammar and Prose Composition. History of Span- 
ish Literature. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Mr. Blossom. 
This course is open to students who have completed course 1 or 
Its equivalent. 



653] History 59 

Italian 

1. Grandgent, Italian Grammar; Marinoni, Italian 

Reader; Fogazzaro, Pereat Rochus. 
Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Shaw. 

2. Grandgent, Italian Grammar, Italian Composition. 

Selections from classic authors. A text-book of 
Italian Literature. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Associate Professor 
Shaw. 



History 

Facilities for research are offered in the principal fields 
of history. Special attention is given to methods of in- 
vestigation and each advanced student comes under the 
personal direction of the instructors in his chosen field. 
This supervision is obtained through seminary meetings 
and frequent private consultation. 

In addition to the library of the university, students 
make use of the admirable collections of source material 
in the Peabody Library and the Maryland Historical 
Society, and are in constant touch with the great re- 
sources of the Library of Congress and the departments 
in Washington. The university library has recently re- 
ceived large and important accessions of historical works 
and documentary material. 

GRADUATE COURSES 

European History. The courses in European History 
direct attention to the social, economic, and constitu- 
tional development of European peoples. The subjects 
follow in consecutive order, the topics for each year form- 
ing a complete and independent group. The series re- 



60 Programmes [054 

quires three years for completion and offers opportuni- 
ties for close study of selected portions of the mediaeval 
and early modern history of the Continent. A weekly 
seminary is held for the study of problems in European 
history and institutions. 

Courses in Latin palaeography and in French palaeog- 
raphy are given in their respective departments. 

English History. The constitutional and social history 
of England is treated in connection with the correspond- 
ing periods in European history. A part of the seminary 
work is devoted to problems in this field and direction 
is given to further special research. 

American History. The courses in American History 
are arranged in a cycle of three years. They begin with 
the history of British colonization in America and deal 
with the constitutional and economic growth of the col- 
onies and the constitutional and political history of the 
United States after 1783. A weekly seminary is held for 
research in special subjects in American History. 

Ancient History. The courses in Ancient History take 
into consideration the constitutional, social, artistic, and 
economic development of the peoples of Greece and Italy. 
Special attention is given to the historical evidence fur- 
nished by epigraphy and archaeology. The constitutional 
history of Greece and Kome is supplemented by lectures 
on the Eoman Law. Certain portions of Oriental History 
are treated in the departments of Semitics and Sanskrit. 

Special Lectures. The Albert Shaw Lectures on Dip- 
lomatic History are given annually by investigators in 
selected fields of American and foreign relations. The 
scope of the lectures is not confined to the United States, 
but lectures on European diplomatic history will also 
find their due place. The course for 1910-11 was given by 
Dr. C. O. Paullin, of Washington, D. C, on "The Diplo- 
matic Activity of the American Navy in the Far East." 
In 1911-12 the lecturer will be Professor Isaac J. Cox, of 



G55] History 61 

the University of Cincinnati, on the diplomatic negotia- 
tions connected with the annexation of West Florida. 

The James Schonler Lectures in History and Political 
Science are given annually by lecturers of prominence, 
upon topics indicated in the title of the lectureship. 
These lectures are open to the public as well as to the 
students and members of the University. The course for 
1909 was given by Dr. Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Presi- 
dent of Harvard University, and that for 1910 by George 
Walter Prothero, Litt. D., formerly professor of history 
in the University of Edinburgh, now editor of the 
Quarterly Review and Honorary Fellow of Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. The lecturer for 1911 was Professor 
John Bassett Moore, of Columbia University. 

Other lectures of interest to the students of this de- 
partment, either open to the public or designed for class 
instruction, are given from time to time by distinguished 
scholars outside the university. These lectures are, in 
part, provided for from the income of the fund bequeathed 
by the late Professor Herbert B. Adams. 

Historical and Political Science Association. This 
monthly meeting of the instructors and students of the 
departments of history, political economy, and political 
science affords an opportunity to hear addresses from 
prominent specialists, to consider important movements 
and undertakings, and to present critical reviews of re- 
cent publications in the fields of history, political econ- 
omy, and political science. 

For the year 1911-12 courses will be given as follows: 

Professor Vincent. 

1. Constitutional History of England. 

After a rapid review of the beginnings of parliamentary gov- 
ernment, the course will devote special attention to the period 
from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. 



62 Programmes [656 

2. The Reformation. 

With the study of the religious questions will be included the 
economic and social conditions which accompanied the movement 
in western Europe. 

One hour weekly, through the year. 

3. Seminary of European and English History. 

Two hours, alternate weeks, through the year. 
Professor Ballagh. 

1. The Development of the American Revolution. 
One hour weekly, first half year. 

2. The Sources and Formation of the United States 

Constitution. 
One hour weekly, second half year. 

3. History of the United States Public Land System. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

4. Seminary in American History. 
Two hours, alternate weeks. 

Dr. Magoffin. 

1. History of Greece during the Hellenistic Period. 
One hour weekly, through the year. 

2. History of Rome and Italy from 133 to 44 B. C. 

One hour weekly, through the year. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES. 

1. History of Greece and Rome. 

The political and constitutional history of Greece and Rome, 
approached through the translated texts of Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Suetonius, Tacitus, and others, with the aid of modern authorities. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Dr. Magoffin. 

2. European History. [To be given in 1912-13.] 

From the decline of the Roman Empire to the nineteenth cen- 
tury, dealing with the Romano-Barbarian kingdoms, the empire 
of Charles the Great, feudalism, the crusades, empire and papacy, 
renaissance, the Protestant revolution, the religious wars, eigh- 
teenth century states and the doctrine of the balance of power, 
the French Revolution, the Napoleonic period, and the reorganiza- 
tion of Europe in the nineteenth century. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Vincent. 



G57] Political Economy 63 



3. English History. 

Chiefly constitutional and political, dealing with the origins and 
development of parliamentary institutions, the relations of Eng- 
land with Continental Europe, and the modern expansion of tho 
British Empire. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. [Tuesday, Thursday, 
Friday, 9 a. m.] Professor Vincent. 

4. American History. 

Colonial history and institutions, the formation of the Union, 
the development of constitutional government and law, the growth 
of foreign policy, the expansion of the nation. Emphasis will be 
laid on the national period, and the subject will be brought to the 
close of the nineteenth century. Open to students who have had 
History 2 or 3 or Political Economy 1. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Professor Ballagh. 



Political Economy 
graduate courses 



The graduate instruction in Political Economy is de- 
signed primarily to meet the needs of advanced students 
preparing for a professional career in economic science. 
The courses afford systematic instruction in general eco- 
nomic principles, intimate acquaintance with special 
fields of economic activity, and, most important of all, 
knowledge of and ability to employ sound methods of 
economic research. The work centers in the Economic 
Seminary, the membership of which is limited to the most 
advanced students, and the primary design of which is to 
develop scientific research in economic study and in- 
vestigation. 

Formal graduate instruction is offered in Economic 
Theory and in Applied Economics, by parallel courses of 
lectures throughout the year. The particular topics 
treated vary from year to year. In 1909-10 Professor Hol- 
lander lectured two hours weekly on the economic system 
of David Kicardo, and two hours weekly on the history 
and theory of taxation. During the year 1910-11 atten- 



64 Programmes [658 

tion was given in the course on economic theory to the 
principles of political economy. In the course on applied 
economics, careful study was made of the history 
and theory of municipal finance. Professor Barnett 
lectured during the first half-year on the history of in- 
dustrial corporations and during the second half-year on 
the regulation of corporations. Special courses of lec- 
tures were given during the year by Dr. Frank R. Butter, 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor, on "The 
Tariff Problem;" by Professor Thomas W. Page, of the 
University of Virginia, on "Immigration;" and by Mr. 
Logan G. McPherson, Director of the Bureau of Railway 
Economics, on "Transportation." 
The courses offered for 1911-12 are as follows : 

1. The Economic Seminary. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professors Hollander 
and Barnett. 

The work of the year will continue to be a systematic study of 
the history, structure, and activities of labor organizations in the 
United States. 

2. Economic Theories since Adam Smith. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hollander. 

A critical survey will be made of the development of funda- 
mental concepts of economic science from Adam Smith to current 
thought. The topical or cross-sectional method of treatment will 
be adopted, and the history of the theories of Wages, Interest, 
Profits, Rent, Value, Production, Distribution, and Consumption 
will be successively reviewed. 

3. American Public Finance. 

Two hours weekly, through the year. Professor Hollander. 

The financial experiences of the States and Territories of the 
United States will be taken as the basis for critical and compara- 
tive study. Attention will be paid to recent tendencies in com- 
monwealth taxation and exercise will be afforded in the use of 
original sources of financial information. 

4. Banking. 

One hour weekly, through the year. Professor Barnett. 

During the first half-year the history of American banking will 
be considered. During the second half-year attention will be 
given to a comparative study of modern banking systems. 



659] Political Economy 65 

Special courses of lectures will be given by non-resident lec- 
turers upon such practical economic problems as charities and 
correction, railway transportation, industrial organization. 

A reading class is organized yearly by the more advanced stu- 
dents of the department for the co-operative study of economic 
texts and for the critical discussion of current economic literature. 

In co-operation with the departments of history and political 
science, opportunity is offered in the Historical and Political 
Science Association for the presentation and discussion of origi- 
nal papers in economic science by instructors and invited speakers, 
and for the review by students of current publications of impor- 
tance in these fields. 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. (a) Economic History. 

The economic development of England from the tenth century 
to the present time and the most important experiences of the 
United States are studied. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Baexett. 
(&) Elements of Economics. 

Particular attention is given to the theory of distribution and 
its application to leading economic problems. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Baexett. 

2. (a) Finance. 

The theory and practice of finance are considered, with partic- 
ular reference to problems of taxation as presented in the experi- 
ence of the United States. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Hollaxdeb. 
(o) Money and Banking. 

The principles of monetary science are taught with reference to 
practical conditions in modern systems of currency, banking, and 
credit. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Baexett. 

3. (a) Statistical Methods. 

After a preliminary study of the value and place of statistics as 
an instrument of investigation, attention is directed to the chief 
methods used in statistical inquiry. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. Professor Baexett. 
(6) Economic Theory. 

Critical study is made of recent economic theories. 

Three hours weekly, second half-year. Professor Hollander. 

Note. — Undergraduate Course 2 is open only to such students as 
have completed Course 1; and, save under exceptional circum- 
stances, Course 3 only to students who have completed 1 and 2. 



60 Programmes [GGO 

Political Science 
graduate courses 

The graduate work in Political Science has for its aim 
the preparation of advanced students for professional 
and original work in the fields of Constitutional Law, 
International Law and Diplomacy, and Political Phi- 
losophy. It seeks also to supply the necessary training for 
those desiring to enter the higher branches of the public 
service, and to furnish a broad and philosophical equip- 
ment to those who expect later to pursue the study and 
practice of the law. 

Seminary 

In addition to the Historical and Political Science As- 
sociation, at which the students of the departments of 
History, Economics, and Political Science meet jointly 
for the presentation of papers by the instructors and by 
invited speakers, a fortnightly Seminary is conducted by 
Professor Willoughby, at which reports upon special sub- 
jects are read by the students and discussed. 

Journal Club 

A fortnightly meeting of the advanced students, under 
the direction of Professor Willoughby, is held for the dis- 
cussion of current political literature — books and periodi- 
cals. 

Lectures 

The lectures are so arranged as to give three or more 
years of continuous instruction, covering the following 
subjects: The Theory of the State (being a general in- 
troduction to the study of Constitutional and Interna- 
tional Law), Foreign Constitutional Law, United State* 



GG1] Political Science 67 

Constitutional Law, the Legal Aspects of Economic and 
Industrial Problems, the History of Political Theories 
and of Political Literature, and Historical Jurisprudence. 
During the year 1911-12 the following courses will be 
given : 

1. United States Constitutional Law. Professor Wil- 

LOUGHBY. 

Three hours weekly, first half-year. 

This course is in continuation and completion of the course 
given in 1910-11. 

2. Introduction to the Study of Public Law; Principles 

of Political Philosophy. Professor Willoughby. 
Three hours weekly, second half-year. 

3. Political Theories and Political Literature in France 

in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Pro- 
fessor Willoughby. 
One hour weekly, throughout the year. 

4. Principles of International Law. Dr. J. B. Scott. 
One hour weekly, throughout the year. 

This course is a continuation of the one given in 1910-11. 

5. The Principles and Practice of Diplomacy. Dr. J. B. 

Scott. 
One hour weekly, throughout the year. 
Undergraduate instruction in Political Science is given 
in the departments of History and Economics. 



68 Programmes [662 

Philosophy, Psychology, and Education 

graduate courses 

The graduate work of the department takes different 
directions according as the chief interest of the student 
lies in the field of Philosophy, in Experimental and Com- 
parative Psychology, or in Education. 

In Philosophy, opportunity is offered for specialization 
in systematic philosophy, in logic and the philosophy of 
natural science, in the history of philosophy, or in ethics. 
In Psychology, the student may center his study upon 
human psychology, animal behavior, or psychiatry. In 
Education, the work recognizes the bearing of the histori- 
cal and theoretical material upon present practical 
problems. 

The student's program during the first and second 
years is adapted, so far as possible, to his individual 
needs and his purposes as teacher or investigator. In 
the third year, the student concentrates upon the topic 
of his dissertation. 

Graduate Conference. 

Meetings of all the instructors and graduate students are held 
as occasion may arise for the presentation of the results of work 
of members of the department, for hearing papers by invited 
guests, and for the informal discussion of important recent publi- 
cations. 



Philosophy 

1 . Seminary. 

Individual work to be separately arranged for each student un- 
der the direction of Professor Lovejoy. The work will consist of 
required reading, methodical analysis of problems, the presenta- 
tion of a connected series of fortnightly or monthly papers, and 
frequent conferences with the instructor. 

2. British Empiricism. 

Professor Griffin. One hour a week, through the year. 
:> >. Post-Kantian Philosophy : Fichte and Schelling. 
Professor Buchner. One hour a week, through the year. 



663] Philosophy, Psychology and Education 69 

4. Contemporary Tendencies in Metaphysics and Epis- 

temology. 
Professor Lovejoy. Two hours a week, through the year. 

5. English Ethics from Hobbes to Price. 
Professor Griffin. One hour a week, through the year. 

6. The Ethical Theory of Distribution. 

Professor Lovejoy. One hour a week, through the year. 



Psychology 

7. Introduction to Experimental Psychology. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Lectures and laboratory exercises, 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, 2 to 4 p. m. 

8. Experimental Psychology (Research Course). 
Professor Watson and Associate Professor Dunlap. Two hours 

a week, through the year. 

9. Introduction to Comparative Psychology. 
Professor Watson. Lectures and laboratory exercises. Two 

hours a week, through the year. 

10. Comparative Psychology (Research Course). 
Professor Watson. Two hours a week, through the year. 

11. Advanced General Psychology. 

Professor Watson. Two hours a week, through the year. 

12. Psychological Journal Club. 
One hour a week, through the year. 

(For related courses, see under Biology in this Circular, and 
under Psychiatry in the Catalogue of the Faculty of Medicine.) 



Education 

13. Seminary. 

Professor Buchner. Two hours a week, through the year. 
The work of the year will be a study of the history and princi- 
ples of secondary education. 

14. Educational Psychology. 

Professor Buchner. One hour a week, through the year. 

In this course, which is a continuation of the one given in 
1910-11, attention will be paid to the psychology of school activi- 
ties. 



70 Programmes [664 

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 

1. a. Deductive and Inductive Logic. 

Creighton's Introductory Logic is at present used as a text-book, 
with references to the works of Jevons, Mill, Bain, Keynes, and 
other writers. 

Professor Gkiffin. Three hours weekly, until Christmas. 
o. Psychology. 

Text-books, liable to change from year to year, are made the 
basis of instruction, but the subject is presented largely through 
informal lectures and discussions, and by means of passages in 
various authors assigned for reading. A series of lectures and 
demonstrations on physiological and experimental psychology is 
included in the course. One essay on an assigned subject is re- 
quired from each member of the class. 

Professor Watson. Four hours weekly, January to April. 
c. Ethics. 

The subject is taught by lectures, recitations from a text-book — 
Mackenzie's Manual of Ethics being used at present — and refer- 
ences to the works of the most important writers. 

Professor Griffin. Three hours weekly, after April 1. 

2. Outlines of the History of Philosophy. 

Rogers's Student's History of Philosophy, Weber's History or 
Philosophy, and other works of reference, are used as the basis of 
lectures, discussions, and recitations. 

Professor Griffin. Two hours weekly, through the year; a 
third hour, for readings from the works of leading philosophers, 
may be taken. 

All candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts are 
required to follow Course 1 during the last year of resi- 
dence. 



Drawing 

1. Freehand Drawing. 

The instruction aims to teach students the principles of seeing 
and rendering correctly any object or group of objects. 

The practical value of this training is found in the illustration 
of lectures and laboratory work in biology and medicine. 

Students looking forward to teaching as a profession will find 
the ability to clearly demonstrate their lectures by means of draw- 
ings to be of great service. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Mr. Whiteman. 



665] Public Speaking — Physical Training 71 

2. Descriptive Geometry and Mechanical Drawing. 

This course is offered to students who intend studying archi- 
tecture or engineering. The work consists of lectures in the 
theory, and of the practical application in working problems. 
The study of linear perspective and the perspective of shadows, 
together with orthographic and isometric projections, is taken 
up later in the course. 

Three hours weekly, through the year. Mr. Whiteman. 



Public Speaking and Debate 

A course in reading and platform speaking is required 
of undergraduate students in their second year. For the 
sake of convenience in instruction, the class is divided 
into several small sections, to each of which is devoted 
one hour a week. A course in debating, which involves 
the study of parliamentary law, the collection and ar- 
rangement of material, and frequent practice in debate 
under the direction of an instructor, is assigned to stu- 
dents in their third year. The work of the two years is 
counted as a half -course. During the fourth year oppor- 
tunity for a more detailed study of the art of debate and 
for practice in argumentative composition is open to 
those who desire it. Prize contests in public speaking 
and in debate are held annually, and one intercollegiate 
debate is, as a rule, undertaken each year. 



Physical Training and Athletics 

The authorities of the university, recognizing the im- 
portance of systematic physical exercise under suitable 
advice, have placed the gymnasium in charge of Dr. 
Ronald T. Abercrombie, and have put the work of this 
department on a parity with the work done in the regular 
courses of study. 



72 Programmes [666 

A careful physical and medical examination is made of 
each undergraduate, and such exercises are prescribed as 
are best suited to his needs. During his first year of resi- 
dence, he is required to follow the prescribed gymnasium 
course, which includes also his attendance on a course in 
hygiene. Kegular class instruction is given every after- 
noon from five to six o'clock. The use of the gymnasium 
is optional in the case of graduate students ; it is offered 
to all members of the university upon payment of the 
ordinary locker fee. 

The gymnasium — 127 feet long by 35 feet wide— is pro- 
vided with convenient lockers, baths, etc., as well as with 
the newest forms of apparatus. Adjoining the gymna- 
sium proper is a "cage" — an enclosed and covered space 
for practice in running and in athletic sports — 127 feet 
long, 66 feet wide, and 30 feet high. 

"Hopkins Field," the athletic ground at Homewood, is 
now in use by the students. In its construction special 
attention was paid to the problem of drainage, and in 
this respect the field is well-nigh perfect. It is enclosed 
by one of the best quarter-mile cinder tracks in the 
country, with a 220-yard "straightaway." A club-house 
provides dressing rooms, lockers, and shower baths. Two 
stands built of ferro-concrete and accommodating each 
about fifteen hundred spectators have been erected. 
Immediately adjoining Hopkins Field are well-equipped 
tennis courts. 

In order to prevent ill-advised participation in out- 
door sports, and to guard against over-indulgence in 
training, the athletic teams of the university are under 
the control of the director of the gymnasium. No student 
is allowed to become a member of a team unless his physi- 
cal condition is satisfactory and his "strength test" up to 
the prescribed standard; and no student is allowed to be 
a member of, or a candidate for, an athletic team, who 
is seriously deficient in his studies. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 

1911-12 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Educa- 
tion and Philosophy. 

John B. Van Meter, Professor of Bible in English, 
Goucher College. 

Harry L. Wilson, Professor of Roman Archaeology and 
Epigraphy. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these 
courses may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns 
Hopkins University, and are to be filled up and returned 
to the Chairman of the Committee, on or before Septem- 
ber 23, 1911. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first 
floor, daily from September 23 to October 7 (3-5 p. m., 
Monday to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday). Regular consul- 
tation hours, 11 a. m., daily, and 5 p. m., Tuesdays. 



73 



74 



Programmes 



[668 



INSTRUCTORS IN THE COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Ira Remsen, LL. D., President 



Henry Wood, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., Education 

Professor of Education and Philosophy. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Associate Professor of French. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Robert Bruce Roulston, Ph. D., German 

Associate in German. 
Charles W. Hodell, Ph. D., English 

Professor of English Language and Literature in 
Goucher College. 
Clara Latimer Bacon, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Mathematics in Goucher 
College. 
Annie Heloise Abel, Ph. D., History 

Associate Professor of History in Goucher College. 



669] College Courses for Teachers 75 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering 
from time to time extended and systematic courses of 
public lectures. These have included a great variety of 
subjects and have followed different methods of treat- 
ment. Almost continuously since 1890 special courses of 
class lectures or "lesson courses" have been given from 
year to year, and many teachers and other persons in 
Baltimore and vicinity have availed themselves of these 
opportunities for systematic instruction in the subjects 
selected. Many teachers have completed one or more of 
these courses of public educational lectures at the Uni- 
versity and have received certificates upon passing the 
required examinations. All this work has been done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lec- 
tures open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve 
a larger constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public 
service, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-opera- 
tion with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 
courses of instruction to teachers whose vocation pre- 
vents their attendance upon college lectures and recita- 
tions at the usual hours. The same arrangement is con- 
i tinued as a basis for the courses announced below for 
1911-1912. It is the primary aim of these courses to pro- 
vide the teachers in our public and private schools with 
! special opportunities for further personal culture and 
! for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
\ These courses are similar in character, so far as quality 
and extent of instruction are concerned, to the correspond- 
ing courses given in college classes. In order to give fur- 



7G Programmes [070 

ther encouragement to teachers in service to carry on 
extended systematic study, this plan of college courses 
for teachers also provides that satisfactory work accom- 
plished in these courses will be credited, under suitable 
regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHEH COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties 
of the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. 
These courses will be open to men and women alike, and 
will be carried on independently of the regular collegiate 
instruction of the institutions. In the case of women who 
may desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate 
degree, it is provided that such credits as they may 
acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by 
Goucher College toward the degree. A similar provision 
is made by the Collegiate Department of the Johns 
Hopkins University in the case of those men who desire 
to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total credits 
of sixty units or hours are required for graduation in 
each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible 
at the Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, 
classes and laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher 
College. 



.-v 



ADMISSION 



The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 
matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in 
its Collegiate Department, and to the entrance require- 
ments prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory 
training desirable for the successful pursuit of these 



671] College Courses for Teachers 77 

courses is that represented by the completion of a 
standard four-year high school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either 
of the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 
(6) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 
(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 
In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy 
of preparation, the applicant may be admitted provision- 
ally and be given an opportunity to prove his or her 
ability to sustain the work undertaken. Admission to 
any particular course will depend upon adequate prepara- 
tion for the pursuit of that course. 

Applications for admission to these courses must be 
presented to the Committee in charge of College Courses 
for Teachers. 



ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity are referred to the circular descriptive of "The 
Collegiate Instruction of the Johns Hopkins University," 
1911, pp. 50-58, for a detailed statement of the require- 
ments for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for 
the same degree in Goucher College, are referred to 
the "Program of the Woman's College of Baltimore," 
1911, pp. 18-31, for a detailed statement of the correspond- 
ing requirements in this institution. This circular may 
be had by addressing the Registrar. 



78 Programmes [G72 

As a final requirement before the degree can be con- 
ferred by either institution, the candidate must spend at 
least one year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the 
Johns Hopkins University upon men only. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1911-1912 represent for the 
most part the work usually required in the first and 
second college years. In case there is a sufficient demand 
on the part of properly qualified persons for courses 
in advance of these, an effort will be made to arrange 
for such instruction. In considering applications for 
advanced standing the Committee will be guided by the 
regulations in force, in such cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the 
same rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, 
namely : 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. 
Where laboratory fees are required they are additional. 
Three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one 
hour of recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in Octo- 
ber and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the 
Johns Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. 
Before payment of fees can be made, applicants must 
receive from the Committee in charge a card stating the 
courses to be taken. 

SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 10, 1911, and close on Saturday, June 1, 1912. 



673] 



College Courses for Teachers 



79 



Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. 
Class-room and laboratory exercises will be given in the 
afternoon from Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual college recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admission are to be filed with the 
Chairman of the Committee in charge of the College 
Courses for Teachers, the Johns Hopkins University, on 
or before September 23, 1911. 



SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

( Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10—5.00 P. M. 


5.10— 6.00 P. M. 


Tuesday- 


Education (Buchner) 
French (Brush) 
German (Wood and 

Roulston) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English Composition (French) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Algebra, Geometry (Bacon) 


Wednesday 


History (Abel) 


Calculus (Bacon) 

English Literature (Hodell) 


Thursday 


French (Brush) 
German (Wood and 

Roulston) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English Composition (French) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Algebra, Geometry (Bacon) 


Friday 


Education (Buchner) 
History (Abel) 


Calculus (Bacon) 




9.00— 10.00 A. M. 


10.00 A. M. 


Saturday 


French (Brush) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Algebra, Geometry 
(Bacon) 


Chemistry (Gilpin) (10—1) 
English Literature (Hodell) 
(10-11) 



80 Programmes [074 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten appli- 
cants may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, which will be allowed for successful 
completion of each of the courses mentioned below, can 
be determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by 
experiments and will be supplemented by occasional con- 
densed reviews written at home. The work is based on 
Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and will cover the 
field of inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the 
laboratory students will repeat experiments chosen from 
those performed in the class-room, and will make simple 
inorganic preparations. Two hours class-work, three 
hours laboratory work weekly. 

A laboratory fee of f 5.00 will be charged to cover the 
cost of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, 
which is loaned with charge for breakage only. (The 
minimum expense for breakage has been $1.63; the aver- 
age $3.00.) 

Associate Professors Gilpin and Lovelace. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education 

This introductory course on the principles of education 
will undertake a study of the processes of education with 
a view to understanding the work of the school and the 
various factors in individual development. The work is 
based on Henderson's Textbook in the Principles of 
Education. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



675] College Courses for Teachers 81 

Advanced English Composition 

This course will consist of the study and practice of 
the forms of prose discourse as exemplified in the works 
of selected authors, and will afford opportunity for exer- 
cises in oral as well as in written English. It will pre- 
suppose some previous work in English Composition of 
collegiate grade. For the sake of effectiveness in the 
conduct of the class, the enrollment will be limited to 
fifteen. 

Dr. French. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

English Literature 

The plays of Shakespeare, as related to the develop- 
ment of his mind and art; the history of the Pre- 
Shakespearian and Shakespearian drama; discussion of 
the salient features of dramatic art. 

Professor Hodbll. Wednesday, 5.10 p. m., and Satur- 
day, 10.00 a. m. 

French 

In French, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered : 

1. A course in the elements of French adapted to those 
who wish to begin the study of French or who have had 
only a partial introduction to the language. The work 
will include the principles of grammar, pronunciation, 
translation and composition. The following text books 
will be used: Fraser and Squair, French Grammar y 
Part I; Labiche, La Grammaire; Greville, Dosia; About, 
La Mere de la Marquise; Sandeau, Mile, de la Seigliere. 

Associate Professor Brush. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. A course in advanced French on the development 
of the novel, together with weekly exercises in syntax and 
composition. 

Associate Professor Brush. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m. 



82 Programmes [676 

German 

A course in German, two hours weekly through, the 
year, embracing the two classical periods of German 
literature will be offered. 

During the first half-year, the elements of Middle High 
German will be studied, after which the poems of Walther 
von der Vogelweide will be read in class. 

Professor Wood. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

Candidates are requested to procure Hermann Paul, 
Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 7th Auflage, Halle, 1908; 
Walther von der Yogelweide, hrsg. W. Wilmanns [Ger- 
manistische Handbibliothek, hrsg. Julius Zacher I.], 
Halle, 1883. 

During the second half-year, the later classical period 
(18th and 19th century, centering in Goethe and Schiller), 
will be passed in review, in readings and class work. 

Dr. Roulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

History 

In History, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered, each fundamental in its nature and adapted to 
the particular needs of those electing it : 

1. A course in American History that shall include 
Colonial History and United States National History to 
1876. 

2. A course in Mediaeval History that shall confine 
itself to characteristic institutions and to great move- 
ments. Considerable collateral reading will be required 
and periodical work with sources made obligatory. A 
syllabus will be used, but no special text-book. 

Associate Professor Abel. Wednesday and Friday, 
4.10 p. m. 



677] College Courses for Teachers 83 

Latin 

In Latin, one of two alternative courses will be offered : 

1. A course similar to undergraduate Latin 1 : Livy 
(selections) ; Terence (one play) ; Vergil, Bucolics; 
Catullus (selections) ; Prose Composition; Private Read- 
ing (Cicero, Cato Maior; Vergil, Aeneid, bk. VIII). 

Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m., 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. A course similar to undergraduate Latin II: 
Tacitus, Annals (selections) ; Pliny's Letters (selec- 
tions) ; Horace Odes and Epodes; Private Reading (Taci- 
tus, Ge.rma.nia; Horace, selected Satires and Epistles). 

Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

Mathematics 

In Mathematics, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered : 

1. Algebra and Analytic Geometry. 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
special topics in Algebra including theory of exponents, 
theory of logarithms, simultaneous equations, binomial 
theorem, elements of the theory of equations, and elements 
of the theory of determinants. 

The second part of the year will be devoted to an intro- 
ductory course in Plane Analytic Geometry including a 
discussion of the right line and of the circle and other 
conies as represented by their equations both Cartesian 
and Polar. 

Prerequisites: Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 

Associate Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. Calculus. — An introductory course in Differential 
and Integral Calculus. 

Prerequisite: Course 1. 

Associate Professor Bacon. Wednesday and Friday, 
5.10 p. m. 



84 Programmes [078 



LECTURES ON SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS 



A course of lectures will be given between October 
16 and 28, 1911, in the Physical Laboratory, by Arthur 
Schuster, F. K. S., Honorary Professor of Physics in the 
University of Manchester. 

The object of the lectures will be to discuss the cos- 
mical applications of recent advances in physics, to ex- 
plain the methods of examining correlations between 
solar and terrestrial phenomena, and to specify the 
problems of solar and terrestrial physics which seem to 
call for special investigation. 

The following headings are intended to illustrate the 
general scope of the lectures, but do not necessarily indi- 
cate the order in which the subjects will be taken : 

1. Preliminary Considerations. The ponderomotive 
forces concerned (gravitation, radiation pressure, elec- 
trostatic forces). The laws of radiation (adiabatic, 
isothermal and radiostatic equilibrium). 

2. The Sun. The interior of the sun, conditions at the 
surface due to ejection of electrons. Spectroscopic phe- 
nomena and their interpretation. The laws of solar ro- 
tation. The sun's corona. Sun-spots and their periodi- 
city. 

3. Interplanetary Space. Effects of small quantities of 
matter on thermal and electric conductivity. 

4. The Earth. Our knowledge of its interior constitu- 
tion. The age of the earth. The principal phenomena 
of terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity. 

5. The Earth's Atmosphere, — more especially with re- 
gard to its condition near its upper limit. 

6. General methods of investigating periodicities. 
Bruckner's "35-year meteorological cycle" shown to be 
non-existent. Lunar effects. Connection between sun- 
spots and terrestrial phenomena. 



fc 



> 

1912 UKIVFI 18. No. 6 



l|ft OF TW 



THE 



JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



1912-1913 



Baltimore, Maryland 

Published by the University 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

June, 1912 



New Series, 1912, No. 6] 
[Whole Number, 246] 



Entered. October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



CALENDAR, 1912-1913 



College Courses for Teachers begin Tuesday, October 8, 1912 

Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 28, 1912. 

The Christmas Recess begins Monday morning, December 23, 
1912. 

Exercises will be resumed on Thursday afternoon, January 2, 
1913. 

Commemoration Day falls on Saturday, February 22, 1913. 

The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, March 20, and 
closes Wednesday evening, March 26, 1913. 

College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 31, 1913. 






COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
1912-1913 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1912 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE COURSES 
FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Educa- 
tion and Philosophy. 

John B. Van Meter, Professor of Bible in English, 
Goucher College. 

Harry L. Wilson, Professor of Roman Archaeology and 
Epigraphy. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these 
courses may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns 
Hopkins University, and are to be tilled up and returned 
to the Chairman of the Committee, on or before Septem- 
ber 21, 1912. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first 
floor, daily from September 21 to October 5 (3-5 p. m.. 
Monday to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday). Regular consul- 
tation hours, 11 a. m., daily, and 5 p. m., Tuesdays. 






INSTRUCTORS IN THE COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Ira Remsen, LL. D., President 



Henry Wood, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. ? Education 

Professor of Education and Philosophy. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Collegiate Professor of French. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., Psychology 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 
B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. T>., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Robert Bruce Roulston, Ph. D. ? German 

Associate in German. 
Charles A. Myers, Ph. D., English 

Instructor in English. 
Clara Latimer Bacon, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Mathematics in Goucher 
College. 
Annie Heloise Abel, Ph. D., History 

Associate Professor of History in Goucher College. 
Robert M. Gay, A. M., English 

Associate Professor of English in Goucher College. 



College Courses for Teachers [514 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering 
from time to time extended and systematic courses of 
public lectures. These have included a great variety of 
subjects and have followed different methods of treat- 
ment. Almost continuously since 1890 special courses of 
class lectures or "lesson courses" have been given from 
year to year, and many teachers and other persons in 
Baltimore and vicinity have availed themselves of these 
opportunities for systematic instruction in the subjects 
selected. Many teachers have completed one or more of 
these courses of public educational lectures at the Uni- 
versity and have received certificates upon passing the 
required examinations. All this work has been done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lec- 
tures open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve 
a larger constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public 
service, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-opera- 
tion with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 
courses of instruction to teachers whose vocation pre- 
vents their attendance upon college lectures and recita- 
tions at the usual hours. The same arrangement is con- 
tinued as a basis for the courses announced below for 
1912-1913. It is the primary aim of these courses to pro- 
vide the teachers in our public and private schools with 
special opportunities for further personal culture and 
for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality 
and extent of instruction are concerned, to the correspond- 
ing courses given in college classes. In order to give fur- 



515] Requirements for Admission 5 

ther encouragement to teachers in service to carry on 
extended systematic study, this plan of college courses 
for teachers also provides that satisfactory work accom- 
plished in these courses will be credited, under suitable 
regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHEH COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties 
of the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. 
These courses will be open to men and women alike, and 
will be carried on independently of the regular collegiate 
instruction of the institutions. In the case of women who 
may desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate 
degree, it is provided that such credits as they may 
acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by 
Goucher College toward the degree. A similar provision 
is made by the Collegiate Department of the Johns 
Hopkins University in the case of those men who desire 
to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total credits 
of sixty units or hours are required for graduation in 
each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible 
at the Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, 
classes and laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher 
College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 
matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in 
its Collegiate Department, and to the entrance require- 
ments prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory 
training desirable for the successful pursuit of these 



G College Courses for Teachers [516 

courses is that represented by the completion of a 
standard four-year high school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either 
of the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 
(6) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 
(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 
In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy 
of preparation, the applicant may be admitted provision- 
ally and be given an opportunity to prove his or her 
ability to sustain the work undertaken. Admission to 
any particular course will depend upon adequate prepara- 
tion for the pursuit of that course. 

Applications for admission to these courses must be 
presented to the Committee in charge of College Courses 
for Teachers. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity are referred to the circular descriptive of "The 
College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity," 1912, pp. 51-59, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be 
had by addressing the Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for 
the same degree in Goucher College, are referred to 
the "Program of Goucher College," 1912, pp. 18-31, for a 
detailed statement of the corresponding requirements in 
this institution. This circular may be had by addressing 
the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be con- 
ferred by either institution, the candidate must spend at 
least one year in residence. 



517] Expenses 7 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the 
Johns Hopkins University upon men only. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1912-1913 represent for the 
most part the work usually required in the first and 
second college years. In case there is a sufficient demand 
on the part of properly qualified persons for courses 
in advance of these, an effort will be made to arrange 
for such instruction. In considering applications for 
advanced standing the Committee will be guided by the 
regulations in force, in such cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the 
same rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, 
namely : 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. 
Where laboratory fees are required they are additional. 
Three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one 
hour of recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in Octo- 
ber and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the 
Johns Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. 
Before payment of fees can be made, applicants must 
receive from the Committee in charge a card stating the 
courses to be taken. 

SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 8, 1912, and close on Saturday, May 31, 1913. 
Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. 
Class-room and laboratory exercises will be given in the 
afternoon from Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 



8 



College Courses for Teachers 



[518 



noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual college recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admission are to be filed with the 
Chairman of the Committee in charge of the College 
Courses for Teachers, the Johns Hopkins University, on 
or before September 21, 1912. 



SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

( Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10—5.00 P. M. 


5.10— 6.00 P. M. 


Tuesday- 


Education (Buchner) 
French (Brush) 
German 1 (Roulston) 
German 2 (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English Composition (Myers) 
French (Brush) 
Algebra, Geometry (Bacon) 
American Literature (French) 


Wednesday 


Psychology (Dunlap) 
History (Abel) 


English Literature (Gay) 


Thursday 


French (Brush) 
German 1 (Roulston) 
German 2 (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English Composition (Myers) 
French (Brush) 
Algebra, Geometry (Bacon) 
American Literature (French) 


Friday 


Education (Buchner) 
History (Abel) 


English Literature (Gay) 
(10-11) 




9.00— 10.00 A. M. 


10.00 A. M. 


Saturday 


Psychology (Dunlap) 

(9—12) 
French (Brush) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Algebra, Geometry 

(Bacon) 
German 1 (Roulston) 


Chemistry (Gilpin) (10—1) 



519] Education 9 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten appli- 
cants may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, which will be allowed for successful 
completion of each of the courses mentioned below, can 
be determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by 
experiments and will be supplemented by occasional con- 
densed reviews written at home. The work is based on 
Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and will cover the 
field of inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the 
laboratory students will repeat experiments chosen from 
those performed in the class-room, and will make simple 
inorganic preparations. Two hours class-work, three 
hours laboratory work weekly. 

A laboratory fee of |5.00 will be charged to cover the 
cost of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, 
which is loaned with charge for breakage only. (The 
minimum expense for breakage has been $1.63; the aver- 
age |3.00.) 

Associate Professors Gilpin and Lovelace. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education 

The course offered will present in outline the history 
of education. It will trace the development of those 
ideas, practices, and institutions of the past which have 
been most effective in determining the essential features 
and problems of education in the present. The work is 
based on Monroe's Textbook in the History of Education. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



10 College Courses for Teachers [520 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical 
study of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be 
required; these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. Myers. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. English Literature. 

A study of the literature of the reigns of Elizabeth, 
James I, and Charles I (1550-1700.) After a survey of 
the important literary types and their origins, a study 
will follow of the greater writers of prose and poetry. 
The course will embrace the reading and discussion of 
the essay, lyric, ballad, sonnet, novel and romance, criti- 
cism, and other forms. The work of Sidney, Bacon, 
Milton, Herrick, Bunyan, Cowley, and Dryden will be 
noticed at length. 

Associate Professor Gay. Wednesday and Friday, 
5.10 p. m. 

3. American Literature and Literary Criticism. 

This course will combine the study of American litera- 
ture with practice in the writing of literary criticism. 
The literature will be studied primarily by types and 
periods, and American critical writings will serve as the 
subject-matter of a study of the principles of literary 
criticism. The writing of themes and essays based upon 
selected works, including the works of contemporary 
authors, will be an important part of the course. The 
enrollment in this class will be limited to twenty. 

Dr. French. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

French 

In French, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered : 



521] German 11 

1. A course (of two, or of three, hours) in the elements 
of French adapted to those who wish to begin the study 
of French or who have had only a partial introduction to 
the language. The work will include the principles of 
grammar, pronunciation, translation and composition. 
The following text books will be used: Fraser and 
Squair, French Grammar, Part I; Labiche, La Gram- 
maire; Greville, Dosia; About, La Mere de la Marquise; 
Sandeau, Mile, de la Seigliere. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday and Thursday. 
4.10 p. m. (Saturday, 9.00 a. m.) 

2. A course in advanced French on the development 
of the drama, together with weekly exercises in syntax 
and composition. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m. 

German 

In German, two courses will be offered: 

1. A course similar to undergraduate German 1, con- 
sisting of modern prose readings, C. F. Meyer, von Saar, 
Fulda, Kellar, Sudermann, two hours weekly, and prose 
composition, one hour weekly. 

Dr. Koulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m., 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand, a class in the elements 
of German will be organized.) 

2. A course for candidates who are able to read and 
write German with facility and who wish to pursue the 
subject further, will give opportunity to study Goethe's 
Lyrical Poems. Written themes in German will be re- 
quired on subjects suggested by the material read in class. 
Two hours weekly. 

Professor Wood. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 



12 College Courses for Teachers [522 

History 

In History, one of two alternative courses will be 
offered, each fundamental in its nature and adapted to 
the particular needs of those electing it. 

1. A course in American History, covering the period 
of the Civil War and Reconstruction. 

2. A course in Mediaeval History that shall confine, 
itself to characteristic institutions and to great move- 
ments. Considerable collateral reading will be required 
and occasional work with sources made obligatory. A 
syllabus will be used, but no special text-book. 

Associate Professor Abel. Wednesday and Friday, 
4.10 p. m. 

Latin 

In Latin, one of two alternative courses will be offered : 

1. A course similar to undergraduate Latin 1 ; Livy 
(selections) ; Terence (one play) ; Vergil, Bucolics; 
Catullus (selections) ; Prose Composition; Private Read- 
ing (Cicero, Cato Maior; Vergil, Aeneid, bk. VIII). 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. A course similar to undergraduate Latin III: 
Lucretius (selections) ; Vergil, Georgics; Horace, Ars 
Poetica. Private Reading: Catullus (selections) ; Horace, 
Epistles (selections). 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m. 

Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
special topics in Algebra including theory of exponents, 
theory of logarithms, simultaneous equations, binomial 
theorem, elements of the theory of equations, and elements 
of the theory of determinants. 



523] Psychology 13 

The second part of the year will be devoted to an intro- 
ductory course in Plane Analytic Geometry including a 
discussion of the right line and of the circle and other 
conies as represented by their equations both Cartesian 
and Polar. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 

Associate Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

Psychology. 

An introductory course in normal human psychology, 
with especial emphasis on the sensory and intellectual 
factors in perception and learning. Lectures, readings, 
and laboratory work. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Wednesday, 4.10 p. m., 
and Saturday, 9-12 a. m. 



14 College Courses for Teaclu [524 



ATTENDANTS ON COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS, 1911-12 






Hattie Josephine Adams. Baltimore County. Qovans. 

Eastern High School, 1891. Latin II; English Composition II. 

Mary Clare Albert. Baltimore. 909 N. Charles St. 

Hohere M&dchenschule, Braunschweig, 1904. English Literature. 

Florence Irene Arnold. Baltimore. 2053 Woodberry Av. 

Western High School, 1900. English Literature. 

Rosa Baldwin. Baltimore. 1615 Linden Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1896. English Composition II. 

Henry Harold Ballard. Baltimore. 1522 Bolton St. 

A. B., Johns Hopkins University, 1888, and Ph. D., 1893. Mathematics II. 

Florence Eilau Bamberger. Baltimore. 212 Laurens St. 

Western High School, 1895. Education. 

Emily Oliver Barton. Baltimore. 12 E. 22nd St. 

Eastern High School. English Composition II. 

Caroline Fredericka Becker. Baltimore. 420 N. Carey St. 

A. B., Cornell University, 1908. German. 

Carrie Evelyn Bell. Baltimore. 518 Franklin Terr. 

Eastern High School, 1902. English Composition I. 

Rozell Berryman. Baltimore. Station D. 

M. D., Baltimore Medical College, 1893. Education. 

Clarence F. Bolgiano. Baltimore. 103 S. Linwood Av. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1908. English Composition I. 

Gertrude Lee Boone. Baltimore. 2922 Parkwood Av. 

Western High School, 1894. English Composition II. 

Mary Elizabeth Bounds. Wicomico County. Mardela Spgs. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1901. English Composition I. 

Regina Maria Brady. Baltimore. 3029 Windsor Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1900. English Composition II. 

Bertha Brinkley. Baltimore. 114 W. 22nd St. 

Bryn Mawr School, 1894. French II. 

Wilhelmina Helena Broemer. Baltimore. 1704 N. Collington Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1911. German. 

Agnes Emilie Buchholz. Baltimore. 748 Reservoir St. 

Western High School. German. 

Emily Lenore Buchholz. Baltimore. 748 Reservoir St. 

Western High School, 1902. English Composition II. 

Theora Juliette Bunnell. Baltimore. 1813 Linden Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1904. History I. 



525] 



Students 



15 



Maky Bunworth. Howard County. Ellicott City. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1886. French II; Latin II. 

Eleanob Robinson Byers. Baltimore. 3420 Piedmont Av. 

Western High School, 1907. History I. 

Mabgabet Blanche Carmine. Baltimore County. Mt. Washington. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1901. English Composition II. 

Margaret Winston Chase. Baltimore. 18 E. 24th St. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1909. Education. 

Edith R. Christian. Howard County. Ellicott City. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1907. English Literature. 



Baltimore. 



The Montreal. 



Baltimore. 

English Literature. 

Baltimore. 



1723 Thomas Av. 



415 E. 22nd St. 



229 N. Calhoun St. 



Martha Ross Clark. 

English Composition I. 

EtAYMOND KENMOBE COLE. 

Baltimore City College, 1908. 

Slsa Sophia Conbadi. 

Hohere Tochter Schule (Berlin). French II. 

Anna Cecilia Ceady. Baltimore. 

English Composition I. 

Susan LePage Cronmiller. Baltimore County. 

Laurel High School, 1907. French II. 

Dora Curtiss. Baltimore. 

English Composition I. 

!da Curtiss. Baltimore. 

Goucher College. English Literature. 

Marian Curtiss. Baltimore. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1899. French II. 

Octavia Amelia Dallam. Baltimore. 

English Composition II; Latin II. 

Helen Taylob Darby. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1906. English Composition I 

A.ugusta Fredericka Ditty. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1888. Education. 

>Janna Duke Dushane. 

French II. 

ilOSE ERDMAN. 

Eastern High School, 1888. 

LISA FLUEGEL. 

Western High School, 1900. 

Tosephine Virginia Fox. 

English Composition II. 

Rosalie Elizabeth Gardneb. Ecltimore County. Emory Grove. 

Western High School, 1893. Latin II. 



Laurel. 

1524 Park Av. 

1524 Park Av. 

1524 Park Av. 

1318 Bolton St. 

418 N. Carey St. 

220 W. Lanvale St. 

Baltimore County. Roland Park. 

Harford Road. 



Baltimore. 

Education. 

Baltimore. 

English Literature. 

Baltimore. 



2562 McCulloh St. 



444 E. North Av. 



16 



College Courses for Teachers 



[526 



Caroline Elsie Grote. 

Western High School, 1909. 

Pauline Fboelich Geuss. 

Eastern High School, 1894. 

Anna Catherine Hahn. 



Baltimore. 

English Literature. 

Baltimore. 

History I. 

Baltimore. 



Maryland State Normal School, 1899. German. 



Mary Steel Harvey. 

French II. 

Caroline Hayden. 

Western High School, 1884. 

Eleanor Cecilia Heavey. 

Maryland State Normal School 

Hortense Herman. 

Western High School, 1907. 

Katharine Hobach. 



Baltimore. 



1045 Myrtle Av. 

2053 Kennedy Av. 

1944 W. Pratt St. 

1105 McCulloh St. 

409 Robert St. 



Baltimore. 

English Composition II. 

Howard County. Ellicott City. 

1890. English Composition I. 

Baltimore. 2117 Bolton St. 

Mathematics II. 

Baltimore. 2212 N. Charles St. 

A. E., Goucher College, 1898. English Composition I. 

Mary Elizabeth Holland. Baltimore. 339 Windsor Mill Rd. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1906. English Literature. 

Susie Harman Hollstein. Baltimore. 2929 N. Calvert St. 

Western High School, 1893. History I. 

Baltimore. 1209 N. Caroline St. 

English Composition I. 

Baltimore. 1821 Madison Av. 



Baltimore. 

English Literature. 

Baltimore County 



Martha Florence Horner. 

Eastern High School, 1901. 

Phllena Martenet Hutton. 

English Literature. 

Bertha Estelle Johnson. 

Western High School, 1898. 

Katharine Barton Jones. 

French II. 

Fannie Kahn. 

Columbia University (Summer School). German 

Saea Augusta Kemp. Baltimore. 

English Composition II. 

Elizabeth Broughton Kettell. Baltimore. 

English Composition I; English Literature. 

Katharine Trayers Kirwan. Baltimore. 



2408 Madison Av. 



Baltimore. 



Roland Park. 

1434 McCulloh St. 

839 Harlem Av 

517 N. Charles St 



1800 Park Av 



Maryland State Normal School, 1904. English Literature. 



Grace Amanda Kramer. 

Western High School, 1895. 

Elizabeth Krieger. 

Eastern High School, 1892. 

Florence May Layman. 



Baltimore. 319 E. 2oth Si 

English Composition II. 

Baltimore. 408 E. Chase S 

History I. 

Baltimore. 3724 Park Heights A 1 



Maryland State Normal School, 1S92. Education. 



527] 



Students 



17 



1011 E. Lombard St. 
518 E. 2Zrd St. 



Nathan Lebovitz. Baltimore. 

English Composition I; History I. 

Delia Theresa Lesteb. Baltimore. 

History I. 

Lula Wilhelmina Margabet Louis. Bait. 1725 E. Lafayette Av. 

Western High School, 1900. Education. 

Laurance Farnandis Magness Baltimore. 4029 Greenmount Av. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1907. Education. 

Annie Lee Manning. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1903. English Literature. 

Nellie Kinsella McDonnell. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1907. English Composition I. 

Emma Hazeltine Mechem. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1886. Education. 

Annie Gertrude Melvin. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1899. Latin II. 

Ethel Bailey Melvin. Baltimore. 



1339 Mosher St. 



601 Lennox St. 



1916 Park Av. 



711 N. Fremont Av. 



711 N. Fremont Av. 



Maryland State Normal School, 1903. English Composition I. 



Rose Lee Meyer. 

Goucher College. Education. 

Frederick William Miller. 

Baltimore City College, 1888. 

Rosa Allison Mhltron. 

Western High School, 1886. 

Mary Page Nelson. 

French II. 

Elizabeth Nickel. 



Baltimore. 1122 N. Charles St. 



Baltimore. 

Education. 

Baltimore. 

Mathematics II. 

Baltimore. 



417 E. 22nd St. 

1011 W. Lafayette Av. 

Tudor Hall. 

2911 Belmont Av. 



Baltimore. 

Chicago, Columbia and Harvard Universities (Summer Schools). German. 

Rosalie Ogle. Baltimore. 716 W. Lanvale St. 

Education. 

lbion Oliver. Baltimore. 618 John St. 

Eastern High School, 1888. Education. 

Alice Barrington O'Reardon. Baltimore County. Roland Park. 

English Compos-ition II. 

Olivia Oram Osborne. Baltimore County. Arlington. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1898. English Composition II. 

Hattie Ottenhetmer. Baltimore. 2072 Linden Av. 

Western High School, 1901. English Literature. 

Evalena Caroline Oyeman. Baltimore County. Gardenville. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1898. English Literature. 

inna Heldman Pagenstecheb. Baltimore. 2016 N. Calvert St. 

German. 



IS 



College Courses for Teachers 



[528 



Maby Alice Piebce. Baltimore. 302 Laurens Bt. 

Maryland State Normal School. Education. 

Edwaed Reisleb. Baltimore. 3405 Walbrook Av. 

A. M., Western Maryland College, 1880. Education. 

Lula McDowell Richardson. Baltimore. 1102 Brentwood Av. 

Eastern High School, 1908. History I. 

Philip Lightfoot Robb. Baltimore. 124 W. Lafayette Av. 

S. B., Maryland Agricultural College, 1898. Education. 



Maud Stanaed Ross. 

Eastern High School, 1884. 

Edna Rothholz. 

Goucher College. French II. 

William Deal Roycroft. 

Baltimore City College, 1904. 

Helena C. Schaef. 

Western High School, 1902. 

Noea Clementine Selby. 

English Literature. 

Emma Osanne Shaep. 

Eastern High School, 1899. 

Helen Sheebeet. 

Western High School, 1900. 

Maey Sheewood. 

A. B„ Vassar College, 1883. 

Elizabeth Agnes Shields. 

English Composition I. 

Eunice Sibley. 

Maryland State Normal School 

Etelina Caeroll Simon. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1898; 
Literature. 

Kathaeine Mhligan Smith. 

English Literature. 

Robert Andrew Smith. 

Baltimore City College, 1887. 

Marie Emilie Staib. 

Western High School, 1896. 

Martha Blades Stephens. 

Smith and Swarthmore Colleges 

Mabel Belmonte Sti Non. 



Baltimore. 

English Literature. 

Baltimore. 



1508 McCulloh St. 



2108 Bolton St. 



Baltimore. 1017 N. Broadway. 

English Composition II. 

Baltimore. 914 N. Strieker Bt. 

German. 

Baltimore. 1020 W. Lafayette Av. 



2526 N. Calvert St. 



1800 N. Calvert St. 



The Arundel. 



1600 N. Gilmor St. 



732 Dolphin St. 



Baltimore. 

German. 

Baltimore. 

History I; Latin II. 

Baltimore. 

French II. 

Baltimore. 
Baltimore. 

History I. 

Baltimore. 210 W. 25th St. 

A. M., Columbia University, 1899. Engli$h 



Baltimore. 
Baltimore. 

Mathematics II. 

Baltimore. 

History I. 

Baltimore. 

Mathematics II. 

Baltimore. 



Eastern High School, 1896. English Composition II. 

Jacob Henry Strauss. Baltimore. 

Johns nopkius University, 1910-11. History I. 



2233 St. Paul Bt. 

1721 E. Preston St. 

1621 W. North Av. 

2004 Park Av. 

1631 E. Oliver Bt. 

42 S. Paca St. 



529] Students 19 

Elizabeth Bacon Sudler. Baltimore. 1707 St. Paul St. 

Maryland State Normal 8chool, 1908. English Literature. 

Cabbie Myers Sumwalt. Baltimore. 121 W. 24th St. 

Western High School, 1877. Education. 

Claba Vibginia Tapman. Baltimore County. Catonsville. 

Western High School. Education. 

Louise Emhie Thalwitzeb Baltimore County. 3405 Piedmont Av. 

Maryland State Normal School. French II. 

Josephine Tubnbull. Baltimore. 2112 E. Baltimore St. 

Eastern High School, 1898. English Literature. 

Kathebine Thebesa Valentine. Baltimore. 216 Myrtle Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1901. English Composition I. 

Sallie Vansant. Baltimore. 1414 Harlem Av. 

Eastern High School. Education. 

Frank T. Warrenfeltz. Boonsboro. 1414 Harlem Av. 

Myersville (Mil.) High School. English Composition I. 

Anne Eliza Welty. Baltimore. 923 N. Carrollton Av. 

Western High School. Mathematics II. 

Ellen Cecilia Wllhelm. Baltimore. 2105 Smallwood St. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1906. English Literature. 

Marie Elizabeth Winand. Baltimore County. Roslyn. 

English Composition I. 

Rosalie Windsob. Baltimore County. 3939 Old York Road. 

Education. . 

Adele Kempneb Wolman. Baltimore. 2101 Brook-field Av. 

Western High School, 1907. English Composition I. 

Ivy Vebdllla Yeakel. Baltimore. 26 Augusta Av. 

Eastern High School, 1906. English Composition II. 

Henry Zolleb, Jb. Baltimore. 1323 W. Lanvale St 

LL. B., University of Maryland, 1911. Education. 

(118) 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS OF BALTIMORE 



American Chemical Journal. Iba Remsen, Editor. Monthly. 8yo. 

Volume XLVII in progress. $5 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
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8vo. Volume XXXIII in progress. $3 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

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Contributions to Assyriology and Semitic Philology. Paul Haupt 

and Fbiedkich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume VIII In progress. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXIII in 
progress. $2 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XVII in progress. $5 per 
volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins University Circular, including the President's Report, 
Annual Register, and Medical Department Catalogue. Monthly. 8vo. 
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Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

Under the direction of the Departments of History, Political Economy, 

and Political Science. Monthly, 8vo. Volume XXX in progress. $3 

per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Memoirs from the Biological Laboratory. Five volumes have appeared. 
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Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Third series 

in progress. $2.00. 

Report of the Maryland Geological Survey. 

Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L. A. Bauer, 

Editor. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume XVII in progress. $3 per volume. 

(Foreign postage, twenty-five cents.) 



Rowland's Photograph or the Normal Solar Spectrum. Ten plates. $25. 
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The Taill of Rauf Cotlyear. Edited by William Hand Browne. 164 pp. 

8vo. $1.00 net. 
A New Critical Edition of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament. 

Paul Haupt, Editor. Prospectus on application. 
Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. $6. 
The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. 8vo. $7.50. 
The Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. 225 pp. 8vo. $1. 
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Communications should be addressed to 
The Johns Hopkins Press. 



1918 No. 6 

THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

1913-1914 



Baltimore, Maryland 

Published by the University 

Issued Monthly prom October to July 

June, 1913 



[New Series, 1913, No. 6] 
[Whole Number, 256] 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



i 



CALENDAR, 1913-1914 

General Assembly, Saturday, 10 a. m., October 11 (Donovan 
Room). 

College Courses for Teachers begin Tuesday, October 14, 1913. 

Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 27, 1913. 

The Christmas Recess begins Wednesday morning, December 
24, 1913. 

Exercises will be resumed on Tuesday afternoon, January 6, 1914. 

Commemoration Day falls on Monday, February 23, 1914. 

The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 9, and 
closes Wednesday evening, April 15, 1914. 

College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 30, 1914. 






COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
191M914 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1913 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE COURSES 
FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Educa- 
tion and Philosophy. 

John B. Van Meter, Professor of Bible in English, 
Goucher College. 

Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these 
courses may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns 
Hopkins University, and are to be filled up and returned 
to the Chairman of the Committee, on or before Octo- 
ber 4, 1913. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first 
floor, daily from September 27 to October 4 (3-5 p. m., 
Monday to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday) . Regular consul- 
tation hours, 11 a. m. and 5 p. m., Tuesdays. 



INSTRUCTORS IN THE COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Henry Wood, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
C. Carroll Harden, Ph. D., Spanish 

Professor of Spanish. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., Education 

Professor of Education and Philosophy. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Collegiate Professor of French. 
James E. Shaw, Ph. D., Italian 

Associate Professor of Italian. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., Psychology 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 
B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D., German 

Associate in German. 
Charles A. Myers, Ph. D., English 

Associate in English. 
Hans Froelicher, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German Language and Literature and 
of Art Criticism in Goucher College. 
Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D., French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher Col- 
lege. 
Clara L. Bacon, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Mathematics in Goucher 
College. 
Annie H. Abel, Ph. D., History 

Associate Professor of History in Goucher College. 
Robert M. Gay, A. M., English 

Associate Professor of English in Goucher College. 

3 



College Courses for Teachers [272 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 






From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering 
from time to time extended and systematic courses of 
public lectures. These have included a great variety of 
subjects and have followed different methods of treat- 
ment. Almost continuously since 1890 special courses of 
class lectures or "lesson courses" have been given from 
year to year, and many teachers and other persons in 
Baltimore and vicinity have availed themselves of these 
opportunities for systematic instruction in the subjects 
selected. Many teachers have completed one or more of 
these courses of public educational lectures at the Uni- 
versity and have received certificates upon passing the 
required examinations. All this work has been done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lec- 
tures open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve 
a larger constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of publio 
service, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-opera- 
tion with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 
courses of instruction to teachers whose vocation pre- 
vents their attendance upon college lectures and recita- 
tions at the usual hours. The same arrangement is con- 
tinued as a basis for the courses announced below for 
1913-1914. It is the primary aim of these courses to pro- 
vide the teachers in our public and private schools with 
special opportunities for further personal culture and 
for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality 
and extent of instruction are concerned, to the correspond- 
ing courses given in college classes. In order to give fur- 
ther encouragement to teachers in service to carry on 



273] Requirements for Admission 5 

extended systematic study, this plan of college courses 
for teachers also provides that satisfactory work accom- 
plished in these courses will be credited, under suitable 
regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be 
admitted to these courses. They will be expected to 
present the proper qualifications for the subjects and 
courses they desire to pursue. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties 
of the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. 
These courses will be open to men and women alike, and 
will be carried on independently of the regular collegiate 
instruction of the institutions. In the case of women who 
may desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate 
degree, it is provided that such credits as they may 
acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by 
Goucher College toward the degree. A similar provision 
is made by the Collegiate Department of the Johns 
Hopkins University in the case of those men who desire 
to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total credits 
of sixty units or hours are required for graduation in 
each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible 
at the Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, 
classes and laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher 
College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 
matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in 
its Collegiate Department, and to the entrance require- 
ments prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory 
training desirable for the successful pursuit of these 



6 College Courses for Teachers [274 

courses is that represented by the completion of a 
standard four-year high school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either 
of the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 
(6) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge, 
(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 
In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy 
of preparation, the applicant may be admitted provision- 
ally and be given an opportunity to prove his or her 
ability to sustain the work undertaken. Admission to 
any particular course will depend upon adequate prepara- 
tion for the pursuit of that course. 

Applications for admission to these courses must be 
presented to the Committee in charge of College Courses 
for Teachers. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity are referred to the circular descriptive of "The 
College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity/' 1913, pp. 51-59, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be 
had by addressing the Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for 
the same degree in Goucher College, are referred to 
the "Program of Goucher College," 1913, pp. 18-31, for a 
detailed statement of the corresponding requirements in 
this institution. This circular may be had by addressing 
the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be con- 
ferred by either institution, the candidate must spend at 
least one year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the 
Johns Hopkins University upon men only. 



275] Expenses 7 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1913-1914 represent for the 
most part the work usually required in the first and 
second college years. In case there is a sufficient demand 
on the part of properly qualified persons for courses 
in advance of these, an effort will be made to arrange 
for such instruction. In considering applications for 
advanced standing the Committee will be guided by the 
regulations in force, in such cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the 
same rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, 
namely : 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. 
Where laboratory fees are required they are additional. 
Three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one 
hour of recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in Octo- 
ber and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the 
Johns Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. 
Before payment of fees can be made, applicants must 
receive from the Committee in charge a card stating the 
courses to be taken. 

SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 14, 1913, and close on Saturday, May 30, 1914. 
Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. 
Class-room and laboratory exercises will be given in the 
afternoon from Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual college recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 



8 



College Courses for Teachers 



[276 



Applications for admission are to be filed with the 
Chairman of the Committee in charge of the College 
Courses for Teachers, the Johns Hopkins University, on 
or before October 4, 1913. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

(Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10—5.00 P. M. 


5.10—6.00 P. M. 


Tuesday 


Education (Buchner) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
German 3 (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 2 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 


Wednesday 


History (Abel) 
Psychology 1 (Dunlap) 
Spanish (Marden) 


English 3 (Gay) 
Italian (Shaw) 


Thursday 


Education (Buchner) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
German 3 (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 2 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 


Friday 


History (Abel) 
Spanish (Marden) 


English 3 (Gay) 
Italian (Shaw) 


' 


9.00—9.50 A. M. 


10.00 A. M. 


Saturday 


French 1 (Shefloe) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
Ladn (Mustard) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 
Psychology 1 (Dunlap, 
9—12) 


i 
Chemistry (Gilpin, 10—1) 



277] Education 9 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten appli- 
cants may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, which will be allowed for successful 
completion of each of the courses mentioned below, can 
be determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by 
experiments and will be supplemented by occasional con- 
densed reviews written at home. The work is based on 
Remsen's Chemistry (Briefer Course) and will cover the 
field of inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the 
laboratory students will repeat experiments chosen from 
those performed in the class-room, and will make simple 
inorganic preparations. Two hours class-work, three 
hours laboratory work weekly. 

A laboratory fee of |5.00 will be charged to cover the 
cost of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, 
which is loaned with charge for breakage only. (The 
minimum expense for breakage has been $1.63; the aver- 
age $3.00.) 

Associate Professors Gilpin and Lovelace. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education - 

This introductory course on the principles of education 
will undertake a study of the processes of education with 
a view to understanding the work of the school and the 
various factors in individual development. The work is 
based on Henderson's Text-book in the Principles of 
Education. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 



10 College Courses for Teaclwrs [278 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical 
study of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be 
required; these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. Myers. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Advanced English Composition. 

This course will consist of the study and practice of 
the forms of prose discourse, including the examination of 
articles chosen from the columns of a current literary 
periodical and the writing of themes and essays. It will 
presuppose some previous work in English Composition of 
collegiate grade. For the sake of effectiveness in the 
conduct of the class, the enrollment will be limited to 
fifteen. 

Dr. French. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

3. English Literature. 

Age of Dryden and Pope (1660-1780). A study of the 
classical period; that is, of the writers who flourished 
between the Restoration and the American Eevolution. 
Beginning with an extended study of Dryden, the course 
will include the work of Swift, Pope, Johnson, Gray, 
Goldsmith, Burke, and other writers of prominence in 
poetry and prose. Some time will be given to the Resto- 
ration drama (Congreve, Yanbrugh), the rise of the novel 
(Defoe, Richardson, Fielding), and the beginning of peri- 
odical literature (Addison, Steele). The dawn of roman- 
ticism (Thomson, Gray, Goldsmith, Cowper) will be 
touched upon toward the close of the year. 

Associate Professor Gay. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 
p. m. 



279] German 1 1 

French 

In French, two courses will be offered : 

1. A three-hour course in the elements of French 
adapted to those who wish to begin the study of French 
or who have had but a partial introduction to the lan- 
guage. The work will include the principles of grammar, 
pronunciation, translation, and composition, and the 
ground covered will be essentially that of the correspond- 
ing collegiate course known as French Elements. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. A course in French reading, grammar, dictation and 
the outlines of literature for students who have had the 
equivalent of Course 1. The course will be given two or 
three hours a week; in the latter case, the work covered 
should correspond to that done in the collegiate course 
French 1. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m. 

German 

In German, three courses will be offered : 

1. The Elements of German. 

The "Essentials of German/' by B. J. Vos (Henry Holt 
& Co.), will be the first text-book used, after which selec- 
tions will be read from Kreuz und Quer, by R. Mezger 
and W. Mueller (American Book Co.) 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 
p. m. ; Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

2. A course similar to undergraduate German 1, con- 
sisting of modern prose readings (C. F. Meyer, von Saar, 
Fulda, Keller, Sudermann), two hours weekly, and prose 
composition, one hour weekly. 

Dr. Roulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 



12 College Courses for Teachers [280 

3. Readings in modern German drama (1800-1870). 
This course is designed for candidates who are already 
able to read and write German with some facility. 

Witkowski's Das deutsche Drama des neunzehnten 
Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, Teubner) will be used as a parallel 
text-book, and dramas of Kleist, Grillparzer, Raimund, 
Platen, Hebbel, Ludwig and Anzengruber will be read. 
Written themes in German, involving literary apprecia- 
tions, will be required. 

Professor Wood. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

History 

The course in Mediaeval History will confine itself to 
characteristic institutions and to great movements. Con- 
siderable collateral reading will be required and occa- 
sional work with sources made obligatory. A syllabus 
will be used, but no special text-book. 

Associate Professor Abel. Wednesday and Friday, 
4.10 p. m. 

Italian 

The object of the course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian, and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used: Grandgent, Italian 
Grammar; Wilkins and Atlrocchi, Italian SJwrt Stories; 
Collodi, he Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Wednesday and Friday, 
5.10 p. m. 

Latin 

This course is similar to undergraduate Latin 1; Livy 
(selections) ; Terence (one play) ; Vergil, Bucolics; 



281] Mathematics — Psychology 13 

Catullus (selections) ; Prose Composition; Private Bead- 
ing (Cicero, Cato Maior; Vergil, Aeneid, bk. VIII). 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
special topics in Algebra including theory of exponents, 
theory of logarithms, simultaneous equations, binomial 
theorem, elements of the theory of equations, and elements 
of the theory of determinants. 

The second part of the year will be devoted to an intro- 
ductory course in Plane Analytic Geometry including a 
discussion of the right line and of the circle and other 
conies as represented by their equations both Cartesian 
and Polar. 

Prerequisites: Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 

Associate Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m., Saturday, 9.00 a. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand, a class in Calculus will 
be organized.) 

Psychology. 

1. An introductory course in normal human psychology, 
with especial emphasis on the sensory and intellectual 
factors in perception and learning. Lectures, readings, 
and laboratory work. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Wednesday, 4.10 p. m., 
and Saturday, 9 to 12 a. m. 

2. An experimental course, consisting of two labora- 
tory periods per week. 

Prerequisites: Psychology, 1. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. (Hours to be arranged.) 



14 College Courses for Teachers [282 

Spanish 

A course adapted to beginners and similar to under- 
graduate Spanish 1. Texts: Ingraham, Brief Spanish 
Grammar; Matzke, Spanish Readings; Alarcon, El Capi- 
tan Veneno; Perez Gald6s, Dona Perfecta. 

Professor Harden. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



283] Students 15 



ATTENDANTS ON COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS, 1912-1913 

Hattie Josephine Adams. Baltimore. 524 Rossiter Av. 

Eastern High School, 1891. English III; Latin II. 

Delia Robinson Alfoed. Baltimore. 315 N. Fulton Av. 

Western High School, 1906. French I. 

Maude Cann Albich. Baltimore. 1137 Harlem Av. 

Maryland State Normal School. Education. 

Flobence Ibene Abnold. Baltimore. 2053 Woodberry Av. 

Western High School, 1900. English II. 

Howard Elmer Ashbtjby. Baltimore. 1017 Cathedral St. 

M. D., University of Maryland, 1903. French I; Elements of German. 

Ruth Adams Baeb (Mbs.). Baltimore. 4 E. Madison St. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1896. French II j Elements of German. 

Florence Eilau Bambebgeb. Baltimore. 212 Laurens St. 

Western High School, 1895. German I; Psychology. 

Stella Hannah Bambebgeb. Baltimore. 212 Laurens St. 

German I. 
Emily Olivee Babton. Baltimore. 12 E. Twenty -second St. 

English III. 

Bessie Bubns Bennett. Baltimore. 106 W. North Av. 

Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, 1902. English I. 

Clabence F. Bolgiano. Baltimore. 103 S. Linwood Av. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1908. English III. 

Regina Mabia Beady. Baltimore. 3029 Windsor Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1900. English III. 

Ethel Heath Bbandt. Baltimore. 1214 Mt. Royal Av. 

Stuart Hall (Va.). Education. 

Stella Elizabeth Brown. Baltimore County. Overlea. 

Beisterstown High School, 1897. Elements of German. 

Agnes Emilie Buchholz. Baltimore. 748 Reservoir St. 

Western High School. English II; German II; Psychology. 

Leonoba Ella Cabpentee. Baltimore. 1317 Park Av. 

Western High School. German II. 

Mabgaeet Katheyn Casey. Baltimore. 1233 Mt. Royal Av. 

Academy of Mt. De Sales (Catonsville), 1911. Education. 

Marle Chittick. Baltimore. 3001 W. Presstman St. 

Philadelphia High School, 1908. English III. 

Martha Ross Clabk. Baltimore. The Montreal. 

English III. 

Elsa Sophia Conbadi. Baltimore. 415 E. Twenty-second St. 

H5here Tochter Schule (Berlin). French II; German II. 



16 College Courses for Teachers [284 

Clarence Morris Cook. Baltimore. 310 N. Monroe St. 

University of Maryland. English I and II. 

Anna Cecilia Crady. Baltimore. 229 N. Calhoun St. 

English II. 

Ruth Arnold Crawford. Baltimore County. Roland Park. 

Arundell School. Education. 

Lavinia Russell Crouse. Baltimore. 1503 Mt. Royal Av. 

Western High School. English I. 

Ida Curtiss. Baltimore. 1524 Park Av. 

Goucher College. English II. 

Marian Curtiss. Baltimore. 1524 Park Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1899. French II. 

Octavia Amelia Dallam. Baltimore. 1318 Bolton St. 

English III; Latin II. 

Virginia Dashiell. Baltimore. 1811 Guilford Av. 

Western High School, 1906. English I. 

Augusta Fredericka Ditty. Baltimore. 220 W. Lanvale St. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1888. Education. 

Nanna Duke Dushane. Baltimore County. Roland Pk. 

French II. 

Rose Erdman. Baltimore. 3200 Harford Road. 

Education. 

Elida Evans (Mrs.) New York City. The Stafford. 

Elements of German; Psychology. 

Thomas Carlaw Forrester. Baltimore County. Parkville. 

United Kingdom College (Edinburgh). English II. 

Mary Edith Franks. Baltimore. 1704 E. Chase St. 

Eastern High School, 1907. Education. 

Rosalie Elizabeth Gardner. Baltimore. 5 W. Twenty-ninth St. 

Western High School, 1893. French I; Latin II. 

Minnie M. Gessford. Baltimore. 2030 Huntingdon Av. 

Baltimore Training School, 1908 ; S. B., Columbia University, 1911. Ger- 
man I. 

Nellie Lavinia Gessford. Baltimore. 2030 Huntingdon Av. 

Western High School, 1911 ; Baltimore Training School. English III. 

Hilda Gillet. Baltimore. 1411 McCulloh St. 

Western High School, 1909 ; Baltimore Training School. English I and II. 

Elisabeth Gilman. Baltimore. 513 Park Av. 

French II; Psychology. 

Caroline Elsie Grote. Baltimore. 1045 Myrtle Av. 

Baltimore Training School. English II; German I. 

Robert Milton Hall. Baltimore. 2023 E. Preston St 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1908; Columbia University (Summer 
School). Education. 



285] 



Students 



Mary Ella Harrison. Baltimore. 

Ph. B., University of Chicago, 1910. French I. 



Mart Steel Harvey. 

French II. 



Baltimore. 



Baltimore. 

English III. 

Howard County. 



17 
1429 McCulloh St. 
1105 McCulloh St. 
409 Robert St. 



Caroline Hayden. 

Western High School, 1884. 

Eleanor Cecilia Heavey. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1890. French I. 

Doralyn B. Heiskell. Baltimore. 

M. D., Baltimore University, 1891. Psychology. 

Minnie Estelle Hicks. Baltimore County. 

Maryland School for the Blind. English III. 

Susie Harman Hollstein. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1893. History I. 

Martha Florence Horner. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1901. English III. 

Isabelle Meldrum Johnstone. Baltimore. 2043 Kennedy Av. 

Eastern High School, 1901 ; Baltimore Training School. English I. 

Viola Allen Joseph. Baltimore. 2303 Brookfield Av. 

Goldsborough High School (N. C), 1910. Education. 



Ellicott City. 

1708 Madison Av. 

Parkville. 

2929 N. Calvert St. 

1209 N. Caroline St. 



Baltimore. 



Baltimore 



Anna Katzner. 

English I. 

Fabius Katzner. 

English I. 

Mary Loretta Kelly. Baltimore. 

Honesdale High School (Pa.), 1906. English I. 



1927 McCulloh St. 



1927 McCulloh St. 



2127 N. Calvert St. 



Baltimore. 



839 Harlem Av. 



Sara Augusta Kemp. 

English III. 

Ray Klein. 

Western High School, 1908 

Bessie Klinesmith. 

English II. 

Grace Amanda Kramer. 

English III. 

M. Helen Kramer. 

Baltimore Training School. 

Hattie Carrie Langley. 

English III. 

Florence May Layman. Baltimore. 37 24 Park Heights Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1892. Elements of German. 

Bertha Lillian Lewis. Baltimore Co. Wilday Av., Govans. 

Towson High School, 1908. Education. 



Baltimore. 2422 Lakeview Av. 

Baltimore Training School, 1910. English I. 

Baltimore. 1524 N. Broadway. 
Baltimore. 319 E. Twenty-fifth St. 
Baltimore. 319 E. Twenty-fifth St. 

English I. 

Baltimore County. Govans. 



18 



College Courses for Teachers 



[286 



Marie Loretto Lilly. Baltimore. 1631 N. Calvert St. 

A. B., Notre Dame College (Md.), 1900. Education; English II and III. 

Lula Wllhelmina Margaret Louis. Bait. 1725 E. Lafayette Av. 

Education. 

Blanche Landen MacCarthy. Baltimore. 2052 Linden Av. 

Western High School. Psychology. 

Emma Hazeltine Mechem. Baltimore. 1916 Park Av. 

Western High School, 1886. English I. 

Bait Co. 



Winston Av., Govans. 
Baltimore. 417 E. Twenty-second St. 

Education. 

Baltimore. 2500 W. North Av. 
1327 E. Eager St. 
Baltimore County. Westport. 

1900. Elements of German. 

Baltimore County. Catonsville. 

French I. 

Baltimore. 1513 N. Eden St. 

Parkville. 



Annie Catherine Meushaw. 

English III. 

Frederick William Miller. 

Baltimore City College, 1888 

Louisa A. Miller. 

University of California. English I; German II 

Julia Amanda Moore. Baltimore. 

Notre Dame College (Md.), 1910. Education. 

Katherine Anna Muhlbach. 

Maryland State Normal School 

Lucy Emory Murray. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1901 

Ida Neumann. 

German II. 

Fred Cheffins Numbers, Jr. 

English I. 

Marion Oliver. 

Eastern High School, 1888. 

Willie Adele O'Neill. 

Western High School, 1895 

Cecilia Charlotte Prince. 

Eastern High School. English I. 

Fannie Elizabeth Pumphrey. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1903. French I. 

Milton Luther Regus. Baltimore. 9 &. Pay son St. 

Baltimore City College, 1907; Baltimore Training School. English I. 

Mary Blanche Reindollar. Baltimore. 2727 St. Paul St. 

Teachers' College, Columbia University. Elements of German. 

Elizabeth Rice. Baltimore. 920 Cathedral St. 

Education. 

Lula McDowell Richardson. Baltimore. 1102 Brentwood Av. 

Baltimore Training School. German I; History I. 

Ruth Rosenbaum. Baltimore. 2330 Madison Av. 

Western High School, 1911. Education. 



Baltimore County. 

1618 John St. 

230 N. Carey St. 

2318 E. Baltimore St. 

1801 Madison Av. 



Baltimore. 

Education. 

Baltimore. 

English I. 

Baltimore. 



287] 



Students 



19 



Mt. Washington. 

1508 McGulloh St. 

2108 Bolton St. 

2108 Bolton St. 



Florence Schubert. 

Notre Dame College (Md.). 

Emma Osanne Sharp. 



♦May Lisle Ross. Baltimore Co. 

English I and II. 

Maud Stanard Ross. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1884. English III. 

Edna Rothholz. Baltimore. 

Goucher College. French II. 

Freda Rothholz. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1902. English II. 

Ruth Mathilda Sanders. Baltimore. 2008 Mt. Royal Terr. 

Notre Dame College (Md.), 1911. Education. 

Anna Schmidt. Baltimore. 2516 E. Baltimore St. 

Eastern High School, 1896. German II. 

Baltimore. 
Hebrew I. 

Baltimore. 2526 N. Calvert St. 

Eastern High School, 1899 ; Baltimore Training School. German II. 

Helen Sherbert. Baltimore. 1800 N. Calvert St. 

Western High School, 1900. History I; Latin II. 

Katharine Mulligan Smith. Baltimore. 2233 St. Paul St. 

English I. 

Mazle Eva Smith. Anne Arundel County. Brooklyn. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1905. English I. 

Agnes Snyder. Baltimore. 2134 Oak St. 

Eastern High School, 1903 ; Baltimore Training School. English I. 

Marie Emllie Staib. Baltimore. 1621 W. North Av. 

Western High School, 1896. English II. 

Florence Agnes Stansbury. Baltimore. 913 Harlem Av. 

Western High School, 1909 ; Baltimore Training School. English II. 

Irene Miller Steele. Baltimore. 1524 N. Charles St. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1908; Columbia University (Summer 
School). French I. 

Edith Victoria Stephenson. Baltimore. 1217 Bolton St. 

Western High School, 1906 ; Baltimore Training School, 1909. English I. 

Susan Ellicott Steuart. Baltimore County. Roland Park. 

Roland Park Country School, 1912. English I. 

Minnie Harrison Strayer. Baltimore. 

Baltimore Training School. English III. 

Catherine Bowie Clagett Thomas (Mrs.). 

Western High School, 1904. German I. 

Marion Dorothea Triebler. Baltimore. 1325 Linden Av. 

Western High School, 1906; Baltimore Training School. English II. 



109 N. Carey St. 
Bait. 17 W. 20th St. 



'Died March 22, 1913. 



20 



College Courses for Teachers 



[288 



Katherine Theresa Valentine. Baltimore. 

Elements of German. 

Sarah Vansant. 

Eastern High School 

Lettilda Wareheim. 

Western High School, 1011. 

Louisa Avondale Weedon. 

Maryland State Normal School 



216 Myrtle Av. 



1414 Harlem Av. 



1103 W. Baltimore St. 



Baltimore. 

English I. 

Baltimore. 

Education. 

Baltimore. 1306 W. Lexington St. 

, 1888. English I. 



Letitia Eleanor Weer. Baltimore. 310 E. Twenty-second St. 

Teachers' College, Colunihia University. French 1. 

Grace Lucretia Welmore. Baltimore. 

Elements of German. 
Josephine Ridgely Welmore. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1000. Elements of German. 

Edith May Whitaker. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1903. French I. 

Virginia Wightman. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School. English 1. 

Annie Cullum Williams. Baltimore. 

Education. 

Rosalie Windsor. Baltimore County. 

Education. 

Marie Lena Windus. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1907 ; Baltimore Training School. History I. 

Elsie Louise Wirth. Baltimore. 1600 Pennsylvania Av. 

Baltimore Training School. Psychology. 

(116) 



1415 John St. 

1415 John St. 

1532 John St. 

1412 Linden Av. 

254 Benson St. 

3939 Old York Rd. 

1025 Light St. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS OF BALTIMORE 



American Chemical Journal. Ira Remsen, Editor. Monthly. 8vo. Volume 

XLV1II in progress. $5 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
American Journal of Insanity. Board of Editors. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume 

LXIX in progress. $5 per volume. 
American Journal of Mathematics. Frank Morley, Editor. Quarterly. 

4to. Volume XXXIV in progress. $5 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

fifty cents.) 
American Journal of Philology. B. L. Gildersleeve, Editor. Quarterly. 

8vo. Volume XXXIII in progress. $3 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

fifty cents.) 

Contributions to Assyriology and Semitic Philology. Paul Haupt 
and Friedrich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume VIII in progress. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXIII in 
progress. $2 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XVII in progress. $5 per 
volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins University Circular, including the President's Report, 
Annual Register, and Medical Department Catalogue. Monthly. 8vo. 
$1 per year. 

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

Under the direction of the Departments of History, Political Economy, 
and Political Science. Monthly. 8vo. Volume XXX in progress. $3 
per volume. 

Memoirs from the Biological Laboratory. Five volumes have appeared. 
Modern Language Notes. Edited by E. C. Armstrong, J. W. Bright, 

H. Collitz, and C. C. Marden (Managing Editor). Eight times yearly. 

4to. Volume XXVII in progress. $2 per volume. (Foreign postage, 

twenty-five cents.) 

Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Third series in 
progress. $2.00. 

Report of the Maryland Geological Survey. 

Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L. A. Baueb, 

Editor. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume XVII in progress. $3 per volume. 

(Foreign postage, twenty-five cents.) 



Photographic Reproduction of the Kashmibian Atharva-Veda. M. Bloom- 
field, Editor. 3 vols. Folio. $50. 

Poema de Fernan Gonqalez. Edited by C. Carroll Marden. 284 pp. 8vo. 
$2.50 net. 

The Tatll of Rauf Coilyear. Edited by William Hand Browne. 164 pp. 
8vo. $1.00 net. 

A New Critical Edition of the Hebrew Text of the Old Testament. 

Paul Haupt, Editor. Prospectus on application. 
Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. $6. 
The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. 8vo. $7.50. 
The Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. 225 pp. 8vo. $1. 
Ecclesiastes : A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 50 pp. 

8vo. 50 cents. 
The Book of Nahtjm: A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 

53 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 
Notes on Stahl's Syntax of the Greek Verb. By Basil L. Gildersleeve. 

65 pp. 50 cents. 

The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907. By James Brown Scott. 

Vol. I, The Conferences, 887 pp.; Vol. II, Documents, 548 pp. 8vo. $5. 
The Eclogues of Baptista Manttjanus. By W. P. Mustard. 156 pp. 

8vo. $1.50. 

Diplomatic Negotiations of American Naval Officers, 1778-1883. By 
C. O. Paullin. 380 pp. 12mo. $2. 



CALENDAR, 1.914-1915 

General Assembly, Saturday, 10 a. m., October 10 (Donovan 
Room). 

College Courses for Teachers begin Tuesday, October 13, 1914. 

Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 26, 1914. 

The Christmas Recess begins Thursday morning, December 24, 
1914. 

Exercises will be resumed on Tuesday afternoon, January 5, 1915. 

Commemoration Day falls on Monday, February 22, 1915. 

The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 1, and closes 
Wednesday evening, April 7, 1915. 

College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 29, 1915. 






COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
1914-1915 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Peess 

1914 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE 
COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Education 
and Philosophy. 

Eleanor L. Lord, Dean of the Faculty and Professor of 
History, Goucher College. 

Henry Wood, Professor of German. 






Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Eegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up and returned to the Chair- 
man of the Committee, on or before October 3, 1914. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first floor, 
daily from September 26 to October 3 (3-5 p. m., Monday 
to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Heney Wood., Ph. D., German 

Professor of German. 
C. Carroll Marden, Ph. D., 

Professor of Spanish. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph.D., 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. ? 

Professor of Education and Philosophy. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of French. 
James E. Shaw, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Italian. 
J. Elliott Gilpin - , Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 
William W. Ford, M. D., 

Associate Professor of Hygiene and Bacteriology. 
Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 
B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph.D., 

Associate Professor of English. 
Robert B. Roulston, Ph. ~D., 

Associate in German. 
Charles A. Myers, Ph.D., 

Instructor in English. 
Nathaniel R. Whitney, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Political Economy. 
Hans Froelicher, Ph. D. ? 

Professor of German Language and Literature and of 
Art Criticism in Goucher College. 
Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D., French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 
Robert M. Gay, A. M., English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 
Clara L. Bacon, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 
Annie H. Abel, Ph. D., History 

Professor of History in Goucher College. 



Spanish 

Latin 

Education 

French 

Italian 

Chemistry 

Hygiene 

Psychology 

Chemistry 

English 

German 

English 

Political Economy 

German 



College Courses for Teachers [386 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or " lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic in- 
struction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have com- 
pleted one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Groucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lectures 
open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve a larger 
constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public ser- 
vice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in cooperation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent 
their attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the 
usual hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis 
for the courses announced below for 1914-1915. It is the 
primary aim of these courses to provide the teachers in our 
public and private schools with special opportunities for 
further personal culture and for increasing their professional 
equipment and efficiency. These courses are similar in char- 
acter, so far as quality and extent of instruction are con- 
cerned, to the corresponding courses given in college classes. 
In order to give further encouragement to teachers in service 



387] Requirements for Admission 5 

to carry on extended systematic study, this plan of college 
courses for teachers also provides that satisfactory work 
accomplished in these courses will be credited, under suitable 
regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be ad- 
mitted to these courses. They will be expected to present 
the proper qualifications for the subjects and courses they 
desire to pursue. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. These 
courses will be open to men and women alike, and will be 
carried on independently of the regular collegiate instruc- 
tion of the institutions. In the case of women who may 
desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate degree, 
it is provided that such credits as they may acquire by means 
of these courses, to the amount of forty-five units or hours, 
will be accepted in full by Goucher College toward the degree. 
A similar provision is made by the Collegiate Department 
of the Johns Hopkins University in the case of those men 
who desire to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total 
credits of sixty units or hours are required for graduation 
in each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 
matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in its 
Collegiate Department, and to the entrance requirements 
prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory training 



6 College Courses for Teachers [388 

desirable for the successful pursuit of these courses is that 
represented by the completion of a standard four-year high 
school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either of 
the following means: 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 

(b) Of public and private high schools and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 

(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 

In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy of 
preparation, the applicant may be admitted provisionally 
and be given an opportunity to prove his or her ability to 
sustain the work undertaken. Admission to any particular 
course will depend upon adequate preparation for the pursuit 
of that course. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins University 
are referred to the circular descriptive of " The College of 
Arts and Sciences of the Johns Hopkins University/' 1914, 
pp. 55-63, for a detailed statement of the requirements for 
matriculation. This circular may be had by addressing the 
Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for the 
same degree in Goucher College, are referred to the " Cata- 
logue for 1914," pp. 16-29, for a detailed statement of the 
corresponding requirements in this institution. This circu- 
lar may be had by addressing the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the Johns 
Hopkins University upon men only. 



389] Expenses 7 

i 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1914-1915 represent for the most 
part the work usually required in the first, second, and third 
college years. In case there is a sufficient demand on the 
part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance of 
these, an effort will be made to arrange for such instruction. 
In considering applications for advanced standing the Com- 
mittee will be guided by the regulations in force, in such 
cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the same 
rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in the Johns 
Hopkins University and Goucher College, namely: 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. Where 
laboratory fees are required they are additional. Three hours 
of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of recitation 
or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. Before pay- 
ment of fees can be made, applicants must receive from the 
Committee in charge a card stating the courses to be taken. 

SESSION 

The College Courses for Teachers will open on Tuesday, 
October 13, 1914, and close on Saturday, May 29, 1915. 
Each course will include instruction for thirty weeks. Class- 
room and laboratory exercises will be given in the afternoon 
from Monday to Friday and on Saturday forenoon. In- 
struction will be omitted on the days which occur within the 
usual university recesses at Thanksgiving, Christmas, and 
Easter. 



8 



College Courses for Teachers 



[390 



Applications for admission are to be filed with the Chair- 
man of the Committee in charge of the College Courses for 
Teachers, the Johns Hopkins University, on or before Octo- 
ber 3, 1914. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

(Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 



Monday 



Tuesday- 



Wednesday 



Thursday 



Friday 



Saturday 



4.10—5.00 p. M. 



Education 1 (Buchner) 
History ( Abel ) 
Psychology 1 (Dunlap) 



French 2 (Brush) 
German 1 Froelicher' 
German 2 (Roulston) 
German 3 (Wood) 
Latin (Mustard) 



Education 1 ( Buchner ) 
Spanish (Harden) 



French 3 (Brush) 
German 1 ( Froelicher ) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
German 3 (Wood) 
Latin ( Mustard ) 



Spanish (Marden) 
Psychology 1 ( Dunlap ) 



9.00—9.50 A. M. 



French 1 (Shefloe) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
Hygiene ( Ford ) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Mathematics ( Bacon ) 



5.10—6.00 P. M. 



Education 2 (Buchner) 
History (Abel) 



Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 3 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 



Education 2 (Buchner) 
English 2 (Gay) 
Italian (Shaw) 
Political Economy 
(Whitney) 

Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 3 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
French 3 (Brush) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 

English 2 (Gay) 
Italian (Shaw) 
Political Economy 
(Whitney) 

10.00 A. M. 



Chemistrv ( Gilpin, 

10—1) 
Hygiene (Ford) 



391] Chemistry — Education 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer than ten applicants 
may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of Bache- 
lor of Arts, which will be allowed for successful completion 
of each of the courses mentioned below, can be determined 
definitely only at the end of the year. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by experi- 
ments and will be supplemented by occasional condensed 
reviews written at home. The work is based on Remsen's 
"Chemistry" (Briefer Course) and will cover the field of 
inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the laboratory 
students will repeat experiments chosen from those performed 
in the class-room, and will make simple inorganic prepara- 
tions. Two hours class-work, three hours laboratory work 
weekly. 

A laboratory fee of $5.00 will be charged to cover the cost 
of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, which is 
loaned with charge for breakage only. (The minimum 
expense for breakage has been $1.63; the average $3.00.) 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Associate Professor Love- 
lace. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 
a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of 
Education, tracing the development of those ideas, practices 
and institutions of the past which have been most effective 
in determining the essential features and problems of educa- 



10 College Courses for Teachers [392 

tion in the present. The work is based on Monroe's " Text- 
book in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

2. Principles of Education. 

This introductory course on the principles of Education 
will undertake a study of education with a view to under- 
standing the work of the school and the mental and social 
factors in individual development. The text-books used, 
with collateral reading, will be Euediger's " Principles of 
Education," and King's " Social Aspects of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical study 
of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be required; 
these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. Myers. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. English Literature. 

The Poets of the Eomantic Eevival. The first two weeks 
will be spent in a survey of the origins of romanticism dur- 
ing the close of the 18th Century. Then will follow a study 
of the greater writers represented in the Eevival, — Cowper, 
Crabbe, Blake, Burns, Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, 
Shelley, and Byron. As extended a study as the time per- 
mits will be made, in the first term, of Wordsworth and 
Coleridge; in the second, of Keats, Shelley, and Byron. 
Students will provide themselves with Page's " British Poets 
of the Nineteenth Century." 

Professor Gay. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

3. American Literature. 

This course will consist of a study of American literature, 
by types and periods, and a survey of the literary history of 
America. Stress will be laid on the later periods, and the 



393] French 11 

works of contemporary writers will not be excluded. Written 
reports based on assigned readings will afford some oppor- 
tunity for practice in writing. The enrollment in this class 
will be limited to twenty. 

Associate Professor French. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m. 

French 
1. French Elements. 

a. The Essentials of Grammar : Fraser and Squair, French 
Grammar. 

b. French Texts: Dumas, le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge ; 
Labiche, la Grammaire; About, la Mere de la marquise; 
Augier, le Gendre de M. Poirier; Daudet, Conies; 
Moliere, L'Avare; Bo wen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students who begin the study 
of French. Upon the successful completion of the course 
the student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation it absolves the elementary 
requirements in French. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m., 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A course in French reading, grammar, and compo- 
sition, for students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. 
The texts read will be chosen from the nineteenth century, 
with one or two classics of the seventeenth. The course will 
be given two hours or three a week; in the latter case the 
work covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course French 1. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. A course in the history of French comedy and drama 
since Moliere. The class will read representative plays by 
Eegnard, Destouches, Lesage, Marivaux, Mvelle de la Chaus- 
see, Beaumarchais, Vigny, Musset, Pailleron, Augier, Dumas 
fils, and several contemporary writers. Lectures will be 
given on the development of comedy, and there will be prac- 



12 College Courses for Teachers [394 

tice in composition and in writing French from dictation. 
The course will be given two hours a week. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Thursday, 4.10 to 5.50 p. m. 

German 
1. German Elements. 

a. Vos' Essentials of German. 

b. Texts: Heyse, Die Blinden; Keller, Kleider machen 
Leute; Meyer, Das Amulet; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heiraten. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the 
study of German or who have had but a partial introduction 
to the language. The work will include the principles of 
grammar, pronunciation, translation, and composition. Upon 
the successful completion of the work, the student receives 
credit for one course if offered as college work; if offered for 
matriculation, it absolves the elementary requirements in 
German. 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 
p. m. ; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A course similar to undergraduate German 1, consist- 
ing of modern prose readings (C. F. Meyer, von Saar, Fulda, 
Keller, Sudermann), two hours weekly, and prose compo- 
sition, one hour weekly. 

Dr. Eoulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m.; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

3. Modern Drama and Prose Eeadings. 

This course is intended for candidates who have completed 
Course 2, in whole or in part. Dramas by Heinrich von 
Kleist, Grillparzer, Hebbel and Gerhart Hauptmann, and 
Short Stories by Storm and other authors, will be read in 
annotated editions. There will be a weekly exercise in Prose 
Composition. 

Professor Wood. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 



395] History — Latin 13 

History 

A course of lectures in the history of the Eenaissance and 
Reformation. Collateral reading and a limited amount of 
source work will be required. 

(In case of preference, a course in English History may 
be substituted.) 

Professor Abel. Monday, 4.10 to 6 p. m. 

Hygiene 

The course in Hygiene will consist of lectures, laboratory 
demonstrations, and field work. The principles of hygiene 
will be considered with reference to their application to 
social conditions and to the needs of social workers. 

Special problems, such as housing, city-construction, sani- 
tation, public health administration and allied topics will 
be considered in detail. Collateral reading, with reports 
on special subjects, will be required. 

Associate Professor Ford. Saturday, 9 to 11 a. m. 

Italian 

The object of the course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used : Grandgent, Italian Gram- 
mar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short Stories; Collodi, 
Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 
p. m. 

Latin 

A course will be offered for the reading of the following 
authors: Livy (selections); Vergil, Bucolics; Horace, Odes. 
Students will also read privately, for examination: Cicero, 
Cato Major; Vergil, Aeneid, book vin. The course will be 
given two or three hours a week; in the latter case, one 
hour a week will be given to Latin Composition, and the 
work covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course Latin 1. 



14 College Courses for Teachers [396 



Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday 
4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
Algebra, the second part being given to an introductory 
course in Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 

Profesor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m.; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

Political Economy 

Instruction will be offered in the elements of political 
economy with particular reference to current economic prob- 
lems. The text-books used will be Cheyney's " Industrial 
and Social History of England/' Ely's "Outlines of 
Economics." 

Dr. Whitney. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

Psychology 

1. Introductory General Psychology. 

A review of the fundamental facts and interpretations in 
the study of psychological processes in their relation to edu- 
cational and social problems. Lectures, demonstrations, 
discussions, and assigned reading. Two hours weekly. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Monday and Friday, 4.10 
p. m. 

2. An experimental course, consisting of two laboratory 
periods per week. 

Pre-requisite : An introductory experimental course. 
Associate Professor Dunlap. (Hours to be arranged.) 

Spanish 

A course adapted to beginners and similar to undergradu- 
ate Spanish 1. Texts: Ingraham, Brief Spanish Grammar; 
Matzke, Spanish Readings; Alarcon, El Capitdn Veneno; 
Perez Galdos, Dona Perfecta. 

Professor Marden. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



, 



397] 



Students 



15 



ATTENDANTS ON COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Hattie Josephine Adams. Baltimore. 524 Rossiter Av. 

Eastern High School, 1891. German II. 
Ida Cornelia Armiger. Baltimore Co. 505 Orkney Rd., Govans. 

Western High School. History of Education. 

Florence Irene Arnold. Baltimore. 2053 Woodoerry Av. 

Western High School, 1900. English III. 

Frank Astor. Newport News, Va. 1306 Madison Av. 

A. B., University of Virginia, 1912. History of Education. 



Lucilla Colgate Austen. 

French HI. 

Ethel Isabel Baker. 



Baltimore Co. 



Baltimore. 



Roland Park. 



100 N. Chester St. 



Eastern High School, 1911. English II. 



Anna Taylor Baldwin. 



Baltimore. 1110 N. Charles St. 



Huntingdon (Pa.) High School, 1911. History of Education. 



1615 Linden A v. 



Rosa Baldwin. Baltimore. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1896. German I. 

John Turner Bamberger. Baltimore Co. 

Baltimore City College. French I. 

Stella Hannah Bamberger. Baltimore. 

Western High School. History. 

Ella Maud Baxley. 

Maryland State Normal School. 

Harold Cedric Bean. 

A. B., University of Oregon, 1912. French I. 

Georgie Berry Beaumont. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1910 ; Baltimore Training School, 1912. English I. 
Meta Middendorf Becker. Baltimore. 420 N. Carey St. 

Cornell University, 1912. Principles of Education. 



Baltimore. 
English I. 

Baltimore. 



Fullerton Heights. 



212 Laurens St. 



1221 Bolton St. 



1336 N. Caroline St. 



2106 Brook field Av. 



A. B. 



Anna Bercowitz. Baltimore. 

Western High School. English III. 

Grace Halle Blondheim. Baltimore. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1913. French III. 

Margaret Donaldson Boehm. Baltimore. 

Roland Park School, 1912. Psychology I. 



839 Hollins St. 

714 Newington Av. 

Roland Park. 



16 



College Courses for Teachers 



[398 



Katiierine Beady. Baltimore. 2023 Maryland Av. 

Notre Dame College (Md.). English II; History of Education. 

Jennie Zelda Brodie. Baltimore. 2337 Druid Hill Av. 

Western High School, 1912. English I. 

Clara Maude Brown. Baltimore. 705 Gladstone Av., Roland Pk. 

History. 

Stella Elizabeth Brown. Baltimore. 1234 W. Lafayette Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1899. German II. 

Isabel Hazel Bucheb. Baltimore. 708 Homestead St. 

Eastern High School, 1905 ; Baltimore Training School. French I. 

Agnes Emilie Btjchholz. Baltimore. 748 Reservoir St. 

Western High School. English III; Latin. 

Flobence Mathilde Bubgeb. Baltimore. 2828 St. Paul St. 

Eastern High School, 1901 ; Baltimore Training School. German I. 

Alice Dallam Campbell. Baltimore. 232 Laurens St. 

Philadelphia High School, 1887 ; Philadelphia Normal School. Psychology i. 



Leonoba Ella Cabpenteb. Baltimore. 

Western High School. German III. 



1317 Park Av. 



Alice Caspari. Baltimore. 1129 Harlem Av. 

Western High School, 1897 ; Baltimore Training School, 1909. German I. 

Ethel Jean Church. Baltimore. 2100 N. Washington St. 

Western High School, 1905. German II. 

Martha Ross Clark. Baltimore. 

English II. 

Sabah Hines Claibobne. Baltimore. 

Edgewood School. History of Education. 

Estheb Colston Coale (Mbs.). Baltimore. 

French III. 

Raymond Kenmobe Cole. Baltimore. 

Baltimore City College, 1908. English III; French III. 

Elsa Sophia Conbadi. Baltimore. 415 E. 22nd St. 

HShere Tochter Schule (Berlin). French III. 

Anna Cecilia Cbady. Baltimore. 711 St. Paul St. 

English III. 

Ida Curtiss. Baltimore. 1524 Park Av. 

Goucher College. English III. 

Octavia Amelia Dallam. Baltimore. 1318 Bolton St. 

Latin. 



The Montreal. 

26 S. Broadicay. 

Roland Park. 

1723 Thomas Av. 



399] Students 17 

Cabbie Vibginia Dabe. Baltimore. 2433 St. Paul St. 

Western High School. English III. 

Mabtha Juliet Ditttjs. Baltimore. 2118 Bolton St. 

Western High School, 1895. English III. 

Nanna Duke Dushane. Baltimore Co. Roland Park. 

French III. 

Mabel Eigelbeeneb. Baltimore. 1610 John St. 

Western High School ; Baltimore Training School, 1906. English I. 

Fbances Evans. I Baltimore. 845 Hamilton Ter. 

French III. 

Anna Fabnen. Baltimore. 3410 Bateman Av. 

Eastern High School, 1909; Baltimore Training School, 1911. English I. 

Habby Chbistian Finch. Baltimore. 1629 Ashland Av. 

Baltimore Polytechnc Institute, 1906. English I. 

Mabel Cobnelia Fibob. Baltimore. 715 Newington Av. 

Western High School, 1910. History of Education. 

Rosalie Elizabeth Gabdnee. Baltimore. 5 W. 29th St. 

Western High School, 1893. French II. 

Ida Belle Gaugh. Baltimore. 14 E. Franklin St. 

History of Education. 

Elizabeth Josephine Gebhaedt. Baltimore. 1339 W. Lafayette Av. 

Western High School, 1909; Baltimore Training School, 1911. Latin. 

Elisabeth Gilman. Baltimore. 513 Park Av. 

French III; Psychology II. 

Cabbie Vibginia Glanding. Baltimore. 1641 Tenth St., Walb'h. 

Western High School, 1896. English III. 

Pauline Louise Gleichman. Baltimore. 629 Gorsuch Av. 

Western High School. English I. 

Clabe Randolph Goode. Baltimore. 829 N. Charles St. 

Oldfields School (Md.). English II. 

Helen Viola Gbeenholt. Baltimore. 1723 Rutland Av. 

Eastern High School, 1909; Baltimore Training School, 1911. English I. 

Caroline Elsie Gbote. Baltimore. 1045 Myrtle Av. 

Baltimore Training School. French II; German III. 

Mildbeb Elizabeth Hahn. Baltimore. 714 N. Carrollton Av. 

Western High School, 1909. History of Education. 

Emily Habdy Hall. Baltimore. Goucher College. 

Goucher College. French I. 



18 College Courses for Teachers [400 

Robert Milton Hall. Baltimore. 2023 E. Preston St. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1908. English I and III. 

Cybil Hansell. Baltimore. 309 W. Lanvale St. 

Baltimore City College, 1908 ; LL. B., University of Maryland, 1911. 
Principles of Education. 

Edith Elizabeth Habman. Howard Co. Hanover. 

Maryland State Normal School. German I. 

Emma Virginia Harrison. Baltimore. 1215 Madison Av. 

French II j History. 

Hartman Kuhn Harrison (Mrs.). Baltimore. 1424 Bolton St. 
Psychology I. 

Angela Conrad Hartman. Baltimore. Roslyn Apts., Walb'k. 

St. Patrick's High School (Cumberland), 1905. Chemistry. 

Mary Steel Harvey. Baltimore. 539 Columbia Av. 

French III. 

Katharine Loretta Healy. Baltimore. 3817 Clifton Av. 

Eastern High School, 1907 ; Baltimore Training School, 1909. English I. 

Marie Virginia Heaphy. Baltimore. 325 E. 22nd St. 

Eastern High School, 1910 ; Baltimore Training School, 1912. English I. 

Eleanor Cecilia Heavey. Howard Co. Ellicott City. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1890. French II. 

Doralyn B. Heiskell. Baltimore. 1708 Madison Av. 

M. D., Baltimore University, 1891. Chemistry. 

Isabella G. Hiss. Baltimore. 239 W. Lafayette Av. 

French II. 

Mary Elizabeth Holland. Baltimore. 2309 Windsor Mill Rd. 
Maryland State Normal School, 1906. French I. 

George Delphine Huncke. Baltimore. 214 W. Lanvale St. 

A. B., Harvard University, 1912. Principles of Education. 

William Beall Hunt. Baltimore. Roland Park. 

Baltimore City College. Principles of Education. 

Josephine Jamison. Baltimore. 909 N. Carrollton Av. 

Western High School, 1908 ; Baltimore Training School, 1910. French I. 

Isabelle Meldrum Johnstone. Baltimore. 2043 Kennedy Av. 

Eastern High School, 1901 ; Baltimore Training School. English II. 

Beulah Gordon Jones. Baltimore. Forest Park. 

Western High School. History of Education. 



401] 



Students 



19 



Baltimore. 

English III. 
Baltimore. 



1513 Eutaw Place. 



Baltimore. 



1927 McCulloh St. 



1927 McCulloh St. 



ROSINA COBLENS JOSEPH. 

Western High School, 1904. 

Anna Katzneb. 

English II. 

Fabius Katzneb. 

English II. 

Lutte Mabguebite Keech. 

Eastern High School, 1910 ; 

Clabence Edwabd Keefeb. 

Baltimore City College, 1909. English I. 

Alice Bied Kempton. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1887. English III. 

Nettie Estelle Kinsley. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1908 ; Baltimore Training School, 1911. English I. 

Mabguebite Fbedebicka Klein. Baltimore. 2311 N. Calvert St. 

Western High School, 1908. History of Education. 



Baltimore. 2425 N. Calvert St. 
Baltimore Training School, 1912. History. 

Baltimore. 235 N. Strieker St. 



924 Netvington Av. 
26 N. Mount St. 



Baltimore. 

Baltimore. 

Chemistry. 

Baltimore. 



Tessie Fredicka Koestleb. Catonsville. 

French II. 

Gbace Amanda Kbameb. 

French I. 

M. Helen Kbameb. 

Baltimore Training School 

Emma Emily Kuehn. 

Western High School. English I. 

Anna Regina Latjbheimeb. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1906. German III. 

Flobence May Layman. 

Maryland State Normal School 

Isabel Lazabus. 

Chemistry. 

Ibving Levie. 

English Composition I. 

Chables Stjmneb Levy. 

Baltimore City College. 

Anna E. Linsley. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1896. English III 

Mabguebite Elmobe Linthicum. Baltimore. 



Norwood Av. 



319 E. 25th St. 



319 E. 25th St. 



811 W. Saratoga St. 



2526 N. Calvert St. 



Baltimore. 3724 Park Heights Av. 
1892. German II. 



Baltimore. 
Baltimore. 
Baltimore. 

English II. 

Baltimore. 



Annapolis High School, 1911 ; Baltimore Training School, 1913 
///; Psychology I. 



1526 Park Av. 

1727 Smallwood St. 

2913 O'Donnell St. 

1928 W. Mulberry St. 



701 E. 4:1st St. 
English 



Hilda Louis. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1894. English III. 

Blanche Landen MacCabthy. Baltimore. 
Western High School. Psychology II. 



808 Newingion Av. 



2052 Linden Av. 



20 



College Courses for Teachers 



[402 



Natha Annette Mann. Baltimore. 2213 Edgmont Av. 

Western High School, 1906 ; Baltimore Training School, 1908. English II. 

Amy Russell Manning. Baltimore. 918 N. Calvert St. 

Bryn Mawr School, 1911. English I. 
Ina Craig McMullen. Baltimore. 

Western High School. English hill. 

Annie Catherine Meushaw. Bait. Co. 

History. 

M. Isabelle Milleb. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1898. English I. 

Grace Magdalene Moore. Baltimore. 1327 E. Eager St. 

Notre Dame College (Md.), 1911. History of Education. 

Grace Margaret Morrow. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1893. English II. 



1027 W. Lanvale St. 

Winston Av., Govans. 

3303 Walbrook Av. 



3800 Clifton Av. 



Gertrude Moses. Baltimore. 2002 Bolton St. 

Eastern High School, 1907 ; Baltimore Training School. French I. 



Katherine Frances Muesse. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1894. English III. 

Katherine Anna Muhlbach. Baltimore Co. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1900. German II. 



Mary Cleland Nelson. 

French III. 

Ida Neumann. 

Eastern High School, 1895. 



Baltimore Co. 

Baltimore. 
German HI. 



1248 N. Broadway. 

Westport. 

Ridericood. 

1513 N. Eden St. 

1603 Linden Av. 



Ethel Norris. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1903. German I. 

Fred Cheffins Numbers, Jr. Baltimore Co. Overlea. 

History of Education; English II. 

Genevieve M. O'Brien. Baltimore. 334 N. Calhoun St. 

Western High School, 1906 ; Baltimore Training School, 1908. English I. 

Rose Oppenheim. Baltimore. 1209 W. North Av. 

Eastern High School. English III. 

Olivia Oram Osborn (Mrs.) Baltimore Co. 112 Oakley Av. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1898. English HI. 

Hattie Ottenheimer. Baltimore. 2072 Linden Av. 

English HI. 

Sue Elizabeth Owens. Baltimore. 2428 Guilford Av. 

Western High School, 1908. History of Education. 



403] Students 21 

Eleanob Robins Pbesstman. Baltimore Co. Woodlawn. 

Western High School. English I. 

Mabgabet Jtjnkin Pbeston. Baltimore. 819 N. Charles St. 

Bryn Mawr School, 1908 ; Bryn Mawr College. History of Education. 

Henbietta Geobqe Pbice (Mbs.) Towson. Aigburth Park. 

Psychology I. 

Robebta Helen Pbice. Baltimore Co. Timonium. 

History of Education. 

Cecelia Chablotte Pbince. Baltimore. 2318 E. Baltimore St. 

Eastern High School. English II. 

Eliza Pendleton Randall (Mbs.) Baltimore. 1016 St. Paul St. 

French III. 

Elizabeth Blanchaed Randall. Baltimore Co. Catonsville. 

St. Timothy's School. German I; Psychology I. 

Kathebine Bbune Randall. Baltimore Co. Catonsville. 

St. Timothy's School, 1907. German II. 

Evelyn Hilton Read. Baltimore Co. 4211 Maine Av. 

Western High School. History of Education. 

Geobge Buchanan Redwood. Baltimore. 918 Madison Av. 

A. B., Harvard University, 1910. English II. 

Ltjla McDowell Richabdson. Baltimore. 1102 Brentwood Av. 
Baltimore Training School. French II; German HI. 

May Richabdson. Baltimore. 1610 McCulloh St. 

Western High School, 1908. History of Education. 

Mabtin Abnold Robebts. Baltimore. 2120 E. Baltimore St. 

Leechburg (Pa.) High School. English III; History. 

Helen Eugenia Robinson. Baltimore. 513 N. Carrollton Av. 

English III. 

Sabah Lucy Roche. Baltimore. 1815 E. Lombard St. 

English III. 

Mabguebite Helen Rosenau. Baltimore. 1515 Eutato Place. 

Western High School, 1912. English I; French II; Latin. 

Rena Jacobi Rosenheim. Baltimore. 851 Harlem Av. 

Western High School, 1910. English III. 

Maud Standabd Ross. Baltimore. 1508 McCulloh St. 

Eastern High School, 1884. English III. 

Ellen Kathebine Rothe. Baltimore. 1216 Harford Rd. 

Eastern High School, 1908. French I. 

Bebtha Louise Russell. Baltimore Co. Radnor Av., Govans. 
Maryland State Normal School, 1896. English I. 



22 



College Courses for Teachers 



[404 



1632 Tenth St., Walbrook. 



Mary Melvina Selby. Baltimore. 

Columbia University. English III. 

Jessie Marie Sellman. Baltimore. 1416 Penna. Av. 

Western High School, 1909 ; Baltimore Training School, 1911. Latin. 

Esther Jane Shamberger. Baltimore. 1507 McCulloh St. 

Maryland State Normal School, 1899. Chemistry. 

Baltimore. 1800 N. Calvert St. 
English II; Latin (Prose Composition). 

Baltimore. 703 A 7 . Howard St. 
English II. 

Baltimore. 4 E. Biddle St. 



1900. 



Helen Sherbert. 

Western High School 

Harold Sigmund. 

Baltimore City College, 1910 

Olive Cushing Smith. 

Psychology I. 

Clara Eva Smithson. 

Baltimore State Normal School, 1898. English III 

Elizabeth Anna Smyth. Baltimore. 

Western High School. English III. 



Baltimore. 1333 W. Lafayette At. 



1206 Bolton St. 



Mary Ellen Snow. 

Friends' School, 1913. 

Marie Emilie Staib. 

Western High School, 



Roland Park. 



Baltimore. 
French II; German I. 

Baltimore. 
1896. English III. 

Florence Agnes Stansbtjby. Baltimore. 1037 Edmondson Av. 

Western High School, 1909 ; Baltimore Training School. English I. 

Eobert Boyd Stewart. Baltimore. 

A. B., University of Toronto, 1905, and A. M. 

Mabel Belmonte Sti Non. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1896. English III. 

Minnie Harrison Strayer. Baltimore. 

Baltimore Training School. English II. 

Florence Stromberg. Baltimore. 

Western High School. English III. 

Helen Stromberg. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1893. English III. 

Baltimore. 



1621 W. North Av. 



1906. German I. 
1631 E. Oliver St. 

109 X. Carey St. 

2339 Madison Av. 

2339 Madison Av. 



Martha Stromberg. 



Western High School, 1887. English III. 



Mary Emma Stromenger. 



Baltimore. 



Eastern High School, 1888. English I. 

Anna Augusta StuCkert. Baltimore. 

Baltimore Training School, 1903. German II. 

Cyrus Cressy Sturgis. Baltimore. 

S. B., University of Washington, 1913. French I 



2339 Madison A v. 

132 Jackson Place. 

618 E. Baltimore St. 

Park Circle Apts. 



405] 



Students 



226 N. Milton Av. 



William James Taylob, Jb. Baltimore. 

Calvert Hall College, 1908. Chemistry. 

Cathebine Bowie Clagett Thomas (Mbs.) 

Western High School, 1904. German 111. 

Kathebine Thebesa Valentine. Baltimore. 

German II. 

Celia Vandebmast. Baltimore Co. 1405 S. Clinton St 

Maryland State Normal School, 1910. German II. 

Letitia Eleanoe Weeb. Baltimore. 

Teachers College, Columbia University, French II. 

Maby Colston Whitehead (Mbs.) Baltimore. 

French III. 

Vibginia Wightman. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School. English II. 

Ellen Cecilia Wilhelm. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School. French I. 

Baltimore. 
German I. 

Baltimore. 



Geobge Richabd Wilkinson. 

S. B., Davidson College, 1912. 



Bait. 17 W. 20th St. 
216 Myrtle Av. 



310 E. 22nd St. 

1527 Bolton St. 

1412 Linden Av. 

2004 Walbrook Av. 

1020 N. Broadway. 



1128 Cathedral St. 



Mabgabetta W. Williams. 

English I; History. 

Elsie Louise Wieth. Baltimore. 1600 Pennsylvania Av. 

Baltimore Training School. Principles of Education. 

Mibiam Elizabeth Woolf. Baltimore Co. 4212 Mass. Av. 

Western High School, 1911 ; Baltimore Training School, 1913. English I. 

Cobben Pinckney Youmans. Fairfax, S. C. 144 Jackson Place. 
S. B., Clemson College (S. C), 1913. French I. 

Bessie Colston Young (Mbs.) Baltimore. Cold Spring Lane. 
Bryn Mawr School. French III. 

(167) 



The Johns Hopkins Press of Baltimore 

American Journal of Insanity. Board of Editors. Quarterly. 8vo. 

Volume LXX in progress. $5 per volume. 
American Journal of Mathematics. Frank Morley, Editor. Quarterly. 

4to. Volume XXXVI in progress. $5 per volume. (Foreign 

postage, fifty cents.) 
American Journal of Philology. B. L. Gildersleeve, Editor. Quar- 
terly. 8vo. Volume XXXV in progress. $3 per volume. 

(Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Beitrage zur Assyriologie und semitischen Sprachwissenschaft Paul 

Haupt and Fbiedeeich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume X in prog- 
ress. 
Hesperfa: Schriften zur germanischen Philologie. Hermann 

Collitz, Editor. Six numbers have appeared. 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXV In 

progress. $2 per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XVII in progress. 

$5 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Johns Hopkins University Circular, including the President's Report, 

Annual Register, and Medical Department Catalogue. T. R. 

Ball, Editor. Monthly. 8vo. $1 per year. 
Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

Under the direction of the Departments of History, Political 

Economy, and Political Science. Monthly. 8vo. Volume XXXII 

in progress. $3 per volume. 
Modern Language Notes. Edited by E. C. Armstrong, J. W. Bright, 

B. J. Vos, and C. C. Marden (Managing Editor). Eight times 

yearly. 4to. Volume XXVIII in progress. $2 per volume. 

(Foreign postage, twenty-five cents.) 
Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Third series 

in progress. $2.00. 
Reports of the Maryland Geological Survey. Edited by W. B. Clark. 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L. A. Bauer, 

Editor. Quarterly 8vo. Volume XIX in progress. $3 per 

volume. (Foreign postage, twenty-five cents.) 



Photographic Reproduction of the Kashmirian Atharva-Veda. 

M. Bloomfield, Editor. 3 vols. Folio. $50. 
Poema de Fernan Gonqalez. Edited by C. Carroll Marden. 284 

pp. 8vo. $2.50 net. 
The Taill of Rauf Coilyear. Edited by William Hand Browne. 

164 pp. 8vo. $1.00 net. 
Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. $6. 
Studies in Honor of A. Marshall Elliott. Two volumes. 8vo. 

450 and 334 pp. $7.50. 
The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. 8vo. $7.50. 
The Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. 225 pp. 8vo. $1. 
Ecclesiastes : A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 

50 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 
The Book of Nahum: A New Metrical Translation. By Paul 

Haupt. 53 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 
The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907. By James 

Brown 'Scott. Vol. I, The Conferences, 887 pp.; Vol. II, Docu- 
ments, 548 pp. 8vo. $5. 
The Eclogues of Baptista Mantuanus. By W. P. Mustard. 156 

pp. 8vo. $1.50. 
Diplomatic Negotiations of American Naval Officers, 1778-1883. 

By C. O. Paullin. 380 pp. 12mo. $2. 
Four Phases of American Development — Federalism, Democracy, 

Imperialism, Expansion. By J. B. Moore. 218 pp. $1.50. 
A complete list of publications sent on request. » 



la 



No. 5 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRAE 

JUN 2 4 1915 
THE 



JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



1915-1916 



Baltimore, Maryland 

Published by the University 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

May, 1915 



[New Series, 1915, No. 5] 
[Whole Number, 275] 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



CALENDAR 1915-1916 

General Assembly, Saturday, 10 a. m., October 9 (Donovan Room). 
College Courses for Teachers begin on Monday, October 11, 1915. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 25, 1915. 
The Christmas Recess begins Friday morning, December 24, 1915. 
Exercises will be resumed on Tuesday afternoon, January 5, 1916. 
Commemoration Day falls on Tuesday, February 22, 1916. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 20, and closes 
Wednesday evening, April 26, 1916. 

College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 27, 1916. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY 

; jun 2 4 1915 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
1915-1916 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1915 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE 
COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Professor of Education. 

Eleanor L. Lord, Dean of the Faculty and Professor of 
History, Goucher College. 

Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Chairman of the Committee, 
on or before October 2, 1915. 

Professor Buchner may be found in McCoy Hall, first floor, 
daily from September 25 to October 2 (3-5 p. m., Monday 
to Friday, 10 a. m., Saturday). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Henry Wood, Ph. D. German 

Professor of German. 
Jacob H. Hollander, Ph. D., Social Problems 

Professor of Political Economy. 
John M. Vincent, Ph. D., History 

Professor of European History. 

C. Carroll Marden. Ph. D., Spanish 

Professor of Spanish. 
Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D., Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D., Education 

Professor of Education. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D., Social Problems 

Professor of Statistics. 
Murray P. Brush, Ph. D., French 

Collegiate Professor of French. 
J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 
William W. Ford, M. D., Hygiene 

Associate Professor of Hygiene and Bacteriology. 

James E. Shaw, Ph. D., Italian 

Associate Professor of Italian. 
Knight Dunlap, Ph. D., Psychology 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 

B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph. D., Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 
John C. French, Ph. D., English 

Associate Professor of English. 

C. Macfie Campbell, M. D., Psychopathology 

Associate Professor of Psychiatry. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D., German 

Associate in German. 
Charles A. Myers, Ph. D., English 

Instructor in English. 

Charles A. Laubach, M. D., Hygiene 

Assistant in Hygiene and Bacteriology. 
Nathaniel R. Whitney, Ph. D., Political Economy 

Instructor in Political Economy. 
Hans Froelicher, Ph. D., German 

Professor of German Language and Literature and of Art Criticism in 
Goucher College. 

Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D., French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 
Robert M. Gay, A. M., English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 
Clara L. Bacon, Ph. D., Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 



College Courses for Teachers [490 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or "lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic in- 
struction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have com- 
pleted one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lectures 
open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve a larger 
constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public serv- 
ice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in cooperation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent 
their attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the 
usual hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis 
for the courses announced below for 1915-1916. It is the 
primary aim of these courses to provide the teachers in our 
public and private schools with special opportunities for 
further personal culture and for increasing their professional 
equipment and efficiency. These courses are similar in char- 
acter, so far as quality and extent of instruction are con- 
cerned, to the corresponding courses given in college classes. 
In order to give further encouragement to teachers in service 



491] Requirements for Admission 5 

to carry on extended systematic study, this plan of college 
courses for teachers also provides that satisfactory work 
accomplished in these courses will be credited, under suitable 
regulations, toward the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be ad- 
mitted to these courses. They will be expected to present 
the proper qualifications for the subjects and courses they 
desire to pursue. 

CO-OPEKATION WITH GOUCHEK COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. These 
courses will be open to men and women alike, and will be 
carried on independently of the regular collegiate instruc- 
tion of the institutions. In the case of women who may 
desire to become candidates for the baccalaureate degree, 
it is provided that such credits as they may acquire by means 
of these courses, to the amount of forty-five units or hours, 
will be accepted in full by Goucher College toward the degree. 
A similar provision is made by the Collegiate Department 
of the Johns Hopkins University in the case of those men 
who desire to proceed to the baccalaureate degree. Total 
credits of sixty units or hours are required for graduation 
in each institution. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 

ADMISSION 

The requirements for admission to the College Courses 
for Teachers conform in general to the requirements for 
matriculation fixed by the Johns Hopkins University in its 
Collegiate Department, and to the entrance requirements 
prescribed by Goucher College. The preparatory training 



6 College Courses for Teachers [492 

desirable for the successful pursuit of these courses is that 
represented by the completion of a standard four-year high 
school course. 

Applicants may be admitted to these courses by either of 
the following means : 

1. Passing an examination. 

2. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of the College Entrance Examination Board. 

(b) Of public and private high school and normal 
schools approved by the Committee in charge. 

(c) Of work completed in other colleges. 

In cases where questions may arise as to the adequacy of 
preparation, the applicant may be admitted provisionally 
and be given an opportunity to prove his or her ability to 
sustain the work undertaken. Admission to any particular 
course will depend upon adequate preparation for the pursuit 
of that course. 

ADMISSION WITH REFERENCE TO A DEGREE 

Those applicants who wish to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Johns Hopkins University 
are referred to the circular descriptive of The College of 
Arts and Sciences of the Johns Hopkins University, 1915, 
pp. 52-63, for a detailed statement of the requirements for 
matriculation. This circular may be had by addressing the 
Registrar. 

Those applicants who desire to become candidates for the 
same degree in Goucher College, are referred to the Announce- 
ments for 1915-16, pp. 29-42, for a detailed statement of the 
corresponding requirements in this institution. This circu- 
lar may be had by addressing the Registrar. 

As a final requirement before the degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred by the Johns 
Hopkins University upon men only. 



493] Expenses 



ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

The courses offered for 1915-1916 represent for the most 
part the work usually required in the first, second, and third 
college years. In case there is a sufficient demand on the 
part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance of 
these, an effort will be made to arrange for such instruction. 
In considering applications for advanced standing the Com- 
mittee will be guided by the regulations in force, in such 
cases, in the two institutions. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction will be at practically the same 
rate per hour as for the undergraduate courses in the Johns 
Hopkins University and Goucher College, namely: 

Ten Dollars per year for each hour per week. Each 
course will continue throughout the academic year. Where 
laboratory fees are required they are additional. From two to 
three hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour 
of recitation or lecture. The special fee for Education 3 is 
Seven Dollars. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 712 North Howard Street. Before pay- 
ment of fees can be made, applicants must receive from the 
Chairman of the Committee a card stating the courses to be 
taken. 

SESSION 

The courses will open on Monday, October 11, 1915, and 
close on Saturday, May 27, 1916. Each course will include 
instruction for thirty weeks. Class-room and laboratory exer- 
cises will be given in the afternoon from Monday to Friday 
and on Saturday forenoon. Instruction will be omitted on 
the days which occur within the usual university recesses at 
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admission are to be filed with the Chair- 



8 



College Courses for Teachers 



[494 



man of the Committee, the Johns Hopkins University, on or 
before October 2, 1915. 



SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

(Subject to minor changes at the opening of the courses 
in order to meet the convenience of students.) 





4.10 — 5.00 p. m. 


5.10—6.00 P. m. 


Monday 


Education 2 (Buchner) 
German 3 (Wood, 4.30) 
Psychology 1 (Dunlap) 

French 2 (Brush) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 ( Roulston ) 
History (Vincent) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Education 1 (Buchner) 


Tuesday 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 2 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
French 2 (Brush) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 


Wednesday 


Education 2 (Buchner) 
French 3 (Brush) 
German 3 (Wood, 4.30) 
Spanish (Marden) 


Education 1 (Buchner) 
English 3 (Gay) 
French 3 (Brush) 
Italian (Shaw) 
Political Economy 1 

( Whitney ) 
Political Economy 2 

( Hollander and Barnett i 


Thursday 


German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
History (Vincent) 
Latin (Mustard) 


Chemistry (Lovelace) 
English 1 (Myers) 
English 2 (French) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 


Friday 


Psychology 1 (Dunlap) 
Spanish (Marden) 


English 3 (Gay) 
Italian (Shaw) 
Political Economy 1 

(Whitney) 
Political Economy 2 

( Hollander and Barnett ) 




9.00—9.50 a. M. 


10.00 A. M. 1.00 P.M. 


Saturday 


Education 3 (Campbell, 

9—11) 
French 1 (Shefloe) 
German 1 (Froelicher) 
German 2 (Roulston) 
Hygiene (Ford and Lau- 

bach, 9—12) 
Latin (Mustard) 
Mathematics (Bacon) 


Chemistry (Gilpin, 10—1) 



495] Chemistry-Education 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer than ten applicants 
may be withdrawn. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degree of Bache- 
lor of Arts, which will be allowed for successful completion 
of each of the courses mentioned below, can be determined 
definitely only at the end of the year. 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by experi- 
ments and will be supplemented by occasional condensed 
reviews written at home. The work is based on Remsen's 
" Chemistry " (Briefer Course) and will cover the field of 
inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the laboratory 
students will repeat experiments chosen from those performed 
in the class-room, and will make simple inorganic prepara- 
tions. Two hours class-work, three hours laboratory work 
weekly. 

A laboratory fee of $5.00 will be charged to cover the cost 
of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, which is 
loaned with charge for breakage only. (The minimum 
expense for breakage has been $1.63; the average $3.00.) 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Associate Professor Love- 
lace. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 
a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of 
Education, tracing the development of those ideas, practices 
and institutions of the past which have been most effective 
in determining the essential features and problems of educa- 



10 College Courses for Teachers [496 

tion in the present. The work is based on Monroe's " Text- 
book in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

. 2. Principles of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education will undertake 
a study of education with a view to understanding the work 
of the school and the mental and social factors in individual 
development. 

In the first half-year attention will be given to secondary 
education; in the second half-year, to the social aspects of 
education. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

3. The Sub-Normal Child and Its Training. 

This course, consisting of ten lectures and clinical demon- 
strations (October to January), will study the various condi- 
tions, both individual and social, underlying defective mental 
development. The clinical material will offer opportunity 
for systematic examinations of children, including an appli- 
cation of intelligence tests and a full discussion of the ques- 
tions involved in the various abnormalities. The course will 
consider the principles of training such children, and also 
the special problems confronting social workers and those 
who teach backward children. 

Lecture Eoom, Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. 

Dr. Campbell. Saturday, 9 to 11 a. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical study 
of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be required; 
these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. Myers. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 



497] French 11 

2. Oral English. 

This course will consist of the study and practice of Eng- 
lish Composition for oral use. It will include a survey of the 
principles of expression, but will not be a course in elocution. 
Stress will be laid upon the form and structure of various 
types of speeches, upon the lucid explanation of assigned 
topics, and upon the apt and ready choice of words. The en- 
rollment will be limited to fifteen. 

Associate Professor French. Tuesday and Thursday, 
5.10 p. m. 

3. English Literature. 

A study of the greater poets and prose writers of the Yic- 
torian age, exclusive of the novelists. During the first half- 
year the emphasis will be upon Tennyson and Carlyle; dur- 
ing the second, upon Browning, Arnold, and Kuskin. 

Professor Gay. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

French 

1. French Elements. 

a. The Essentials of Grammar: Fraser and Squair, 
French Grammar. 

b. French Texts : Dumas, le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge ; 
Labiche, la Grammaire; About, la Mere de la mar- 
quise; Augier, le Gendre de M. Poirier; Daudet, 
Contes; Moliere, L'Avare; Bowen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students who begin the study 
of French. Upon the successful completion of the course 
the student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the elementary 
requirements in French. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A course in French reading, grammar, and compo- 
sition, for students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. 



12 College Courses for Teachers [498 

The texts read will be chosen from the nineteenth century, 
with one or two classics of the seventeenth. The course will 
be given two hours or three a week; in the latter case the 
work covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course French 1. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. A study of the Eomantic and Eealistic writers of the 
nineteenth century. The class will read representative works 
by Lamartine, Hugo, Vigny, Gautier, Musset, Balzac, Dumas 
fils, Augier, Flaubert, Zola, Daudet, Leconte de Lisle, and 
Sully Prudhomme. Lectures will be given upon the life and 
work of these authors, and there will be regular exercises in 
composition and in writing French from dictation. The 
course will be given two hours a week. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

German 

1. German Elements. 

a. Vos' Essentials of German. 

b. Texts: Heyse, Die Blinden; Keller, Kleider machen 
Leute; Meyer, Das Amulet; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heiraten. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the 
study of German or who have had but a partial introduction 
to the language. The work will include the principles of 
grammar, pronunciation, translation, and composition. Upon 
the successful completion of the work, the student receives 
credit for one course if offered as college work; if offered for 
matriculation, it absolves the elementary requirements in 
German. 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 
p. m. ; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A course similar to undergraduate German 1, consist- 
ing of modern prose readings (C. F. Meyer, von Saar, Fulda, 



i 



499] History-Hygiene 1 3 

Keller, Sudermann), two hours weekly, and prose compo- 
sition, one hour weekly. 

Dr. Koulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m.; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

3. a. German Drama since 1880. 

Dramas by Hauptmann, Sudermann, Hugo von Hof- 
mannsthal, etc., will be read. First half-year, 
b. German Lyric Poetry. 

German lyric poetry will be considered in its chief 
phases and representatives, from Klopstock to the 
present time. The point of view will be that of care- 
ful literary appreciation and of the study of lyrical 
expression. Second half-year. Text-book: The Ox- 
ford Booh of English Verse. The cheaper edition in 
cloth (Oxford University Press, American Branch). 

Professor Wood. Monday and Wednesday, 4.30 p. m. 

History 

A course of lectures in the history of the Ancient Regime 
and the French Revolution. Collateral readings and a lim- 
ited amount of source work will be required. 

(In case of preference, a course in English History may be 
substituted.) 

Professor Vincent. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

Hygiene 

The course in hygiene will consist of lectures and labora- 
tory work. The principles of bacteriology will be taught by 
experiment, and the application of bacteriology to the modern 
crusade against disease and unhealthy conditions of living 
will be demonstrated by lectures and by field work. Empha- 
sis will be laid upon methods of disease prevention which rely 
upon the destruction of the infectious agents. Special prob- 
lems of sanitation, water and milk supplies, and allied topics 



14 College Courses for Teachers [500 

will be considered in detail. Collateral reading will be re- 
quired. 

Laboratory of Hygiene, Pathological Building, Johns Hop- 
kins Hospital. 

Associate Professor Foud and Dr. Laubach. Saturdays, 
9 to 12 a. m. 

Italian 

The object for the course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used: Grandgent, Italian Gram- 
mar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short Stories; Collodi, 
Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 
p. m. 

Latin 

A course will be offered for the reading of the following 
authors: Livy (selections); Vergil, Bucolics; Horace, Odes. 
Students will also read privately, for examination: Cicero, 
Cato Major; Vergil, Aeneid, book viii. The course will be 
given two or three hours a week; in the latter case, one 
hour a week will be given to Latin Composition, and the 
work covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course Latin 1. 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
Algebra, the second part being given to an introductory 
course in Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra, Plane Geometry, 
Plane Trigonometry. 



501] Political Economy-Psychology 15 

(In case of sufficient demand for a more advanced course, 
it may be given.) 

Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m.; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

Political Economy 

1. Elements of Economics. 

Instruction will be offered in the elements of political 
economy with particular reference to current economic prob- 
lems. The text-books used will be Cheyney's " Industrial 
and Social History of England/' Ely's " Outlines of Eco- 
nomics." 

Dr. Whitney. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Social Problems. 

A course designed for social workers and for students of 
modern social conditions who have already some acquaintance 
with elementary economic principles. The particular sub- 
jects to be studied will include the causes of poverty, unem- 
plo}Tnent, trade unionism, and social insurance. 

Professors Hollander and Barnett. Wednesday and 
Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

Psychology 

1. Introductory General Psychology. 

This is a fundamental course, necessary for students who 
intend to work in any branch of psychology. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Monday and Friday, 4.10 
p. m. 

2. Experimental Psychology. 

In this course work is arranged to suit the needs and 
preparation of the individual students. 
Associate Professor Dunlap. Two periods a week. 

3. Social Psychology. 

A study of the psychological factors involved in the be- 



16 College Courses for Teachers [502 

havior of individuals in social groups. Open to students 
who have had course 1 or its equivalent. 

Associate Professor Dunlap. Two hours a week, which 
may be arranged as a single evening session if the class so 
desires. 

Spanish 

A course adapted to beginners and similar to undergrad- 
uate Spanish 1. Texts : Ingraham, Brief Spanish Grammar; 
Matzke, Spanish Readings; Alarcon, El Capitdn Veneno; 
Perez Galdos, Dona Perfecta. 

Professor Mabden. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



ATTENDANTS ON COLLEGE COURSES FOR 
TEACHERS 



Hattie Josephine Adams. Baltimore. 524 Rossiter Av. 

Eastern High School, 1891. German III. 

Ruth A. E. Adamson. Baltimore. 1902 Eastern Av. 

Political Economy. 

Mabgbetta H. Alfobd. Baltimore 2700 N. Charles St. 

Baltimore Training School, 1904. Study of Backward Children. 

Florence Irene Arnold. Baltimore. 2053 Woodberry Av. 

Western High School, 1900. English II. 

Helen Skipwith Athey ( Mrs. ) Baltimore. 100 S. Patterson Pk. Av. 

Misses Hall's School, 1894 ; Johns Hopkins Hospital Training School for 
Nurses, 1905. Study of Backward Children. 

John Turner Bamberger. Baltimore Co. Fullerton Heights. 

Baltimore City College, French II and German III. 

Stella Hannah Bamberger. Baltimore. 212 Laurens St. 

Western High School. History. 

Florence Gees Bangert. Baltimore. 2015 N. Calvert St. 

Baltimore Teachers' Training School. English II. 

Helen Rebecca Bealmear. Baltimore. 3111 W. North Av. 

Western High School, 1891. Education I. 

Edith Wilson Bell. Baltimore. 1302 N. Luzerne Av. 

Goucher College. Psychology I. 

Elizabeth Bell Baltimore. 423 E. Twenty-fifth St. 

Western High School, 1892. Study of Backward Children. 

Bessie Burns Bennett. Baltimore. 106 W. North Av. 

Southern Home School. French III. 

Anna Bercowitz. Baltimore. 839 Hollins St. 

Western High School. Hygiene. 

George Oscar Blome. Baltimore. 3915 Maine Av. 

LL. D., University of Maryland, 1914. English I. 

Grace Halle Blondheim. Baltimore. 714 Newington Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1913. French III. 

Margaret Donaldson Boehm. Baltimore. Roland Park. 

Roland Park School, 1912. Political Economy. 

Kathleen Livingston Bond. Baltimore. 2941 N. Charles St. 

Girls' Latin School, 1907. Education I. 

17 



18 College Courses for Teachers [504 

Mary Elizabeth Bond. Baltimore. 2941 N. Charles St. 

Eastern High School. Education I. 

Gertrude Lee Boone. Baltimore. 2922 Parkwood Av. 

Western High School, 1894. Study of Backward Children. 

Edward Carlyle Boss. Baltimore Co. Orangeville. 

Dickinson College. English I. 

Nora Virginia Brainard. Baltimore. 1921 Guilford Av. 

Western High School, 1907. English 111. 

Albert Howell Brewster. Atlanta, Ga. 1254 N. Broadway. 

A. B., University of Virginia, 1914. French 1. 

Clara Maude Brown. Baltimore, Roland Park. 705 Gladstone Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait), 1890. History. 

Stella Elizabeth Brown. Baltimore Co. Overlea. 

Reisterstown High School, 1897. Political Economy. 

Agnes Emilie Buchholz. Baltimore. 748 Reservoir St. 

Western High School. French I. 

Mary A. T. Bunworth. Howard Co. Ellicott City. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1886. French III. 

Elizabeth Jenkins Bublingame. Baltimore. 821 N. Charles St. 
New York State College for Teachers, 1905. English II. 

Laura Laurenson Byrne. Howard Co. Ellicott City, 

A. B., Bryn Mawr College, 191-2. Education II. 

Leonora Ella Carpenter. Baltimore. 1317 Parle Av. 

Western High School. History. 

Ethel Jean Church. Baltimore. 1514 Division St. 

Western High School, 1905. English II. 

Sara Hines Claiborne. Baltimore. 26 S. Broadway. 

Edgeworth School. French III. 

Helen Clark. Baltimore. 1118 N. Charles St. 

Bryn Mawr School, 1914. English II. 

M. Isabella Clark. Baltimore. 1123 Madison Av. 

Mt. St. Agnes College. Psychology I. 

Mattie Estelle Co ale. Baltimore. 1123 Madison Av. 

Tome Institute, 1906. Hygiene. 

Mary J. Codling Baltimore. 1713 Bolton St. 

Baltimore Teachers' Training School, 1909. Study of Backward Children. 

Anabel Jackson Copeland (Mrs.) Baltimore. 108 8. Strieker St. 
Girls' Latin School. English I and History. 

Margaret Mary Corrigan. Stamford, Conn. 3538 Old Frederick Rd. 

University of Maine. Education I. 






505] Students 19 

Anna Cecilia Cbady. Baltimore. 711 St. Paul St. 

English II. 

Isabelle Gbesham Cbane. Baltimore. 211 Mosher St. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1914. English I. 

Sabah D. Cbane. Baltimore. 211 Mosher St. 

Girls' Latin School. Education I. 

Gbace Hay Cbomeb. Baltimore. 1820 Edmondson Av. 

Western High School. English I. 

Ida Cdbtiss. Baltimore. 1524 Park Av. 

Goucher College. French II. 

Mabtha Juliet Dittus. Baltimore. 2118 Bolton St. 

Western High School, 1895. English II. 

Hannah H. Dobbittee. Baltimore Co. Raspeourg. 

Eastern High School, 1879. Study of Backward Children. 

Ann Doyle. Baltimore. 1227 N. Gay St. 

St. John's Female Academy (Bait.)- Hygiene. 

Nanna Duke Dushane. Baltimore. Roland Park. 

French III. 

Lulu Elungswobth. Baltimore. 2910 Clifton Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1903. French I. 

Fbances Evans. Baltimore. 845 Hamilton Ter. 

French III. 

Helen Isabella Eyleb. Baltimore. 3416 Mondawmin Av. 

Western High School, 1905. Education I. 

Anna Fabnen. Baltimore. 3410 Bateman Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1911. English III. 

Mabel Cobnelia Fibob. Baltimore. 715 Newington Av. 

Western High School, 1910. Education II. 

Robebta Tousey Fletcheb. Washington, D. C. 1822 Vernon St. 

Berlin, Germany, 1903. Study of Backward Children. 

Bebnabd Joseph Flynn. Baltimore. 2500 Ellamont St. 

English I. 

Ella Mabia Fbench. Baltimore. Haywood Park. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1909. English I. 

Agnes Fbisius. Anne Arundel Co. Annapolis. 

French II. 

Rosalie Elizabeth Gabdneb. Baltimore. 5 W. Twenty-ninth St. 

Western High School, 1893. French III. 

Elizabeth Matilda Gebhabdt. Baltimore. 1128 W. Baltimore St. 

Western High School, 1912. Education I. 



20 College Courses for Teachers [506 

Anne Everett George. Washington, D. C. 1822 Vernon St. 

Goucher College; Montessori Course, Rome. Study of Backward Children. 

Elisabeth Gilman. Baltimore. 513 Park Av. 

French III; Psychology II. 

Branford Clay Gist. Baltimore. 2023 E. North A v. 

Education I. 

Mary Ellen Green. Baltimore. 114 N. Lakewood Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1914. French I. 

Elizabeth Greene. Greenfield, Mass. Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

A. B., Smith College, 1913. Political Economy. 

Gladys Houston Greiner. Baltimore. 209 Club Rd., Roland Pk. 

Bryn Mawr School. English I. 

Edna Linsley Gressitt (Mrs.) Tokyo, Japan. 2410 Linden Av. 
L. B., University of California, 1906. Education II. 

James Fullerton Gressitt. Tokyo, Japan. 2410 Linden Av. 

A. B., Johns Hopkins University, 1906. Education I and II. 

Mary Agnes Grogan. Baltimore. 1108 E. Twentieth St. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1912. English II. 

Ellen Kate Gross. Baltimore. 916 22. North Av. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1910. Study of Backward Children. 

Caroline Elsie Grote. Baltimore. 1045 Myrtle Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. English II. 

Hazel Francis Gwynn. Prince George's Co. 632 N.Carrollton Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1914. English I. 

Klein Kinzer Haddaway. Baltimore. 2504 Garrison Av. 

LL. B., University of Maryland. English I. 

Anna Hoffman Hall (Mrs.) Baltimore. 2004 N. Charles St. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1899. Education II. 

Florence Jane Hanna. Baltimore. 1015 Linden Av. 

Goucher College. English III. 

Katharine Loretta Healy. Baltimore. 3817 Clifton Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1909. English III. 

Marie Virginia Heaphy. Baltimore. 325 E. Twenty-Second St. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1912. English HI. 

Bessie V. Hearn Baltimore Co. Govans. 

Study of Backward Children. 

Eleanor Cecilia Heavey. Howard Co. Ellicott City. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1890. French III. 

Gene Herbert. Stevensville, Md. 1110 N. Charles St. 

Stevensville High School, 1913. Education I. 



507] Students 21 

Gulielma G. K. W. Hewes. Baltimore. 210 W. Twenty-fifth St. 
St. Timothy's School. Hygiene. 

Leah Eleanora Hildebbandt. Baltimore. 410 E. Twenty-second St. 
Western High School, 1909. English II. 

Maby Elizabeth Holland. Baltimore. 3309 Windsor Mill Rd. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1906. French II. 

Maby Cecelia Hopkins. Baltimore. 1531 Linden Av. 

Girls' Latin School. Political Economy. 

Maby Bingley Hostetteb. Hanover, Pa. 1110 N. Charles St. 

Hanover High School. Education I. 

Robebt Weight Houseal. Newberry, S. C. 1612 E. Biddle St. 

A. B., Newberry College, 1911 ; A. M., University of Virginia, 1913. 
French I. 

Philena Mabtenet Hutton. Kingsville, Md. 1812 N. Calvert St. 

Johns Hopkins University (Summer Session), 1914. English II and Psy- 
chology I. 

Florence Gove Ingham. Baltimore. 1921 Bentalou St. 

Western High School, 1913. Education I. 

Bebtha Estelle Johnson. Baltimore. 2408 Madison Av. 

Western High School, 1898. English III. 

Sylvia Lloyd Johnson. Masontown, Pa. 533 N. Wolfe St. 

A. B., Goshen College (Ind.), 1914. French I. 

Isabelle Meldbum Johnstone. Baltimore. 2043 Kennedy Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. English III. 

Kenneth B. Jones. Baltimore Co. Owing' s Mills. 

M. D., University of Maryland, 1911. Study of Backward Children. 
Rosina Coblens Joseph. Baltimore. 1513 Eutaw Place. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1905. English II. 

Clay Talbott Joyce. Baltimore Co. Cockeysville. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1896. Education II. 

Lutie Marguerite Keech. Baltimore. 2425 N. Calvert St. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1912. History. 

Sarah Augusta Kemp. Baltimore. 839 Harlem Av. 

English III. 

James Patterson Kerr. Baltimore. 1037 N. Eutaw St. 

Deichmann Preparatory School. Political Economy. 
Margaret Kirwan. Baltimore. 1800 Park Av. 

Western High School, 1914. English I. 

Marguerite Frederick a Klein. Baltimore. 2311 N. Calvert St. 

Western High School, 1908. Education II. 



22 



College Courses for Teachers 



[508 



Baltimore. 1524 A 7 . Broadway. 



Baltimore. 1905 Thomas Av. 

Education I. 

Baltimore. 319 E. Twenty- fifth St. 
Samuel Ready School. 
1408 Mt. Royal Av. 



Baltimore. 
German III. 

Baltimore. 



Baltimore. 



1123 Madison Av. 

227 W. Lafayette Av. 

808 Newington Av. 

2052 Linden Av. 

144 W. Lanvale St. 



Bessie Klinesmith. 

English II. 

AUGUSTA KLOTZ. 

Western High School, 1900. 

Grace Amanda Kramer. 

French II. 

Mary Elizabeth Kbekel. 

Samuel Ready School, 1900. 

Tillie Laubheimer. 

Study of Backward Children. 

Mary Elizabeth Lent. 

Keeble College (N. Y.). Hygiene. 

Pamela Elizabeth Littig. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1914. English I. 

Hilda Louis. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School, 1894. English II. 

Blanche Landen MacCabthy. Baltimore. 
Western High School. Psychology II. 

Alice Malone. Baltimore. 

A. M., University of Michigan, 1908. Psychology I. 

Elizabeth Malooly. Baltimore. 1002 E. Preston St. 

Eastern High School, 1884. English II. 

Natha Annette Mann. Baltimore. 2213 Edgemont Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1908. English II. 

Amy Russell Manning. Baltimore. 918 A 7 . Calvert St. 

Bryn Mawr School, 1911. French III. 

Mabel Elizabeth Marshall. Baltimore. 1128 Myrtle Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1912. English I. 

Virginia McGaw. Baltimore. 602 Lennox St. 

Western High School, 1881. Study of Backward Children. 

Harvey T. McLaughlin. Baltimore. 501 N. Gilmor St. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1914. English I. 

Ina Craig McMullen. Baltimore. 1039 W. Lanvale St. 

Columbia and Johns Hopkins Universities (Summer Sessions). English 2 ; 
Psychology I. 

Minnie V. Medwedeff. Baltimore. 3916 Park Hgts. Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. English I. 

Annie Gertrude Melvin. Baltimore. 725 N. Fremont Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1899, French I. 

Ethel Bailey Melvin. Baltimore. 725 N. Fremont Av. 

English III. 



509] Students 23 

Annie Catherine Meushaw. Baltimore Co. Winston Av., Govans. 

History. 

Allison Janney Millee. Baltimore. Severn Apartments. 

Edgeworth School. Psychology I. 

Persis K. Milleb. Baltimore. School No. 76. 

Study of Backward Children. 

Youel Benjamin Mibza. Urumia, Persia. 716 Park Av. 

A. M., Johns Hopkins University, 1914. French I. 

Kathebine Frances Muesse. Baltimore. 1213 N. Broadway. 
Eastern High School, 1894. English II. 

Kathebine Anna Muhlbach. Baltimore Cq. Westport. 

Marylaid State Normal School (Bait.), 1900. German III. 

Maby Cleland Nelson. Baltimore Co. Riderwood. 

French III. 

Maby Fbancis Neudecker. Baltimore. 123 W. Twenty-second St. 
Baltimore Teachers Training School. English III. 

Ida Neumann. Baltimore. 1405 N. Central Av. 

Eastern High School. English I and II. 

Elizabeth Nickel. Baltimore. 2911 Belmont Av. 

English III. 

Mabel Audoun Nobth. Baltimore. 1802 N. Milton Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1912. English I. 

Fred Cheffins Numbebs, Jb. Baltimore Co. Overlea. 

English III. 

Mabel Nusbaum. Clarksburg, W. Va. 1629 Madison Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1913. English I. 

Willie Adele O'Neill. Rising Sun. 230 N. Carey St. 

Western High School, 1895. English II. 

Florence K. Oudesluys (Mrs.) Baltimore. 

Political Economy. 325 Woodlawn Rd., Roland Park. 

Emily Bond Owings. Baltimore. 1215 John St. 

Arundell School, 1908. Political Economy. 

Eleanor F. Parker. Baltimore. 

Education I. 202 Ashland Av., Roland Park. 

Grace Dudrea Parker (Mrs.) Baltimore. 913 St. Paul St. 

English III. 

Martha Patterson. Baltimore. 1925 Linden Av. 

Goucher College. English II. 

Edward Everett Perkins, Jr. Prince George's Co. Springfield. 

Washington High School. French II. 



24 



College Courses for Teachers 



[510 



Elizabeth Blanciiaed Randall. Baltimore Co. Caionsville. 

St. Timothy's School. Political Economy and Psychology II. 

Evelyn Baeton Randall. Baltimore Co. Caionsville. 

English II. 

Rosamond Haeding Randall. Baltimore. 1127 St. Paul St. 

Bryn Mawr School. English II. 

Elias Hilton Read. Baltimore Co. Parental School. 

Study of Backward Children. 

Elizabeth Reddington. Baltimore. 1342 Harford Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1912. English I. 

Martin Arnold Roberts. Baltimore. 2841 St. Paul St. 

Leechburg (Pa.) High School. History. 

Sarah Lucy Roche. Baltimore. 1815 E. Lombard St. 

English II. 

Martha Margaret Rohn. Baltimore. 1831 Aisquith St. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1913. English I. 

Anna Hertha Rothe. Baltimore. 1216 Harford Av. 

English I and History. 



Baltimore Teachers Training School, 1913. 



Ellen Kathrine Rothe. 

Eastern High School, 1908. 

Anna Marie Rue. 

Study of Backward Children 

Anita Marie Sauer. 

Western High School. 

Isabelle Schultz. 

Western High School, 1914 

Mary Myrtle Selby. 



Baltimore. 1216 Harford Av. 

French II and Political Economy. 



Baltimore. 



Baltimore. 
English I. 

Baltimore. 
English I. 

Sellman, Md. 



1604 Harlem A v. 



1803 Mosher St. 



1910 Park Av. 



1123 Madison Av. 



Cedar Bend School (Md.). English I. 

Anna Shamberger. Baltimore. 2623 Guilford Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1904. English II. 

Esther Jane Shamberger. Baltimore. 2623 Guilford Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.), 1899. French I. 



Helen Sherbert. 

Western High School, 1900. 

Evelina C. Simon. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1898 

Anna Adella Simonds. 

Eastern High School, 1894. 

Margaret Skirven. 



Baltimore. 1800 N. Calvert St. 
Hygiene. 

Baltimore. 210 W. Twenty-fifth St. 
; A. M., Columbia University, 1899. History. 

Baltimore. 1308 N. Caroline St. 

Study of Backward Children. 

Baltimore. 3900 Cottage Av. 



Western High School. Education I. 



511] Students 25 

Eugene Randolph Smith. Baltimore 1509 Mondawmin Av. 

A. B., Syracuse University, 1896 ; A. M., 1898. Study of Backward Children. 

Elizabeth Anna Smyth. Baltimore. 1206 Bolton St. 

Western High School. English II. 

Helen Gbosvenob Smyth. Baltimore. 1206 Bolton St. 

Western High School. Study of Backward Children. 

Emmette Eigdon Spenceb. Baltimore. 403 E. Twenty-fifth St. 

Johns Hopkins University. Hygiene. 

Claba May Spielman. Baltimore. 1123 Madison Av. 

Psychology I. 

Floeence Agnes Stansbuby. Baltimore. 1037 Edmondson Av. 
Baltimore Teachers Training School. Political Economy. 

Reuben Steinbach. Baltimore. 114 S. Chester St. 

A. B., Johns Hopkins University, 1913. Education I and II. 

Susan Ellicott Steuabt. Baltimore. Roland Park. 

Roland Park Country School, 1912. English II. 

Floeence Stewaet. Baltimore. 1123 Madison Av. 

Clifton Forge High School (Va.), 1890. Psychology I. 

Minnie Habbison Stbayeb. Baltimore. 1200 Madison Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. English II. 

Floeence Steombeeg. Baltimore. 2339 Madison Av. 

Western High School. English II. 

Helen Steombeeg. Baltimore. 2339 Madison Av. 

Western High School, 1893. English II. 

Maetiia Steombeeg. Baltimore. 2339 Madison Av. 

Western High School, 1S87. English II. 

Alice Hank Stbothee (Mrs.) Baltimore. 2412 Chelsea Terrace. 
Western High School, 1S74. Study of Backward Children. 

Cathebine Bowie Claggett Thomas (Mrs.) Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1904. French I. 17 W. Twentieth St. 

Dobothy Little Thomas. Baltimore. 433 E. Twenty-fifth St. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. English I. 

Mabion Doeothea Teeibleb. Baltimore. 1325 Linden Av. 

Baltimore Teachers Training School. Political Economy. 

Edna Phbonia Teoll. Baltimore. 3807 Clifton Av. 

English I. 

Katheeine Theeesa Valentine. Baltimore Co. 216 Myrtle Av. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.)- German III. 

Georgia Osbobne Walkee. Baltimore. 909 N. Arlington Av. 

St. Luke's Hall. Political Economy. 



26 



College Courses for Teachers 



[51: 



Emma France Ward. Baltimore. 

A. B., Goucher College, 1909. Political Economy 

Louis Weissinq. Baltimore. 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 1914. English I. 

Elizabeth Genevieve White. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1900. Education II. 

Virginia Wightman. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School. English III. 

Ellen Cecilia Wilhelm. Baltimore. 

Maryland State Normal School (Bait.). 1906 



4210 Main Av. 
2054 E. Federal St. 
2446 Maryland Av. 

1412 Linden Av. 



Margaretta W. Williams. Baltimore. 

French III. 

Ruth Wilson. Baltimore. 

Western High School, 1907. Political Economy. 

Caroline Wood. Baltimore. 

Miss Porter's School (Conn.). French III. 

Margaret Wood. 

Miss Porter's School (Conn.) 

Barbara Bee Woodruff. 

Potsdam (N. Y.) Normal Training School, 1912 

Mary Margaret Wootton. Baltimore. 

Western High School. Political Economy. 

Mary Isabelle Wyman. Baltimore. 

Eastern High School. English II. 

Roder Estill Yager. San Juan, P. R. 

B. S., Georgetown College (Ky.), 1913. French I. 



2004 Walbrook Av. 
French II. 

1128 Cathedral St. 



Baltimore. 
French III. 

Potsdam, N. Y. 



1431 Edmond8on Av. 

TV. Forty-first St. 

1529 Bolton St. 

2016 Brookfield Av. 

English I. 

1512 Linden A v. 

3003 Matthews Av. 



802 N. Bdway. 
(189) 



The Johns Hopkins Press of Baltimore 

American Journal of Insanity. Board of Editors. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume 
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American Journal of Mathematics. Frank Moeley, Editor. Quarterly. 4to. 
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Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXVI in progress. 
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Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. Svo. Volume XVII in progress. $5 per 
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Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Fourth series in 
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(Open to Men and Women) 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

Degree M. D. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
Degree A. B. 
(Open to Men) 



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING 
(Open to Men) 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

With Academic Credits 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES 

With Academic Credits 

(Open to Men and Women] 



SUMMER COURSES FOR GRADUATES IN MEDICINE 
(Open to Men and Women) 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS PUBLICATIONS 



STATE BUREAUS 

Maryland Geological Survey, Maryland Weather Service, 

Maryland Forestry Bureau 



Fortieth year opens October 5, 1915. For circulars, address 
T. R. BALL, Registrar 




No. 6 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



1916-1917 



Baltimobb, Mabylaxd 

Published by the Untvebsity 

Issued Monthly fbom Ootobeb to July 

June, 1916 



; New Series, 1916, No. 6] 
[Whole Number, 286] 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 



CALENDAR, 1916-17 

General Assembly, Saturday, October 7, 10 a. m. (Donovan Room, 

Academic Building, Homewood ) . 
College Courses for Teachers begin Monday, October 9, 1916. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 30, 1916. All classes 

suspended. 
The Christmas Recess begins Saturday, December 23, 1916. 
Exercises will be resumed on Wednesday afternoon, January 3, 1917. 
Mid-year Examinations, February 1, 1917. 
Commemoration Day falls on Thursday, February 22, 1917. All 

classes suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 5, and closes 

Wednesday evening, April 11, 1917. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 26, 1917. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
1916-1917 



BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1916 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE 
COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchner, Chairman, Director and Professor 
of Education. 

Eleanor L. Lord, Dean of the Faculty and Professor of 
History, Goucher College. 

Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Eegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 

2, 1916. . 

Professor Buchner may be found in Eoom 217 m the Aca- 
demic Building at Homewood, daily from September 23 tc 
September 30 (3-5 p. m., Monday to Friday; 10. a. m., Sat- 
urday) . 



INSTRUCTORS 



Henry Wood, Ph.D. German 

Professor of German. 

Jacob H. Hollander, Ph.D. Social Problems 

Professor of Political Economy. 

C. Carroll Marden, Ph. D. Spanish 

Professor of Spanish. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D. Latin 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. Education 

Professor of Education. 

Edward C. Armstrong, Ph. D. French 

Professor of the French Language. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D. Statistics 

Professor of Statistics. 

Murray P. Brush, Ph. D. French 

Collegiate Professor of French. 

David M. Robinson, Ph.D. History of Art 

Professor of Classical Archaeology and Epigraphy. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph.D. Chemistry 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

William W. Ford, M. D. Hygiene 

Associate Professor of Hygiene and Bacteriology. 

James E. Shaw, Ph. D. Italian 

Associate Professor of Italian. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph.D. Psychology 

Professor of Experimental Psychology. 

B. Franklin Lovelace, Ph.D. Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Chemistry. 

John C. French, Ph. D. English 

Associate Professor of English. 

C. Macfte Campbell, M. D. Psycho-Pathology 

Associate Professor of Psychiatry. 
Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. German 

Associate in German. 

3 



4 College Courses for Teachers [644 

Chilton L. Powell, Ph.D. English 

Instructor in English. 

Charles A. Laubach. M. D. Hygiene 

Assistant in Hygiene and Bacteriology. 

Nathaniel R. Whitney, Ph. D. Political Economy 

Instructor in Political Economy. 

Florence E. Bamberger, A.M. Education 

Instructor in Education. 

Eras mo Buceta, Dr. Direcho Spanish 

Instructor in Spanish. 

Kemper Simpson, A. B. Life Insurance 

Assistant in Life Insurance. 

Hans Froelicher, Ph. D. German and History of Art 

Professor of German Language and Literature and of Art Criticism ia 
Goucher College. 

Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D. French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 

Robert M. Gay, A. M. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Clara L. Bacon, Ph. D. Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 

Katharine J. Gallagher, Ph. D. History 

Instructor in History in Goucher College. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or "lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic in- 
struction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have com- 
pleted one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lectures 
open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve a larger 
constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public serv- 
ice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent 
their attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the 
usual hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis 
for the courses announced below for 1916-1917. It is the 
primary aim of these courses to provide teachers in public 
and private schools with special opportunities for further 
personal culture and for increasing their professional equip- 
ment and efficiency. These courses are similar in charac- 
ter, so far as quality and extent of instruction are con- 
cerned, to the corresponding courses given in the academic 
645] 5 



6 College Courses for Teachers [646 

department. In order to give further encouragement to 
teachers in service to carry on extended systematic study, this 
plan of college courses for teachers also provides that satis- 
factory work accomplished in these courses will be credited, 
under suitable regulations, toward the degrees of Bachelor of 
Arts and Bachelor of Science. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be ad- 
mitted to these courses. They will be expected to present 
the proper qualifications for the subjects and courses they 
desire to pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the successful pur- 
suit of these courses is that represented by the completion of 
a standard four-year high school course. In cases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or without 
reference to the baccalaureate degrees. 

THE DEGKEE OF BACHELOE OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required courses of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses in accordance with the following 
regulations. 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science must present evidence of having success- 
fully completed courses of study equivalent to the gradu- 
ating requirements of a standard four-year high school. This 
evidence may be offered by either of the following means : 



647] Bachelor of Science 7 

1. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a 
course of study of four years, and approved by the 
Committee on Matriculation. 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or 
other approved examining boards. 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for 
matriculation, of which nine are prescribed and six are elec- 
tive. The subjects in which the prescribed units must be 
offered are : 

English {three), History {one), Mathematics (Alge- 
bra and Geometry, two), a Modern Foreign Language 
{two), Science {one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from 
the following group, the number of additional units accepted 
in the several prescribed subjects being indicated in paren- 
theses : 

Domestic Science {one) or Manual Training {one), 
Drawing {one), History {one, or two), Latin {two, or 
three, or four), Mathematics {one, or one and a half), 
Modern Foreign Language {two or three, or four), 
Science {one, or two). 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer 
approved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scien- 
tific school, normal school, training school, or technical school 
in advance of high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are: 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated stu- 
dents, namely: 



8 College Courses for Teachers [648 

English, two courses ; Foreign Languages, three courses 
in at least two languages ; History, one course ; Science, 
one course. 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject, and 
of two courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required 
courses may not be counted as part of the work in the major. 

3. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one 
hundred and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of 
twenty-four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The 
maximum credit allowed a student in one summer session is 
eight points. 



CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. These 
courses will be open to men and women alike, and will be 
carried on independently of the regular collegiate instruc- 
tion of the institutions. In the case of women who may 
desire to become candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
it is provided that such credits as they may acquire by means 
of these courses, to the amount of forty-five units or hours, 
will be accepted in full by Goucher College toward the degree. 
A similar provision is made by the academic department 
of the Johns Hopkins University in the case of those men 
who desire to proceed to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 






649] Bachelor of Arts — Expenses 



THE DEGEEE OF BACHELOE OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1916, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1916-17, for a detailed statement of the corresponding require- 
ments in that institution. This circular may be had by ad- 
dressing the Registrar of the College. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the Johns Hopkins University 
upon men only. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is ten dollars per year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout the 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 
hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. The special fee for Education 3 is 
seven dollars. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the Johns 
Hopkins University, Academic Building. Before payment 
of fees can be made, applicants must receive from the Regis- 
trar a card stating the courses to be taken. 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 
of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation is $5, 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. 



10 College Courses for Teachers [650 

SESSION 

The courses will open on Monday, October 9, 1916, and 
close on Saturday, May 26, 1917. Each course will include 
instruction for thirty weeks. Class-room and laboratory exer- 
cises will be given in the afternoon and evening from Monday 
to Friday and on Saturday forenoon. Instruction will be 
omitted on the days which occur within the usual University 
recesses at Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Easter. 

Applications for admission are to be filed with the Director 
on or before October 2, 1916. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

It is expected that the classes will be held in the new 
buildings at Homewood; the laboratory work in chemistry 
will be given in the old building, Druid Hill and Linden 
Avenues. In view of the readjustments incident to the Uni- 
versity's removal to its new site, the complete schedule of 
hours can not be arranged prior to the opening of the courses 
on October 9. In addition to the usual afternoon and Satur- 
day forenoon schedule, efforts will be made to complete ar- 
rangements whereby a number of classes can be held in the 
evenings at 7.30 or 8 o'clock. The courses for which this plan 
may be carried out have been indicated in the statements, 
respectively. Changes in the schedule may be made at the 
opening in order to meet the convenience of students. 



651] Art 11 

THE COUESES OF INSTEUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer than ten applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficient demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, an effort will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the degrees of Bache- 
lor of Arts and Bachelor of Science, which will be allowed for 
successful completion of each of the following courses, can be 
determined definitely only at the end of the year. 

Art 

A. Ancient Art. 

A general outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and 
painting with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing 
as seen on vases. The development of the different branches 
of ancient art from prehistoric times will be systematically 
considered and their influence on later art emphasized. Lec- 
tures illustrated by slides, photographs, casts and original an- 
tiquities. Eeports and required reading for credit. Books re- 
commended: Eeinach's Apollo (Scribner's Sons, New York, 
1909, $1.50); Fowler- Wheeler, Greek Archaeology (New 
York, 1909, $2.00), Strong's Roman Sculpture (London, 
1911, $3.00). 

Professor Robinson. Two hours a week, first half-year. 

B. Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval, Eenaissance, and 
Modern Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, 
recitations, reports on assigned topics. Text book : Eeinach's 
Apollo. 

Professor Froelicher. Two hours a week, second half- 
year. (An evening session of two hours may be arranged). 



12 College Courses for Teachers [652 

Chemistry 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
class-room work will comprise lectures illustrated by experi- 
ments and will be supplemented by occasional condensed 
reviews written at home. The work is based on Remsen's 
" Chemistry " (Briefer Course) and will cover the field of 
inorganic chemistry as far as possible. In the laboratory 
students will repeat experiments chosen from those performed 
in the class-room, and will make simple inorganic prepara- 
tions. Two hours class-work, three hours laboratory work 
weekly. (Lectures at Homewood; laboratory work in the old 
building.) 

A laboratory fee of $5.00 will be charged to cover the cost 
of chemicals. This fee does not include apparatus, which is 
loaned with charge for breakage only. (The minimum 
expense for breakage has been $1.63; the average $3.00.) 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Associate Professor Love- 
lace. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 10 
a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Education 



1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of 
Education, tracing the development of those ideas, practices 
and institutions of the past which have been most effective 
in determining the essential features and problems of educa- 
tion in the present. The work is based on Monroe's " Text- 
book in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Educational Psychology. 

This course will treat of mental development and the psy- 
chological basis of educational theory and practice, and include 
the special psychology of interest, work, practice, childhood 






653] Education 13 

and adolescence, and the various school subjects. A survey 
of the recent studies in educational psychology will be made. 
Professor Buchner. Friday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. The Sub-Normal Child and Its Training. 

This course, consisting of ten lectures and clinical demon- 
strations (October to January), will study the various condi- 
tions, both individual and social, underlying defective mental 
development. The clinical material will offer opportunity 
for systematic examinations of children, including an appli- 
cation of intelligence tests and a full discussion of the ques- 
tions involved in the various abnormalities. The course will 
consider the principles of training such children, and also 
the special problems confronting social workers and those 
who teach backward children. 

Lecture Room, Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. 

Dr. Campbell. Saturday, 9 to 11 a. m. 

4. Secondary Education. 

This course will consider the historical development of sec- 
ondary education and the important present-day problems in 
this field, including organization and curriculum, relation to 
elementary and collegiate education, psychology of secondary 
subjects and general method of instruction. Stated reports 
will be required, based on observation of class-room and other 
high school activities. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

5. Elementary Education. 

This course includes the study of the principles and aims 
underlying elementary education. Among the topics to be 
discussed are : an examination of the social needs for subject- 
matter in each of the school subjects, the organization of the 
problems and materials of this subject-matter in response to 
the mental development of pupils, the classification of pupils 
and provision for individual differences, formulating of pro- 



14 College Courses for Teachers [654 

grams, proper methods of study, and measuring the results of 
teaching. 

For those interested in problems of supervision, a third 
period may be arranged, in which additional topics will be 
considered: general principles underlying the criticism of 
instruction, standards for judging instruction, and the basic 
principles of curriculum making. The work in supervision 
is an optional additional hour, and may be offered for extra 
credit. 

Eecitations will be observed with regard to method followed 
and the conduct of study periods will receive attention. Ee- 
ports based on the observation of class-room work will be 
handed in from time to time. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 9-10.45 a. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include the theory of diction, structure, 
and the forms of prose composition, with some critical study 
of selected prose writers. Weekly themes will be required; 
these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Dr. Powell. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. English Literature. 

A study of Late Victorian Literature, beginning with Bus- 
kin. During the first term the emphasis will be upon Euskin, 
the prose of Matthew Arnold, and Pater; during the second, 
upon Newman, Morris, and Swinburne. 

Professor Gay. Wednesday and Friday, 5.00 p. m. (An 
evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

3. American Literature. 

This course will consist primarily of a critical study of the 
writings of American authors, classified according to literary 
form rather than according to chronology. Stress will be laid 
upon the works more commonly used by teachers in elemen- 



655] French 15 

tary and secondary schools, and the writings of contemporary 
authors will not be excluded. 

Associate Professor French. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 
p. m. (An evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

French 

1. French Elements. 

a. Grammar : — Fraser and Squair, Shorter French Course. 

b. French Texts : — Dumas, Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge; 
Labiche et Martin, Le Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon; About, 
La Mere de la Marquise; Augier et Sandeau, Le Gendre de- 
Monsieur Poirier; Daudet, Contes; Moliere, L'Avare, Le 
Bourgeois Gentilhomme; Balzac, Eugenie Grandet; Daniels 
and Travers, Poemes et Chants de France. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study 
of French. It includes pronunciation, composition, and 
translation. Upon the completion of the course the student 
receives credit if offered as college work ; if offered for matric- 
ulation, it absolves the requirements in French. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A course in French reading, grammar, and compo- 
sition, for students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. 
The texts read will be chosen from modern authors, and the 
exercises in composition will be of a practical nature. The 
course will be given two or three hours a week; in the latter 
case the work covered should correspond to that done in the 
collegiate course French 1. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. Seventeenth and Ninteenth Century Drama. Classic 
tragedy and comedy, Eomantic and Eealistic Schools, and con- 
temporary plays. Lectures and reading in the history of the 
drama. Exercises in composition. 

Professor Armstrong. Thursday, 4-5.40 p. m. 



16 College Courses for Teachers [656 

German 

1. German Elements. 

a. Vos, Essentials of German. 

o. Texts: Heyse, Die Blinden; Keller, Eleider machen 
Leute; Meyer, Das Amulet; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heiraten. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the 
study of German or who have had but a partial introduction 
to the language. The work will include the principles of 
grammar, pronunciation, translation, and composition. Upon 
the successful completion of the work, the student receives 
credit for one course if offered as college work; if offered for 
matriculation, it absolves the requirements in German. 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday, 4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 
9-11 a. m. 

2. One of the following courses is offered : 

A. Modern Prose Eeadings with Exercises in Prose Com- 
position. Such writers as Storm, Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, 
Arnold Schurz, etc., will be read. This course corresponds 
to collegiate German 1, and, if satisfactorily completed, will 
be credited accordingly. 

or 

B. Practical Exercises in Spoken and Written German. 
The nature of this course will depend somewhat on the pre- 
vious training of those who wish to follow it. It is intended, 
however, primarily for those who desire to increase their 
knowledge of practical Modern German. Some attention will 
be paid to the presentation of such exercises in the class room. 

Dr. Roulston. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. ; Satur- 
day, 9 a. m. 

3. a. German Drama in the first half of the 19th Century. 

Beginning with the greatest of the post-classical dramatists, 
H. von Kleist (Prinz Friedrich von Homburg), the course 



657] History — Hygiene 17 

will include Grillparzer (Des Meeres und der Liebe Wellen), 
Hebbel (Agnes Bernauer), and Lndwig (Der Erbforster) . 

The passage from romanticism to realism in these dramas 
will be illustrated in detail, and the studies and express state- 
ments of the four authors on the development of the modern 
German drama will be considered. In the case of Hebbel, a 
comparative study of the Agnes Bernauer theme will be made 
in the dramas and dramatic fragments of Torring, Otto Lud- 
wig, and Martin Greif. October to February inclusive. 

b. German Lyric Poetry. 

Selected poems, from Klopstock to our own period, will be 
studied. The method of treatment will include not only 
literary appreciation, but also some systematic attention to 
rhythmical and metrical expression. March 1 to end of second 
half-year. 

Text-book: The Oxford Booh of German Verse. The 
cheaper edition in cloth (Oxford University Press, American 
Branch) . 

Professor Wood. Monday and Wednesday, 5 p. m. (An 
evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

History 

This course of lectures on the history of the United States, 
1783-1916, is planned to give a general survey of the develop- 
ment and progress of American nationality. A syllabus will 
be provided. Collateral reading and reference to original 
sources will be required. 

Dr. Gallagher. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. (An 
evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

Hygiene 

The course in hygiene will consist of lectures and labora- 
tory work. The principles of bacteriology will be taught by 
experiment, and the application of bacteriology to the modern 
crusade against disease and unhealthy conditions of living 



18 College Courses for Teachers [658 

will be demonstrated by lectures and by field work. Empha- 
sis will be laid upon methods of disease prevention which rely 
upon the destruction of the infectious agents. Special prob- 
lems of sanitation, water and milk supplies, and allied topics 
will be considered in detail. Collateral reading will be re- 
quired. 

Laboratory of Hygiene, Pathological Building, Johns Hop- 
kins Hospital. 

Associate Professor Ford and Dr. Laubach. Saturdays, 
9 a. m. to 12 m. 

Italian 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used: Grandgent, Italian Gram- 
mar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short Stories; Collodi, 
Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Associate Professor Shaw. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 
p. m. (An evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

Latin 

A course will be offered for the reading of the following 
authors: Livy (selections); Vergil, Bucolics; Horace, Odes. 
Students will also read privately, for examination, Cicero, 
Cato Major; Vergil, Aencid, book viii. The course will be 
given two or three hours a week; in the latter case, one 
hour a week will be given to Latin Composition, and the 
work covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course Latin 1. 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m.; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand for a more advanced course, 
it will be given in place of the above.) 






659] Mathematics — Political Economy 19 



Mathematics 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
Algebra, the second part being given to an introductory 
course in Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra ; Plane Geometry. 

Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m.; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand for a more advanced course, 
it may be given.) 

Oriental Seminary 

Attention is called to the fact that several courses in the 
Oriental Seminary, which presuppose no knowledge of He- 
brew or Greek, are available in the late afternoons : 

History of the Ancient East. Dr. Blake. Monday, 5 p. m. 
History of Israel. Dr. Rosenau. Thursday, 5 p. m. 
Biblical Archaeology. Mr. Russell. Thursday, 5 p. m. 
The Literature of the Bible. Mr. Russell. Monday, 5 
p. m. 

Political Economy 

1. Elements of Economics. 

During the first half-year, the growth of industrial society 
will be examined ; during the second-half year the elements of 
economic science with particular reference to current economic 
problems will be studied. 

Dr. Whitney. Monday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. (An 
evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

2. Social Problems. 

A course designed for social workers and for students of 
modern social conditions who have already some acquaintance 
with elementary economic principles. The particular subjects 



20 College Courses for Teachers [6 GO 

to be studied will include the causes of poverty, unemploy- 
ment, trade unionism, and social insurance. 

Professor Hollander. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 
(An evening session of two hours may be arranged.) 

3. Elements of Statistics. 

After a preliminary study of the value and place of statis- 
tics as an instrument of investigation, attention is directed to 
the chief methods used in statistical inquiry. The illustra- 
tions of statistical methods will be drawn from the fields of 
education and social work. 

Professor Barnett. (An evening session of two hours on 
Friday may be arranged.) 

4. Life Insurance. 

The course is designed to give to those persons engaged in 
the insurance business and to those students who contemplate 
entering the life insurance business, a description and scientific 
analysis of the most important aspects of the life insurance 
business. 

Mr. Simpson. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 



Psychology 
1. Introduction to General Psychology. 

This is a fundamental course, of two or three hours a week, 
advisable for students who intend to work in any branch of 
psychology. It will consist of lectures, discussions, and as- 
signed readings. A third period of laboratory work may be 
arranged for those desiring it, at times other than the regular 
class periods. The laboratory work is an optional additional 
hour, and may be offered for extra credit. 

Professor Dunlap and Dr. Loring. 

Two hours a week, which may be arranged as a single 
session on Thursday evening. 






661] Spanish 21 

2. Experimental Psychology. In this course the work is 
arranged to suit the needs and preparation of individual 
students. 

Professor Dunlap. Two periods per week. 

Spanish 

1. Spanish Elements. 

a. De Vitis, Spanish Grammar; oral and written exercises. 

b. Hills, Spanish Tales for Beginners; Alarcon, El Capi- 

tdn Veneno; Palacio Valdes, La Hermana San Sulpicio. 

A course intended for beginners. Upon successful comple- 
tion of this course the student receives credit for one course 
if offered as college work; if offered for matriculation, it 
absolves the requirements in Spanish. 

Professor Marden. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

2. A practical course in Spanish for those who have had 
the elements of the language, and who desire to gain a broader 
knowledge of the literature, together with facility in speaking 
and writing Spanish. 

Dr. Buceta. Two hours a week. 

(If possible, evening hours will be arranged.) 



Attendants on the College Courses for Teachers, 1915-1916, 
343. 



L ljj^/ Series, 1917 Whole Number 297 

^* No. 7 

THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 

EDITED BY 

THOMAS R. BALL 



ir:;vErsmroFiu.irmuc 
WG 2 g x 9i7 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 
1917-1918 



Baltimore, Maryland 
Published by the University 
Issued Monthly from October to July 
July, 1917 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 



CALENDAR, 1917-18 

General Assembly, Saturday, October 6, 10 a. m (Donovan Room, 

Gilman Hall, Homewood). 
College Courses for Teachers begin Monday, October 8, 1917. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 29, 1917. All classes 

suspended. 
The Christmas Recess begins Saturday, December 22, 1917. 
Exercises will be resumed on Thursday afternoon, January 3, 1918. 
Mid-Vear Examinations, February 1, 1918. 
Commemoration Day falls on Friday, February 22, 1918. All classes 

suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, March 28, and closes 

Wednesday evening, April 3, 1918. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 25, 1918. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

OFFERED BY 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

AND 

GOUCHER COLLEGE 
1917-1918 




BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1917 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF THE COLLEGE 
COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



Edward F. Buchner, Director and Professor of Educa- 
tion, Chairman. 

Eleanor L. Lord, Dean of the Faculty and Professor of 
History, Goucher College. 

Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 
1, 1917. Registration of former students should be made on 
or before October 5. 

The Director may be found in Room 217, Gilman Hall. 
Homewood, daily from September 22 to September 29 (3-5 
p. in.. Monday to Friday; 10 a. m., Saturdays). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Henry Wood, Ph.D. 

Professor of German. 

LORRAJN S. HlJLBURT, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematics. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph .D. 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. 

Professor of Education. 

Murray P. Brush, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of French. 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D. 

Professor of Classical Archaeology and Epigraphy. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

John H. Latane, Ph. D. 

Professor of American History. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D. 

Professor of Experimental Psychology. 

John C. French, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of English. 

C. Macfie Campbell, M D. 

Associate Professor of Psychiatry. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of German. 

William Rosen au, Ph. D. 

Associate in Post-Biblical Hebrew. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D. 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Associate in Philosophy. 

Florence E. Bamberger. A. M. 

Associate in Education. 

Oustav Gruenbaum, Ph.D. 

Associate in Romance Languages. 

S. Edwin Whiteman 

Instructor in Drawing. 



939] 



German 

Mathematics 

Latin 

Education 

French 

Art 

Chemistry 

History 

Psychology 

English 

Psycho-Pathology 

German 

Semitic Languages 

Semitic Languages 

Philosophy 

Education 

French and Spanish 

Drawing 

3 



College Courses for Teachers 



[940 

titai 

Chemistry 
English 
Spanish 

Education 

Political Economy 

Political Science 



Walter F. Shenton, Ph. J). 

Instructor in Mathematics. 
Ellis Miller, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Chemistry. 

Chilton L. Powell, Ph. D. 

Instructor in English. 

Erasmo Buceta, Dr. en Derecho 

Instructor in Spanish. 

David E. Weglein, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Education. 

Clare E. Griffin, A. B. 

Instructor in Transportation. 

Arthur C. Millspaugh, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Political Science. 

Bird T. Baldwin, Ph. D. Education 

Lecturer in Education. 

Hans Froelicher, Ph.D. German and Art 

Professor of German and of Art Criticism in Goucher College. 

Joseph S. Shefloe,, Ph. D. French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 

Robert M. Gay, Litt. D. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Clara L. Bacon, Ph.D. Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 

Katherine J. Gallagher, Ph. D. History 

Assistant Professor of History in Goucher College. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or " lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic in- 
struction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have com- 
pleted one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

Goucher College has also offered without reference to 
academic credit special courses of instruction and lectures 
open to teachers of Baltimore in an effort to serve a larger 
constituency than its regular students. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public serv- 
ice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent 
their attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the 
usual hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis 
for the courses announced below for 1917-1918. It is the 
primary aim of these courses to provide teachers in public 
and private schools with special opportunities for further 
personal culture and for increasing their professional equip- 
ment and efficiency. These courses are similar in charac- 
ter, so far as quality and extent of instruction are con- 
cerned, to the corresponding courses given in the academic 
941] 5 



6 College Courses for Teachers [942 

department. In order to give further encouragement to 
teachers in service to carry on extended systematic study, 
this plan of college courses for teachers also provides that 
satisfactory work accomplished in these courses will be credit- 
ed, under suitable regulations, toward the degrees of Bachelor 
of Art and Bachelor of Science. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be ad- 
mitted to these courses. They will be expected to present 
the proper qualifications for the subjects and courses they 
desire to pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the successful pur- 
suit of these courses is that represented by the completion of 
a standard four-year high school course. In cases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or without 
reference to the baccalaureate degrees. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required courses of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses, in accordance with the following 
regulations : 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science must present evidence of having success- 
fully completed courses of study equivalent to the gradu- 
ating requirements of a standard four-year high school. This 
evidence may be offered by either of the following means : 



943] Bachelor of Science 7 

1. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a 
course of study of four years, and approved by the 
Committee on Matriculation. 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or 
other approved examining boards. 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for 
matriculation, of which nine are prescribed and six are elec- 
tive. The subjects in which the prescribed units must be 
offered are : 

English (three), History (one), Mathematics (Alge- 
bra and Geometry) (two), a Modern Foreign Lan- 
guage (two), Science (one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from 
the following group, the number of additional units accepted 
in the several prescribed subjects being indicated in paren- 
theses : 

Domestic Science (one) or Manual Training (one), 
Drawing (one), History (one, or two), Latin (two, or 
three, or four), Mathematics (one, or one and a half), 
Modern Foreign Language (two or three, or four), 
Science (one, or two). 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer 
approved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scien- 
tific school, normal school, training school, or technical school 
in advance of high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are: 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated stu- 
dents, namely: 



8 College Courses for Teachers [94-1- 

English, two courses; Foreign Languages, three 
courses in at least two languages; History, one course; 
Science, one course. 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject, and 
of two courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required 
courses may not be counted as part of the work in the major. 

3. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one 
hundred and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of 
twenty- four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The 
maximum credit allowed a student in one summer session is 
eight points. 

By a plan of co-operation with the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore, provision has been made whereby candidates for 
the degree who desire to offer a major in art may do so by 
completing the following courses : I. Drawing : Freehand 
drawing, first year, 6 hours; drawing from the antique, sec- 
ond year, 6 hours; still-life and portrait drawing, third 
year, 6 or 9 hours; life drawing, fourth year, 6 or 9 hours. 

Cognate courses: Design, 6 hours, and history of art, 2 
hours. The first-year drawing and the history of art courses 
may be taken at the University. The maximum amount of 
credit allowed for drawing is seventeen points. 

The Maryland Institute is also announcing a special Nor- 
mal Art Course for the training of teachers and supervisors 
of art in public schools. Certain courses in education at the 
University form a part of this special course. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. In the 
case of women who may desire to become candidates for the 



945] Bachelor of Arts- — Expenses 9 

degree of Bachelor of Arts, it is provided that such credits 
as they may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount 
of forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by Goucher 
College toward the degree. A similar provision is made by the 
academic department of the Johns Hopkins University in 
the case of those men who desire to proceed to the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. * 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1917, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1917-18, for a detailed statement of the corresponding re- 
quirements in that institution. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar of the College. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the Johns Hopkins University 
upon men only. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is ten dollars per year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout the 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 



10 College Courses for Teacher 8 [ 94 ; ; 

hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. 

Fees arc payable m semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of tne Univer- 
sity, Room 121, Gilman Hall. Before payment of fees can 
be made, applicants must receive from the Registrar a card 
stating the courses to be taken. 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 
of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation ie 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. 

SESSIOX 

The courses will open on Monday, October 8, 1917, and 
close on Saturday, May 25, 1918. Each course will include 
instruction for thirty weeks, except as otherwise noted. Class- 
room and laboratory exercises will be given in the afternoon 
and evening from Monday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which occur 
within the usual University recesses at Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas, and Easter. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

Classes will be held in the University buildings at Home- 
wood. The complete schedule of hours can not be arranged 
prior to the opening of the courses on October 8. In addi- 
tion to the usual afternoon and Saturday forenoon schedule, 
a number of classes will be held in the evenings at 8 o'clock, 
usually two hours in one session. Changes in the hours indi- 
cated may be made at the opening in order to meet the con- 
venience of students. Where days and hours are omitted, the 
convenience of students will also be considered in arranging 
the schedule. 



047] Art 11 

THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer than ten applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficient demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, 'an effort will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the baccalaureate de- 
grees, which will be allowed for the successful completion of 
each of the following courses, can be determined definitely 
only at the end of the year. 

Art 
1. History of Art. 

a. Ancient Art. 

A general outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and 
painting with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing 
as seen on vases. The development of the different branches 
of ancient art from prehistoric times will be systematically 
considered and their influence on later art emphasized. Lec- 
tures illustrated by slides, photographs, casts and original an- 
tiquities. Reports and required reading for credit. Books 
recommended : Reinach's Apollo ( Scribner's Sons, New York, 
1909, $1.50) ; Fowler-Wheeler, Greek Archaeology (New 
York, 1909, $2.00) ; Strong's Roman Sculpture (London, 
1911, $3.00). 

Professor Robinson - . First half-year. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 

b. Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval, Renaissance, and 
Modern Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, 
recitations, reports on assigned topics. Text book : Reinach's 
Apollo. 

Professor Froelicher. Second half-year. Tuesday, 8-10 
p. m. 



12 College Courses for Teachers [948 

The course on the History of Art may be offered as part of 
the requirement of the major in art. 

2. Greek and Eoman Sculpture. 

Lectures on the history of Greek sculpture, with an outline 
of Eoman sculpture. 

Professor Robinson. Wednesday, 4 p. m. 

Chemistry 

The following courses are designed to meet the needs of 
students who are unable to follow a regular college course, 
but wish to pursue work in this subject, and of those who 
wish to prepare for a course in Domestic Science. 

1. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

Xo previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
work covers the general principles and laws of chemistry and 
a study of the more important metallic and non-metallic ele- 
ments. In the laboratory selected experiments, illustrating 
the preparation, properties and reactions of inorganic sub- 
stances and the applications of chemical laws, are performed. 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Dr. Miller. Lectures, 
8-10 p. m. ; and laboratory, 7.30-10 p. m., or Saturday, 9-12 m. 

2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will include chiefly laboratory exercises, with 
two sessions each week. Occasionally a part or all of an 
evening will be devoted to a discussion of the theoretical prin- 
ciples of the reactions being studied. As the laboratory work 
is of an individual character, an effort will be made to meet 
the needs of each student in the kind of work assigned. Prac- 
tice will be given in the methods of gravimetric and volu- 
metric quantitative analysis. 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Dr. Miller. 7.30-10 
|>. in. 



949 Drawing— Education L3 

3. General Organic Chemistry. 

This course is arranged especially to meet the needs of those 
planning to take advanced courses in cookery. It will consist 
of two lectures and one laboratory period each week. 

Pre-requisite : Chemistry 1. 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin. Lectures, 4-6 p. in., and 
laboratory, Saturday, 9 a. m.-12 m. 

Drawing 



The instruction in this course in freehand drawing aims to 
impart such knowledge of the principles of drawing as shall 
give students the ability to represent natural objects correctly. 

This course may be offered as the first-year requirement of 
the major in art. 

Mr. Whiteman. Six hours weekly. Monday, Tuesday. 
Wednesday, Thursday, 2-5 p. m. 

Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of 
Education, tracing the development of those ideas, practices 
and institutions of the past which have been most effective 
in determining the essential features and problems of educa- 
tion in the present. The work is based on Monroe's " Text- 
book in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Educational Psychology. 

This course will treat of mental development and the psy- 
chological basis of educational theory and practice, and In- 
clude the special psychology of interest, work, practice, child- 
hood and adolescence, and the various school subjects. A 
survey of the recent studies in educational psychology will 
be made. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 



14 College Courses for Teachers 

3. The Sub-Normal child and it* Training. 

Thie course (October to February) during the firsi ten 

lectures and clinical demonstrations will deal with the various 
conditions underlying defective mental development, with the 
principles of training subnormal children, and with the spe- 
cial problems confronting social workers and teachers. The 
following six lectures and clinical demonstrations will be 
devoted to the problems of neurotic children and to various 
mental anomalies of childhood, with a brief review of child 
psychology. 

Lecture Room, Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. 

Associate Professor Campbell. First half-year. Satur- 
day, 9 to 11 a. m. 

4. Principle.- of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education will undertake 
a study of education with a view to understanding the work 
of the school and the mental and social factors in individual 
development. 

Professor Buchxer. Tuesday, 4.10-6 p. m. 

5. Principles of Teaching and Special Methods in High 
School Subjects. 

The first part of this course will present the principles 
underlying the method of instruction and class-room man- 
agement, and include such topics as habit formation, the laws 
of learning, and the nature of the thinking process. 

During the second part of the course application of these 
principles will be made to the problems of teaching the sub- 
jects in high school courses of study. 

Professor Buchxer, Miss Bamberger, and Dr. Wegleix. 
Thursday, 4.10-6 p. m. 

6. High School Organization and Classroom Management. 

This course will deal with some of the principal topics 
related to the organization and administration of secondary 



951] Education 15 

schools, such as : The historical development and function of 
the American high school; comparisons with secondary 
schools in other countries; the main problems connected with 
the program of studies; extra-classroom activities; supervised 
study; the junior high school. 

Reports and discussion of observation of classroom and 
other high school activities. 

Dr. Wegleix. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

7. Elementary Education. 

This course includes the study of the principles and aims 
underlying elementary education. Among the topics to be 
discussed are : an examination of the social needs for subject- 
matter in each of the school subjects, the organization of the 
problems and materials of this subject-matter in response to 
the mental development of pupils, the classification of pupils 
and provision for individual differences, formulating of pro- 
grams, proper methods of study, and measuring the results of 
teaching. 

For those interested in problems of supervision, a third 
period may be arranged, in which additional topics will be 
considered. The work in supervision is an optional addi- 
tional hour, and may be offered for extra credit. 

Recitations will be observed with regard to method followed 
and the conduct of study periods will receive attention. Re- 
ports based on the observation of class-room work will be 
handed in from time to time. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 9.15-11 a. m. 

8. Experimental Education. 

This course deals with psycho-educational processes in 
action from the scientific point of view, and is based upon a 
comparative study of investigations in educational research. 
Emphasis will be placed on methods of approaching educa- 
tional problems and the application and evaluation of meas- 
uring scales and mental tests. Research will be undertaken 



16 College Courses for Teachers 952 

in problems selected according to the chief interests of indi- 
vidual students. 
Dr. Baldwin. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include a review of the essentials of usage, 
the study of the principles of structure and style, and fre- 
quent practice in writing. Weekly themes will be required; 
these will be returned with written criticisms. 

Associate Professor French and an Assistant. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. English Literature. 

This introductory course offers a survey of the history of 
English literature, and aims to develop an intelligent appre- 
ciation of literature. During the first half-year atten- 
tion will be given to general principles and literary types, 
the greater English writers being taken up historically during 
the second half-year. The course corresponds to English 
Literature 4, in the College of Arts and Science. 

Dr. Powell; Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

3. European Drama. 

A survey of the drama from Aeschylus to Ibsen. One play 
will be studied of each of the great dramatic periods, — Greek, 
Roman, mediaeval, Elizabethan, classicist, and modern, — as 
illustrative of the evolution of the drama and the stage. 
Special stress will be laid throughout upon the influence of 
foreign plays and dramatic technique upon English drama. 

Texts: Matthews, B. The Development of the Drama, 
and Chief European Dramatists. 

Professor Gay. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 



953] French 17 

French 

1. French Elements for Beginners. 

a. Grammar: — Fraser and Squair, Shorter French Course. 

b. French Texts: — Dumas, Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge; 
Hon vert, La belle France; Labiche et Martin, Le Voyage de 
Monsieur Perrichon; About, La Mere de la Marquise; Augier 
et Sandeau, Le Gendre de Monsieur Poirier; Daudet, Contes; 
Moliere: L'Avare; Sand, La Mare au Liable; Maupassant, 
Contes Choisis; Bowen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study of 
French and aims to impart a good reading knowledge of the 
language. It includes pronunciation, composition, and 
translation. Upon the completion of the course the student 
receives credit for one course if offered as college work; if 
offered for matriculation, it absolves the requirements in 
French. Graduate and medical students completing this 
course absolve the requirements in French, of candidates for 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and for admission to the 
Medical School, respectively. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. French Readings. 

A course in French reading, grammar, and composition, 
for students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. The 
texts will be chosen from modern authors, and the exercises 
in composition will be of a practical nature. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. French Literature since 1870. 

A study will be made of the general trend in the novel, 
drama and lyric poetry since the Franco-Prussian War. Ex- 
tensive reading and reports upon the authors read will be 
required, which will be supplemented by lectures in French. 
An integral part of the course will be training in the use of 



18 College Courses for Teachers 

the phonetic alphabet of the International Phonetic Associa- 
tion which will be helpful to teachers of the language. 

Collegiate Professor Bei SH. Thursday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

German 

1. German Elements. 

a. Vos, Essentials of German. 

b. Texts : Heyse, Die Blinden; Keller, Kleider machen 
Leute; Meyer, Das Amulet; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heir at en. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the 
study of German or who have had a partial introduction 
to the language. The work will include the principles of 
grammar, pronunciation, translation, and composition. Upon 
the successful completion of the work, the student receives 
credit for one course if offered as college work; if offered for 
matriculation, it absolves the requirements in German. 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday, 4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 
9-11 a. m. 

2. German Eeadings. 

Modern Prose Readings with Exercises in Prose Com- 
position. Such writers as Storm, Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, 
Arnold, Schurz, etc., will be read. This course corresponds 
to collegiate German 1, and, if satisfactorily completed, will 
be credited accordingly. The two hours of literature and 
the one hour of composition may be taken jointly or sepa- 
rately. 

Associate Professor Eoulston. Three hours a week. 

3. Practical German. 

Practical Exercises in Spoken and Written German. The 
nature of this course will depend somewhat on the previous 
training of those who wish to follow it. It is intended, how- 
ever, primarily for those who desire to increase their knowl- 
edge of practical Modern German. 



955] History 19 

Associate Professor Eoulston. Two hours a week. An 
evening session ma}* be arranged. 

4. German Literature. 

a. German Drama of the Nineteenth Century will be 
studied under two aspects: 

1. Antique Classicism and Modern Eomanticism. 
Schiller, Die Braut von Messina, Heinrich von Kleist, 
Amphitryon, Tieck, Der gestiefelte Kater, Grillparzer, 
Medea, von Platen, Der romantische Odipus, Hugo 
von Hofmannsthal, EleMra. 

2. Social Drama, from Das Junge Deatschland to the 
modern Freie Buhne. 

Gutzkow, Das Urbild des Tartiiffe, Hebbel, Maria 
Magdalena, Freytag, Die Journalisten, Sudermann, 
Die Heimat, Gerhart Hauptmann, Die Weber, 
Florian Geyer. 

October to February, inclusive. 

b. German Lyric Poetry. 

Selected poems, from the period of Goethe and Schil- 
ler to the present time, will be studied. 
March 1 to end of second half-year. 

Text-book: The Oxford Book of German Verse. The 
cheaper edition in cloth (Oxford University Press, American 
Branch). 

Professor Wood. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

History 
1. American Diplomacy. 

A study of the foreign relations of the United States from 
the Declaration of Independence to the present time, covering 
the principal disputes to which the United States has been a 
party, American contributions to international law, relations 
with Latin America, with the Orient, and with Europe. The 



20 College Courses for Teachers 

course is designed to give a comprehensive view of America's 
relation to world politics. Basel on Lectures, informal dis- 
cussions, and assigned readings in the standard writers and 
in such source collections of the Treaties and Conventions of 
the United States as the annual volumes of Foreign Rela- 
tions. 

Professor Latane. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

2. A. History of Medieval Civilization. 

A study of European civilization from the beginning of the 

Christian era to the Kenaissance with special reference to 
characteristic institutions. No single text-book will be used. 
A syllabus with lists for reference will be provided and the 

use of source materials will be especially encouraged. 
Or 

B. History of the United States, 1783-1883. 

A survey of the political, social, and economic history of 
the United States during the first century of national devel- 
opment. A syllabus will be provided and no single text-book 
will be used. 

Assistant Professor Gallagher. Wednesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

Italian 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used : Grandgent, Italian Gram- 
mar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short Stories; Collodi, 
Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Dr. Gruenbattm. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

Latin 

A course will be offered for the reading of the following 
authors: Livy (selections) ; Vergil, Bucolics; Horace, Odes. 



957] Mathematics 21 

Students Avill also read privately, for examination, Cicero, 
Cato Major; Vergil, Aeneid, book viii. The course will be 
given two or three hours a week; in the latter case, one hour 
a week will be given to Latin Composition, and the work 
covered should correspond to that done in the collegiate 
course Latin 1. The two hours of literature and the one hour 
of composition may be taken jointly or separately. 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Tuesday and Thursday, 
4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 9 a. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand for a more advanced course, 
it will be given in place of the above.) 

Mathematics 

1. Algebra and Plane Analytic Geometry. 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
Algebra, the second part being given to an introductory 
course in Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra ; Plane Geometry. 

Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

2. A Course for Teachers of Mathematics. 

This course will be a critical review of elementary Geo- 
metry and Algebra in light of recent work in the logical 
foundations of this subject. There will be an elementary 
presentation of the subjects of the axioms of Geometry and 
of the modern number theory, together with some discussion 
and comparison of text-books. 

Pre-requisite : Mathematics, through Plane Analytic Geo- 
metry. 

Collegiate Professor Hulburt. Two hours a week, which 
may be arranged in one session. 



22 College Courses for Teachers | 958 

Philosophy 

1. History of Philosophy. 

A survey of the fundamental problems of philosophy, fol- 
lowed by a presentation of the great philosophical systems 

from Socrates to Nietzsche. 
Dr. Slonimskv. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

2. Social Ethics. 

After a preliminary survey of the beginnings and growth 
of morality, study will be made of the principles of social 
ethics in application to the whole system of organized social 
relations, — the state, economic order, and the family. 

Dr. Slonimsky. Monday, 8-10 p. m. 

Oriental Seminary 

The following courses, offered in the Oriental Seminary, 
presuppose no knowledge of the Hebrew or Greek language : 

History of the Ancient East. Dr. Blake. Wednesday, 
5 p. m. 

Biblical Archaeology. Dr. Eosexau. Monday. 5 p. m. 

The Literature of the Bible. Dr. Eosexau. Tuesday, 5 
p. m. 

Political Economy 

1. Elements of Political Economy. 

Instruction is offered in the elements of political economy, 
with particular reference to current economic problems. The 
development of modern industrial society will first be de- 
scribed, after which study will be made of modern economic 
organiation. 

Mr. Griffin. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

2. Statistics. 

After a preliminary study of the value and place of sta- 
tistics as an instrument of investigation, attention is directed 



959] Political Science — Psychology 23 

to the chief methods used in statistical inquiry. The illus- 
trations of statistical methods will be drawn from the fields 
of economics, education and social work. 
Dr. Shenton. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

Political Science 

1. Comparative Government. 

In the first half of the year study will be made of the 
organization and working of foreign government; in the 
second half, attention will be given to the corresponding 
features of American government. 

Dr. MiLLSPAUGii. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

2. Municipal Government and Political Parties. 

The first half of the year will be devoted to the study of 
the structure and functions of municipal government, with 
particular reference to the past experience and present prob- 
lems of American cities. In the second half of the year 
study will be made of the history and organization of political 
parties. 

Dr. Millspaugh. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

Psychology 

1. Introduction to General Psychology. 

This is a fundamental course, of two hours a week, ad- 
visable for students who intend to work in any branch of 
psychology. It will consist of lectures, discussions, and as- 
signed readings. Laboratory work (three hours on Satur- 
day morning) is optional, and additional credit is given. 

Professor Dunlap. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

2. Experimental Psychology. 

In this course the work is arranged to suit the needs and 
preparation of individual students. 

Professor Dunlap. Two periods per week. 



24 College Courses for Teachers [960 

3. Social Psychology. 

The course undertakes a survey of the psychological fac- 
tors involved in social relations. Such topics are considered 
as the primary instincts and emotions, imitation and sugges- 
tion, efficiency and its evaluation, the family group, and the 
social function of religion. 

Professor Dunlap. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Students enrolled in the College Courses for Teachers may 
be admitted to the course in Advanced General Psychology, 
if properly prepared. 

Spanish 

1. Spanish Elements. 

a. De Yitis, Spanish Grammar; oral and written ex- 
ercises. 

b. Hills, Spanish Tales for Beginners; Alarcon, El 
Capitdn Veneno; Palacio Valdes, La Hermana San 
Sulpicio. 

A course intended for beginners. Upon successful com- 
pletion of this course the student receives credit for one 
course if offered as college work; if offered for matriculation, 
it absolves the requirements in Spanish. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

2. Practical Spanish. 

A practical course in Spanish for those who have had the 
elements of the language, and who desire to gain a broader 
knowledge of the literature, together with facility in speak- 
ing and writing Spanish. 

Dr. Buceta. Thursday, 8.10 p. m. 



Attendants on the College Courses for Teachers, 1916- 
1917, 435. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

BALTIMORE 

Founded 1876 



A FACULTY OF 340 PROFESSORS, ASSOCIATES, INSTRUC- 
TORS AND LECTURERS 



SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND WELL-EQUIPPED 
LABORATORIES 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
Degrees A. M. and Ph. D. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

Degree M. D. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Degree A. B. 

(Open to Men) 



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING 

Degree S. B. in Eng. 

(Open to Men) 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Degree S. B. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES 

With A.M., A. B. and S. B. Credits 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES FOR GRADUATES IN MEDICINE 
(Open to Men and Women) 



EVENING COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS AND IN 

ENGINEERING 

(Open to Men and Women) 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS PUBLICATIONS 



STATE BUREAUS 

Maryland Geological Survey, Maryland Weather Service, 

Maryland Forestry Bureau 



Forty-second year opens October 2, 1917 
For circulars address T. R. BALL, Registrar 



It/tf 

New Series, 1918 Whole Number 305 

No. 5 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS 



NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 

1918-1919 



Baltimobe, Maryland 

Published by the University 

Issued Monthly from October to July 

May, 1918 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 



CALENDAR, 1918-19 



General Assembly, College Courses for Teachers, Saturday, October 

5, 10 a. m. (Donovan Room, Gilman Hall). 
General Assembly, Courses in Business Economics, Friday, October 

11, 8 p. m., Civil Engineering Building. 
College Courses for Teachers begin Monday, October 7, 1918. 
Courses in Business Economics and Night Courses for Technical 

Workers begin Monday, October 14, 1918. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 28, 1918. All classes 

suspended. 
Tke Christmas Recess begins Saturday, December 21, 1918. 
Exercises will be resumed on Friday afternoon, January 3, 1919. 
College Courses for Teachers and Night Courses for Technical Work- 
ers, Mid-year Examinations begin February 3, 1919. 
Commemoration Day falls on Saturday, February 22, 1919. All 

classes suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 17, and closes 

Wednesday evening, April 23, 1919. 
Courses in Business Economics and Night Courses for Technical 

Workers close Friday, May 23, 1919. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 24, 1919. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 
COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS 

NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 



1918-1919 




BALTIMORE 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1918 



COMMITTEES 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. BUCHNEB, Director of the College Courses for Teachers 

and Professor of Education. 
Eleanor L. Lord, Dean and Professor of History, Goucher College. 
Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS 

Jacob H. Hollander, Professor of Political Economy. 
Edward F. Buchner, Professor of Education. 
George E. Barnett, Professor of Statistics. 



NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL WORKERS 

Alexander G. Christie, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering. 

Charles J. Tilden, Professor of Civil Engineering. 

William B. Kouwenhoven, Associate Professor of Electrical Engi- 
neering. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Eegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 
1, 1918. Eegistration of former students should be made on 
or before October 5. 

The Director may be found in Eoom 217, Gilman Hall, 
Homewood, daily from September 21 to September 28 (3-5 
p. m., Monday to Friday; 10 a. m., Saturdays). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Henry Wood, Ph. D. 

Professor of German. 

Kirby F. Smith, Ph. D. 

Professor of Latin. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. 

Professor of Education. 

Murray P. Brush, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of French. 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D. 

Professor of Classical Archaeology and Epigraphy. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph.D 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

John H. Latanej, Ph. D. 

Professor of American History. 

John C. French, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of English. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of German. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D. 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Associate in Philosophy. 

Florence E. Bamberger, A. M. 

Associate in Education. 

Gustav Gruenbaum, Ph. D. 

Associate in Romance Languages. 

S. Edwin Whiteman 

Instructor in Drawing. 



German 

Classical Literature 

Latin 

Education 

French 

Art 

Chemistry 

History 

English 

German 

Semitics 

Philosophy 

Education 

French and Spanish 

Drawing 

5 



College Courses for Teac Iters 



Ellis Miller, Ph. D. 

Associate in Chemistry. 

Erasmo Buceta, Dr. en Derecho 

Associate in Spanish. 

Robert A. Stewart, Ph. D. 

Associate in Romance Languages. 

Chilton L. Powell, Ph. D. 

Instructor in English. 

David E. Weglein, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Education. 

William F. Albright, Ph. D. 
Israel I. Efros, Ph. D. 



Hans Froelicher, Ph. D. 



[490 

Chemistry 
Hpanish 
Spanish 
English 

Education 

Semitics 

Semitics 

Russian 

German and Art 



Professor of German and of Art Criticism in Goucher College. 

Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D. French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 

Clara L. Bacon, Ph. D. Mathematics 

Professor of Mathematics in Goucher College. 

Annette B. Hopkins, Ph. D. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Katherine J. Gallagher, Ph. D. History 

Assistant Professor of History in Goucher College. 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or " lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic 
instruction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have 
completed one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public service, 
the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation with 
Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of instruc- 
tion to teachers and others whose vocations prevent their 
attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the usual 
hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis for the 
courses announced below for 1918-1919. It is the primary 
aim of these courses to provide teachers in public and private 
schools with special opportunities for further personal culture 
and for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality and 
extent of instruction are concerned, to the corresponding 
courses given in the academic department. In order to give 
further encouragement to teachers in service and others to 
carry on extended systematic study, this plan of instruction 
also provides that satisfactory work accomplished in these 

7 



8 College Courses for Teaehei [402 

courses will be credited, under suitable regulations, toward 
the degrees of Bachelor of Art and Bachelor of Science. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be admitted 
to these courses. They will be expected to present the proper 
qualifications for the subjects and courses they desire to 
pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the successful 
pursuit of these courses is that represented by the completion 
of a standard four-year high school course. In cases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or without 
reference to the baccalaureate degrees. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required courses of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses, in accordance with the following 
regulations : 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science must present evidence of having success- 
fully completed courses of study equivalent to the gradu- 
ating requirements of a standard four-year high school. This 
evidence may be offered by either of the following means : 

1. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a 
course of study of four years, and approved by the 
Committee on Matriculation. 



493] The Degree of Bachelc' of Science 9 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or 
other approved examining boards. 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for 
matriculation, of which nine are prescribed and six are 
elective. The subjects in which the prescribed units must 
be offered are : 

English (three), History (one), Mathematics (Algebra 
and Geometry) (two), a Modern Foreign Language 
(two), Science (one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from 
the following group, the number of additional units accepted 
in the several prescribed subjects being indicated in paren- 
theses : 

Domestic Science (one) or Manual Training (one), 
Drawing (one), History (one, or two), Latin (two, or 
three, or four), Mathematics (one, or one and a half), 
Modern Foreign Language (two or three, or four), 
Science (one, or two). 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer 
approved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scien- 
tific school, normal school, training school, or technical school 
in advance of high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are : 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated 
students, namely: 

English, two courses; Foreign Languages, three 
courses in at least two languages ; History, one course ; 
Science, one course. 



10 . College Courses for Teachers [494 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject, and 
of two courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required 
courses may not be counted as part of the work in the major. 

3. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one 
hundred and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of 
twenty-four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The 
maximum credit allowed a student in one summer session is 
eight points. 

By a plan of co-operation with the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore, provision has been made whereby candidates for 
the degree who desire to offer a major in art may do so by 
completing the following courses: I. Drawing: Freehand 
drawing, first year, 6 hours ; drawing from the antique, second 
year, 6 hours; still-life and portrait drawing, third year, 
6 or 9 hours; life drawing, fourth year, 6 or 9 hours. II. 
Cognate courses : Design, 6 hours, and history of art, 2 
hours. The first-year drawing and the history of art courses 
may be taken at the University. The maximum amount of 
credit allowed for drawing is seventeen points. 

The Maryland Institute is also announcing a special 
Normal Art Course for the training of teachers and super- 
visors of art in public schools. Certain courses in education 
at the University form a part of this special course. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teacher 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. In the 
case of women who may desire to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, it is provided that such credits as 
they may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by Goucher 
College toward the degree. A similar provision is made by 
the academic department of the Johns Hopkins University 



495] Expenses 11 

in the case of those men who desire to proceed to the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1918, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1918-19, for a detailed statement of the corresponding require- 
ments in that institution. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar of the College. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the Johns Hopkins University 
upon men only. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is ten dollars per year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout toe 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. "Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 
hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the University, 
Room 121, Gilman Hall. Before payment of fees can be 
made, applicants must receive from the Registrar a card 
stating the courses to be taken. 



12 College, Courses for 'leathers [}(J<> 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 
of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation is $5, 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. 

SESSION 

The courses will open on Monday, October 7, 1918, and 
close on Saturday, May 24, 1919. Each course will include 
instruction for thirty weeks, except as otherwise noted. Class- 
room and laboratory exercises will be given in the afternoon 
and evening from Monday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which occur 
within the usual University recesses at Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas, and Easter. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

Classes will be held in the University buildings at Home- 
wood. The complete schedule of hours can not be arranged 
prior to the opening of the courses on October 7. In addition 
to the usual afternoon and Saturday forenoon schedule, a 
number of classes will be held in the evenings at 8 o'clock, 
usually two hours in one session. Changes in the hours indi- 
cated may be made at the opening in order to meet the 
convenience of students. Where days and hours are omitted, 
the convenience of students will also be considered in arrang- 
ing the schedule. 



497] Courses of Instruction 13 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than ten applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficient demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, an effort will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the baccalaureate 
degrees, which will be allowed for the successful completion of 
each of the following courses, can be determined definitely 
only at the end of the year. 

Art 

1. History of Art. 

a. Ancient Art. 

A general outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and 
painting with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing 
as seen on vases. The development of the different branches 
of ancient art from prehistoric times will be systematically 
considered and their influence on later art emphasized. 
Lectures illustrated by slides, photographs, casts and original 
antiquities. Reports and required reading for credit. Books 
recommended : Reinaclr's Apollo ( Scribner's Sons, New 
York, 1909, $1.50) ; Fowler-Wheeler, Greek Archaeology 
(Xew York, 1909, $2.00). 

Professor Robinson. First half-year. Two hours a week, 
which may be arranged in one period. 

b. Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval, Renaissance, and 
Modern Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, 
recitations, reports on assigned topics. Text book: Reinaclr's 
Apollo. 

Professor Froelicher. Second half-year. Tuesday, 8- 
9.45 p. m. 

The course on the History of Art may be offered as part of 
the requirement of the major in art. 



14 College Courses for Teachers [498 

2. Greek and Roman Vases. 

A brief account of the various early wares will be given, 
but the principal study will be concentrated upon the Attic 
black-figured and red-figured vases as sources of information 
on Mythology and Private Life. Some study will be devoted 
finally to Arretine and other Roman vases. 

Professor Robinson. Tuesday, 4 p.m. 

3. History of Modern Painting. 

Professor Froelicher. Two hours a week, first half-year. 



Chemistry 

1. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The 
work covers the general principles and laws of chemistry and 
a study of the more important metallic and non-metallic 
elements. In the laboratory selected experiments, illustrating 
the preparation, properties and reactions of inorganic sub- 
stances and the applications of chemical laws, are performed. 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin and Dr. Miller. Lectures, 
8-9.45 p. m. ; and laboratory, 7.30-10 p. m., or Saturday, 
9 a. m.-12 m. 

2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will include chiefly laboratory exercises, with 
two sessions each week. Occasionally a part or all of an 
evening will be devoted to a discussion of the theoretical 
principles of the reactions being studied. As the laboratory 
work is of an individual character, an effort will be made to 
meet the needs of each student in the kind of work assigned. 
Practice will be given in the methods of gravimetric and 
volumetric quantitative analysis. 

Dr. Miller. 7.30-10 p. m. 

3. General Organic Chemistry. 

A systematic course in the general principles of organic 



499] D reviving ; Education 15 

chemistry and the properties and reactions of the paraffin 
and benzene derivatives. It will consist of one lecture (two 
hours) and one laboratory period each week. The course 
will be so arranged as to meet the needs of those preparing 
for the Medical School, the School of Hygiene, or to do 
advanced work in Domestic Science. 

Pre-requisite : Chemistry 1. 

Collegiate Professor Gilpin. Lecture, 8-9.45 p. m., and 
laboratory, at night, or Saturday, 9 a. m.-12 m. 

Laboratory fee: $10.00 for each course, in addition to 
breakage. 

Drawing 

The instruction in this course in freehand drawing aims to 
impart such knowledge of the principles of drawing as shall 
give students the ability to represent natural objects 
correctly. 

This course may be offered as the first-year requirement of 
the major in art. 

Mr. Whiteman. Six hours weekly. Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, 2-5 p. m. 

Education . , 

1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of 
Education, tracing the development of those ideas, practices 
and institutions of the past which have been most effective 
in determining the essential features and problems of educa- 
tion in the present. The work is based on Monroe's " Text- 
book in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Principles of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education will undertake 
a study of education with a view to understanding the work 
of the school and the mental and social factors in individual 
development. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday, 4.20-6 p. m. 



16 College Courses for Teacher [r>00 

3. Educational Psychology. 

This course will treat of mental development and the 
psychological basis of educational theory and practice, and 
include the special psychology of interest, work, practice, 
childhood and adolescence, and the various school subjects. 
A survey of the recent studies in educational psychology will 
be made. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

4. Principles of Teaching and Special Methods in 
Secondary School Subjects. 

The first part of this course will present the principles 
underlying the method of instruction and class-room manage- 
ment, and include such topics as habit formation, the laws of 
learning, and the nature of the thinking process. 

During the second part of the course application of these 
principles will be made to the problems of teaching the 
subjects in secondary courses of study. 

Professor Buchner, Miss Bamberger, and Dr. Weglein. 
Two hours a week. 

5. ' Secondary School Organization and Class-Boom 
Management. 

This course will deal with some of the principal topics 
related to the organization and administration of secondary 
schools, such as: The historical development and function 
of the American high school; comparisons with secondary 
schools in other countries; the main problems connected with 
the program of studies; the junior high school; extra-class- 
room activities; supervised study; methods of instruction. 

Reports and discussion of observation of class-room and 
other secondary school activities. 

Dr. Weglein. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

6. Special Problems in Secondary Education. 

A consideration of recent investigations in the field of 
secondary education. 

Dr. Weglein. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 



501] Education 17 

7. Elementary Education. 

This course includes the study of the principles and aims 
underlying elementary education. Among the topics to be 
discussed are : An examination of the social needs for subject- 
matter in each of the school subjects; the organization of the 
problems and materials of this subject-matter in response to 
the mental development of pupils; the classification of pupils 
and provision for individual differences; formulating of 
programs; proper methods of study; and measuring the 
results of teaching. 

For those interested in problems of supervision, a third 
period may be arranged, in which additional topics will be 
considered. The work in supervision is an optional additional 
hour, and may be offered for extra credit. 

Recitations will be observed with regard to method followed 
and the conduct of study periods will receive attention. 
Reports based on the observation of class-room work will be 
handed in from time to time. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 9.15-11 a. m. 

8. Elementary School Organization and Class-room 
Management. 

This course treats of the principles of teaching with special 
reference to the conditions of organization and management 
under the control of the teacher. Such topics will be included 
as: Teacher's arrangement of material; organization of the 
school; flexible grouping of children; daily schedule; types 
of seat work; supervision of seat work; discussion of scales 
for measuring the achievement of pupils; program making; 
judgment of text books. Observations, discussions and reports 
will be required. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 

9. Experimental Education. 

This course deals with psycho-educational processes in 
action from the scientific point of view, and is based upon a 



18 College Courses for Teachers [502 

comparative study of investigations in educational research. 
Emphasis will be placed on methods of approaching educa- 
tional problems and the application and evaluation of meas- 
uring scales and mental tests. Research will be undertaken 
in problems selected according to the chief interests of 
individual students. 
• Professor Buchner. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include a review of the essentials of usage, 
the study of the principles of structure and style, and frequent 
practice in writing. Weekly themes will be required; these 
will be returned with written criticisms. 

Associate Professor French and an Assistant. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. English Literature. 

This course will attempt to define literature as an art, to 
develop the student's understanding and appreciation of it, 
and to present briefly the greater English writers. The first 
half-year will be devoted to a discussion of literary technique ; 
the second will consist of lectures historical and critical 
upon the literature of England. 

Dr. Powell. Wednesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

3. Victorian Poetry. 

The course will comprise lectures on the political, social, 
scientific, and religious movements from 1832 onward, which 
are widely reflected in ' the literature of the period, and a 
study of the poetry of Tennyson, Browning, and Arnold, with 
intensive work on the longer poems, such as In Memoriam, 
The Idylls of the King, and The Ring and the Boole. In 
addition to the extensive reading of these poets, papers on 
assigned subjects will be required. 

Professor Hopkins. Tuesday, 7.45-9.30 p. m. 



503] French 19 

French 

1. French Elements. 

a. Grammar : — Fraser and Squair, Shorter French Course. 

o. French Texts : — Dumas, Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge; 
Monvert, La telle France; Labiche et Martin, Le Voyage de 
Monsieur Perrichon; About, La Mere de la Marquise; Augier 
et Sandeau, Le Gendre de Monsieur Poirier; Daudet, Contes; 
Meniere, L'Avare; Sand, La Mare au Diable; Maupassant, 
Contes Choisis; Bowen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study of 
French and aims to impart a good reading knowledge of the 
language. It includes pronunciation, composition, and trans- 
lation. Upon the successful completion of the course the 
student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the require- 
ments in French. Graduate and medical students completing 
this course absolve the requirements in French, of candidates 
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and for admission 
to the Medical School, respectively. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.30-6 p. m. 

2. French Headings. 

A course in French reading, grammar, and composition, 
for students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. The 
texts will be chosen from modern authors, and the exercises 
in composition will be of a practical nature. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

3. Practical French. 

Practical exercises in spoken French. The nature of this 
course will depend upon the previous training of those who 
wish to follow it. It is intended, however, primarily for 



20 College ('nurses for Teachers [504 

those who desire to increase their knowledge of practical 
modern French. 

Dr. Geubnbaum. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

4. Les Contemporains. 

A study will be made of the general trend in the novel, 
drama and lyric poetry. Extensive reading and reports upon 
the authors read will be required, which will be supplemented 
by lectures in French. An integral part of the course will 
be training in the use of the phonetic alphabet of the Inter- 
national Phonetic Association which will be helpful to 
teachers of the language. 

Collegiate Professor Brush. Monday, L10-5.50 p. m. 

German 
1. German Elements. 

a. Vos, Essentials of German. 

b. Texts: Heyse, Die Blindenj Keller, Kl eider machen 
Leute; Meyer, Das Amulet; Wilhelmi, Einer muss 
heiraten. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the study 
of German or who have had a partial introduction to the 
language. The work will include the principles of grammar, 
pronunciation, translation, and composition. Upon the 
successful completion of the work, the student receives credit 
for one course if offered as college work; if offered for 
matriculation, it absolves the requirements in German. 
Graduate and medical students completing this course absolve 
the requirements in German, of candidates for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy and for admission to the Medical 
School, respectively. 

Professor Froelicher. Tuesday, 4.10 p. m. ; Saturday, 
9-11 a. m. 



505] German 21 

2. German Headings. 

Modern prose readings with exercises in prose composi- 
tion. Such writers as Storm, Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, 
Arnold, Schurz, etc., will be read. This course corresponds 
to collegiate German 1, and, if satisfactorily completed, will 
be credited accordingly. The two hours of literature -and the 
one hour of composition may be taken jointly or separately. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Three hours a week. 



3. Practical German. 

Practical exercises in spoken and written German. The 
nature of this course will depend somewhat on the previous 
training of those who wish to follow it. It is intended, 
however, primarily for those who desire to increase their 
knowledge of practical Modern German. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Two hours a week. An 
evening session may be arranged. 

4. German Literature. 

a. Goethe, Faust, Part I. 
October to February, inclusive. 

b. German Lyric Poetry. 

Selected poems, from the period of Goethe and Schiller 
to the present time, will be studied. 
March 1 to the end of the year. 

Text-books: Goethe's Faust; edited by Calvin Thomas. 
The First Part. Boston, D. C. Heath & Co. ; or Goethe's 
Faust, herausgegeben von Georg Witkowski, 2 Bande, 
Leipzig, 1906 ; The Oxford Book of German Verse. The 
cheaper edition in cloth (Oxford University Press, 
American Branch). 

Professor Wood. Monday and Tuesday, 5 p. m. 



22 College Courses for Teachers [506 

History 

1. American Diplomacy. 

A study of the foreign relations of the United States from 
the Declaration of Independence to the present time, covering 
the principal disputes to which the United States has been a 
party, American contributions to international law, relations 
with Latin America, with the Orient, and with Europe. The 
course is designed to give a comprehensive view of America's 
relation to world politics. 

Professor Latane. Thursday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

2. A. History of Medieval Civilization. 

A study of European civilization from the beginning of the 
Christian era to the Renaissance with special reference to 
characteristic institutions. No single text-book will be used. 
A syllabus with lists for reference will be provided and the 
use of source materials will be especially encouraged. 
Or, 

B. History of the United States, 1783-1883. 

A survey of the political, social, and economic history of 
the United States during the first century of national develop- 
ment. A syllabus will be provided and no single text-book 
will be used. 

Assistant Professor Gallagher. Wednesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

Italian 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a 
reading knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronun- 
ciation. Prose composition will begin as soon as the most 
elementary part of the grammar has been mastered. The 
following text-books will be used : Shepard, Italian Grammar; 
Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short Stories; Collodi, 
Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Thursday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 



507] Latin; Mathematics ; Philosophy 23 

Latin 

1. Vergil. 

This course is intended for teachers in secondary schools 
and advanced students. It will include a detailed study of 
selected passages from the Bucolics, Georgics, and Aeneid. 
Special attention will be given to prosody, to Vergil's literary 
art, and to his place and influence in literature. 

Collegiate Professor Mustard. Two hours a week, which 
may be arranged in one session. 

2. Classical Literature. 

A series of lectures on great representative authors of 
classical literature from Homer to the Second Century A. D. 
Special attention will be given to certain aspects of formal 
and artistic development and to the growth and influence of 
literary tradition. 

The course will require the reading in translation of the 
authors studied. A previous knowledge of Greek and Latin 
is desirable, but not essential. 

Professor Smith. Two hours a week, 5.10 p. m. 

Mathematics 

Algebra and Plane Analytic Geometry. 

The first part of the year will be devoted to a study of 
Algebra, the second part being given to an introductory 
course in Plane Analytic Geometry. 

Pre-requisites : Elementary Algebra; Plane Geometry. 

Professor Bacon. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. ; 
Saturday, 9 a. m. 

Philosophy 

History of Philosophy. 

A survey of the fundamental problems of philosophy, 
followed by a presentation of the great philosophical systems 
from Socrates to Nietzsche. 



24 College Courses for Teachers [508 

Dr. Slonimsky. Wednesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

(In case of a sufficienl demand, a course od the History 
of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century will be given in 
place of the above. ) 

Oriental Seminary 

The following courses, offered in the Oriental Seminary, 
presuppose no knowledge of the Hebrew or Greek language: 

1. History of the Ancient East (Egypt, Babylonia, 
Assyria, Persia, Israel, and Judah). 

Dr. Blake. Wednesday, 5 p. m. 

2. Biblical Archaeology. 

Dr. Albright. Monday, 5 p. m. 

3. Jewish Ceremonial Institutions. 
Dr. Efros. Thursday, 5 p. m. 

4. The Literature of the Bible (with special reference to 
date and authorship). 

Dr. Albright. Tuesday, 5 p. m. 

Russian 

This course will include instruction in elementary grammar, 
colloquial and written Russian. Practical exercises will be 
based on standard prose works. 

Two hours a week. 

Spanish 

1. Spanish Elements. 

a. Espinosa and Allen's Spanish Grammar; oral and 
written exercises. 

b. Hills, Spanish Tales for Beginners; Alarcon, El 



509] Spanish 25 

Capitdn Veneno; Palaeio Valdes, La Hermana San 
Sulpicio. 

A course intended for beginners. Upon successful com- 
pletion of this course the student receives credit for one 
course if offered as college work; if ottered for matriculation, 
it absolves the requirements in Spanish. 

Dr. Stewart. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

2. Practical Spanish. 

A practical course in Spanish for those who have had the 
elements of the language, and who desire to gain a broader 
knowledge of the literature, together with facility in speaking 
and writing Spanish. 

Dr. Buceta. Thursday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

(In case of a sufficient demand, a course in conversational 
and written Spanish, including composition, in advance of 
Spanish 2 will be given.) 

3. Spanish Literature. 

This course will include the history of Spanish literature, 
special attention being given to the classic drama and 
Cervantes, with exercises in oral practice, grammar, and 
composition. 

Dr. Buceta. Two periods a week. 



Attendants on the College Courses for Teachers, 1917-1918, 
349. 



COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Eegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and should be filled up and returned on or before 
October 11, 1918. 



INSTRUCTORS 



Jacob H. Hollander, Ph. D. 

Professor of Political Economy. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D. 

Professor of Statistics. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Associate in Philosophy. 

Arthur C. Millspaugh, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Political Science. 



J. Earle Uhler, A. B. 

J. Wallace Bryan, Ph. D., C. P. A. 

Ernest E. Wooden, C. P. A. 

E. Lyell Gunts, A. B. 

Evert C. Palmer 



Political Economy 

Corporation Finance 

Social Ethics 

City Administration and the 

Electorate; Government 

and Administration 

Business English 

Elementary Accounting 

Theory of Accounts 

Principles of Advertising 

Principles of Salesmanship 



29 



GENERAL STATEMENT 

The Johns Hopkins University will offer during the 
academic year 1918-19 the following series of evening 
courses of instruction in subjects of direct interest and value 
to young men and women actually engaged in or contemplating 
entrance into business, industry and commerce. Such instruc- 
tion is made available at hours and under conditions designed 
to meet the convenience of those likely to make use thereof. 

SELECTION OF COURSES 

Students are advised Dot to limit their choice of courses 
to those subjects that are directly related to the particular 
business or activity in which they are engaged. All students, 
employed in business or in social service, will find the course 
in the Elements of Political Economy of particular value, as 
supplying a sound foundation for the more intelligent pursuit 
of the specialized courses. Such a general course should, 
indeed, whenever possible, precede or accompany special 
courses. The courses in the Theory of Accounts and Elemen- 
tary Accounting will be found profitable not only by those 
who wish to become professional accountants, but by all 
classes of business men interested in and concerned with 
the details of the financial organization of modern industry. 

While the courses are designed in the main to offer instruc- 
tion to those engaged in various fields of business and social 
activity, the instruction will be designed to meet the needs 
also of those who have a more general interest in the subject. 

Instruction in modern languages and in a wide range of 
subjects ordinarily included in a college curriculum, as well 
as in engineering subjects, is available in the * Teachers' 
Courses " and in the " Engineering Courses," offered by this 
University. 

30 



515] Admission; Tuition Fees 31 

ADMISSION AND ATTENDANCE 

There are no formal examinations for admission. Students, 
both men and women, will be admitted to such courses as they 
are found qualified by the respective instructors to pursue 
with advantage. 

The satisfactory completion of any of these courses will 
be recognized by the award of a certificate of attendance. 
Credits so received may be used, upon matriculation, towards 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. 

A preliminary assembly of all students attending the 
courses will be held on Friday, October 11. Instruction will 
begin on Monday, October 14, and proceed in accordance 
with the schedule of the courses. Students are advised to 
register as far in advance of the opening of the session as 
may be possible. 

The Registrar's office (Academic Building, Eoom 219) will 
be open for registration of students daily from 9 a. m. to 5 
p. m., and also on Friday, October 11, from 7.30 to 9.30 p. m. 
It is requested that registration blanks be obtained in advance 
by written application to the Registrar. 

All fees must be paid to the Treasurer of the University 
immediately upon registration. 

LOCATION 

The courses will be given in the Mechanical Engineering 
Building (Charles and Thirty-second Streets). 

TUITION FEES 

The tuition fee is $20.00 for each course of two hours 
weekly extending through the academic year. Fees are pay- 
able at the office of the Treasurer of the Johns Hopkins 
University, Academic Building, Room 121. Before payment 
of fees can be made, applicants must receive from the Regis- 
trar a card stating the course or courses to be taken. 



32 Courses in lousiness EcOfUWlicS [516 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Political Economy 

The purpose of the course will be to acquaint those who 
are engaged in practical affairs with some knowledge of the 
principles underlying the modern industrial world. With 
this intention, the first half-year will be devoted to an 
elementary study of economic theory. Attention will be 
given to the well established doctrines of the science rather 
than to the unsettled issues. In the second half-year the 
practical application of economic principles to the problems 
of the business world will be considered. Such questions as 
productive efficiency, the growth of population, the wages 
question, the circulating medium, international trade, rent 
and interest, and taxation will be discussed. 

Professor Hollander. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Corporation Finance 

A study of the corporation, primarily with reference to its 
financial management. The more important topics taken up 
include: advantages and disadvantages of corporate organiza- 
tions, the salient features of general laws governing incorpora- 
tion, essential features in the charter, classification and 
examination of the characteristics of stocks and bonds, the 
amount of capitalization, the choice of different types of 
securities to be issued, methods by which these securities 
are floated, functions of the promoter, the old and newer 
forms of promotion, methods of consolidation, the holding 
company, the methods and forms of syndicate underwriting, 
methods of selling securities and raising additional capital, 
financing policy with reference to dividends and surplus, 
refunding of debt and provisions for amortization, methods 
of manipulation by officers, stockholders and directors, insol- 
vency, receivership and reorganization, regulation by the 
State of security issues, and corporation taxation. 

Professor Barnett. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 



517] Social Ethics; City Administration 33 

Social Ethics 

This course is an attempt to formulate a theory of progress 
from the standpoint of ethics; and to analyze and appraise 
the existing social institution — the state, ■ the economic order, 
and the family — in the light of that theory. The ethical 
standard that serves as foundation may be described as 
rational idealism, as opposed to the instinctive idealism which 
dominates the thought and conduct of the age; i. e., it is an 
idealism grounded on the established facts and generalizations 
of the life-sciences, — biology, psychology, sociology. The 
ethical test of any age lies in the ethical value of its institu- 
tions, the great social institution being the embodied expres- 
sion of the moral consciousness of that age; and the present 
course is an attempt to appraise that value, i. e., to measure 
the true progress of the age by ascertaining the true value of 
the institutions for the sole ends which they should subserve, 
namely, human happiness and moral efficiency. The analysis 
shows that civilization does not necessarily mean progress, 
that much of our present progress is specious, and in conclu- 
sion points out the lines of reconstruction. 

Dr. Slonimsky. Monday, 8-10 p. m. 

City Administration and the Electorate 

In the first half-year the course will deal with the admin- 
istration of city government with special reference to the 
Government of Baltimore. The course will deal with forms 
of city government, municipal home rule, charter-making and 
the administration of the departments of police, fire protec- 
tion, water supply, waste disposal, streets, lighting, health 
and education. At least half the time of this course will be 
devoted to a careful practical study of the administration of 
Baltimore. In the second half-year, a study will be made 
of the part played by the individual citizen in government, 
and of the various electoral problems and devices which are 
important topics of current discussion in this country and 
foreign countries. The course will treat of the suffrage, 
political parties, methods of nomination and election, ballot- 



34 Courses in Business Economics . [518 

forms, the initiative, the referendum, the recall, the short 
ballot and the civil service. Especial attention will be devoted 
to the problems of democratic reconstruction after the war. 
Dr. Millspaugh. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Government and Administration 

This course will survey the governmental systems of the 
United States, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland 
and the British Dominions. It aims to study principles and 
their application in different countries as a basis for an intelli- 
gent and practical criticism of the organization and adminis- 
tration of our own government. The course is adapted 
particularly to the school-teacher, the lawyer, the prospective 
woman voter and the city or state officials and employees. 
The course will deal with forms of government, their actual 
working, financial administration, and the general principles 
of American constitutional law with emphasis on the legal 
aspects of economic and social legislation, as well as the 
relation of political systems and theories to the great war and 
the period of reconstruction afterward. 

Dr. Millspaugh. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

Business English 

This course devotes the first half-year to the study of gram- 
matical usage and structure, requiring weekly themes on com- 
mercial topics of general importance, such as the letter of 
credit, the clearing house, royalty, patent, bill of lading, in- 
come tax, mortgage. During the second half-year, the class 
studies the composition of such business letters as those of 
recommendation, introduction and application, and those of 
the buyer, seller and collector, as well as advertisements, re- 
ports and office notices. Special attention is given to the style 
of commercial forms. The reading of selected books is pre- 
scribed, among them being Palmer's 8 elf -Cultivation in Eng- 
lish and Trades and Professions, Husband's America at WorTc, 
and Eliot's Training for an Effective Life. 

Mr. Uhler. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 



519] Elementary Accounting ; Theory of Accounts 35 

Elementary Accounting 

This course presents in an elementary but comprehensive 
way the fundamentals of accounting theory and practice. It 
is designed to serve, not only as a basis for more advanced 
studies in accountancy, but also as a means of affording a 
practical familiarity with financial records and statements 
that will be useful in every-day business activities. To these 
ends, the concepts that underlie the science of accounting 
will be analyzed, and a thorough explanation given of single 
and double-entry book-keeping, the types and functions of 
books in general use, and the scope and purposes of the 
various accounts and statements. Instruction and practice 
will be afforded in the opening, operation, adjustment and 
closing of books and accounts, the construction and analysis 
of financial statements, the changing from one system of 
book-keeping to another, and the solution of practical prob- 
lems. The aim will be to make the exposition both logical 
and non-technical, so that the course will be available to per- 
sons who have no knowledge of book-keeping, as well as to 
those with book-keeping experience who wish to acquire a 
broader view of the science on which their profession is 
founded. 

Dr. Bryan. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

Theory of Accounts 

The class will open with the consideration of single entry 
book-keeping, showing the method of changing from single 
entry to double entry. Under the head of double entry book- 
keeping there will be consideration of the development of the 
books of original entry from the original journal, also the 
development of the books of final record. Forms of books 
used in modern business will be shown. Accounts will be 
classified and the theory of representative accounts under each 
classification will be studied. The theory and preparation of 
various forms of financial statements will be considered and 
illustrative problems will be worked out in class and given for 
home work. The accounts peculiar to certain lines of busi- 
ness will receive special consideration. 

Mr. Wooden. Monday, 7.30-9.30 p. m. 



36 ('onrscs in Business Economics [520 



Principles of Salesmanship 

This course covers (a) the definite Belling principle- which 
are the basis for successful salesmanship; (b) the elements 
of business psychology including a comprehensive treatment 
of the buying motives which will enable the .-ale-man to 
determine the keynote of the interview; (c) character analy- 
sis; (d) developing personality, this subject includes special 
tests to determine the strength of the sales presentation. 
It also includes studies in the qualities of character, in the 
art of concentration and constructive work that will assist in 
overcoming personal faults; (e) the art of selling — that is, 
the application of these principles in actual w r ork; (f) selling 
by mail; (g) principles of salesmanagement ; and (h) tests 
and research work. 

Mr. Palmer. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Principles of Advertising 

The course will include the study of ways and mean- to 
analyze a market — market conditions and competition, as 
well as methods of distribution, merchandising and planning 
of a selling and advertising campaign from beginning to end. 
The mechanics of advertising will be fully treated. Buying 
motives will be studied and classified according to their 
relative importance. The relation of advertising to selling 
will be discussed. Practice will be given in layouts and copy 
writing. Commercial art will be treated from all angles. 
Methods of determining the value of advertising media will 
be an important feature of the course. Sales and advertising 
organization building will be analyzed and agency methods 
fully explained. The course will have a two-fold interest — 
first to the man or woman in business who desires to under- 
stand the relation of advertising to merchandising, and 
second to the student who expects to make advertising a life 
work. 

Mr. Gunts. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 



Attendants on the Courses in Business Economics, 1917- 
L918, 351. 



NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Kegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up and returned on or before 
October 7, 1918. 

Instructors will hold consultation hours from 7.30 to 9.30 
p. m., October 9 to 11 inclusive, in the Engineering Buildings. 



INSTRUCTORS 



LORRAIN S. HULBURT, PH. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematics. 

Charles J. Tilden, S. B. 

Professor of Civil Engineering. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

Alexander G. Christie, M. E. 

Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering 

Grandville R. Jones, C. E. 

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering. 

William B. Kouwenhoven, Dr.-Ing. 

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering. 

John H. Bringhtjrst, B. C. E. 

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering. 

Julian C. Small wood, M. E. 

Associate in Mechanical Engineering. 

Ellis Miller, Ph. D. 

Associate in Chemistry. 

Frederick W. Lieberknecht, E. E. 

Instructor in Electrical Engineering. 



Mathematics 

Civil Engineering 

Chemistry 

Mechanical Engineering 

Civil Engineering 

Electrical Engineering 

Civil Engineering 

Mechanical Engineering 

Chemistry 

Electrical Engineering 



39 



GENERAL STATEMENT 

The Department of Engineering of The JohnB Hopkins 
University announces for the season of 1918-19 a series of 
evening courses in various branches of Engineering and in 

Chemistry and Mathematics. These courses are especially 
designed for those who wish to improve their educational 
equipment, but who are prevented, by professional and other 
occupations, from availing themselves of the regular day 
courses offered in the University. The courses are given 
primarily for those who, without reference to an academic 
degree, wish to avail themselves of the opportunity afforded 
in special or general subjects in which they are interested. 

During the past two years, evening courses have been given 
in the Department of Engineering which have been attended 
by a large number of students, and the results of this work 
have shown that a very real demand exists for the night 
courses for technical workers. The work for the coming year 
1918-19 has been planned so that those who have pursued 
evening courses during the past year will be able to continue 
in more advanced courses during the coming year, and at the 
same time provision has been made for the entering class of 
new students. The war has created a new demand for in- 
struction in certain technical courses not previously offered. 
The new courses of Radio Communication, Internal Com- 
bustion Engines, and Organic Chemistry are offered to meet 
these demands. 

Instruction in the evening courses will begin on Monday, 
October 14, 1918, and consultation hours will be held by those 
in charge of instruction from Wednesday to Friday, October 
9 to 11 inclusive, from 7.30 to 9 p. m., in the Engineering 
Buildings at Homewood. 

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION 

Application for admission should be made on a blank form 
and sent to The Registrar, Johns Hopkins University, so 
40 



5 2 5] ' Advisers; Fees 41 

as to be received not later than October 7. This is requested 
in order that the applications may be examined in a pre- 
liminary way before the consultation periods, October 9 to 11. 
Filling out and submitting the application blank carries with 
it no obligation to undertake the work, if, upon consultation 
with the instructor, the student decides otherwise. 

The Committee in charge reserves the right to withdraw 
any of the courses offered, if in its opinion there are too few 
students registered to warrant giving the course. 

ADVISEES 

Each student will be assigned to an adviser who will assist 
in the selection of courses of study, and to whom the student 
can turn for information and guidance during the progress 
of his work. 

FEES 

The cost of instruction is the same as for the College 
Courses for Teachers, $10 per year for each hour per week. 
The regular courses in any subject occupy two evenings per 
week and cost $40 per year. In the Chemistry courses there 
is an additional laboratory fee of $15, making the total cost 
of each course $55. The fee for the half-year courses, for 
two evenings per week, will be $20. 

By devoting four evenings each week to this work, a student 
may take two courses, but it is not advisable that more than 
this should be attempted. 



42 Night Courses for Technical Work [520 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Mathematics — 1 n 

An Elementary Course in Plane Trigonometry and Analytic 
Geometry. Professor Bulbubt. Two evenings per v;eek. 
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building. 

This course is designed for beginners in the subjects of Trigo- 
nometry and Analytic Geometry, and is open to all students who 
have had some instruction in Algebra and Plane Geometry. The 
first part of the course will be devoted to Plane Trigonometry and 
will include the solution of triangles, and so much of the formulae 
of Trigonometry as will be needed for the study of Analytic Geom- 
etry and Calculus. The remainder of the course will l>e given to 
Plane Analytic Geometry. This work will cover the subjects of the 
Straight Line, Circle, Conies, some Curves of Higher Order, and. if 
time permits, an introduction to the study of Calculus. 

Note: The course in Mathematics is provided to meet the needs 
of students proposing to undertake work in the engineering subjects, 
but who are insufficiently prepared for entering these courses. 

Chemistry 

Professor Gilpin and Dr. Milleu. Two evenings per week 
for each course. Civil Engineering Building, Room 114 
and laboratory. 

These courses are designed to meet the needs of several 
classes of students: those who are unable to follow a regular 
college course, but wish to pursue work in Chemistry alone; 
those who are working in analytical or industrial laboratories 
and wish to increase their knowledge of the theoretical prin- 
ciples of the subject or pursue work of a more advanced char- 
acter than that which they have already taken; those who 
wish by taking the course in Organic Chemistry to prepare 
for the Medical School, the School of Hygiene, or work in 
Domestic Science. The courses are arranged so that one can 
take them in the following order: General inorganic chem- 
istry, qualitative and quantitative analysis and organic 
chemistry. With outside reading and work in industrial 
laboratories, a good general training can be acquired in three 
or four years. A previous knowledge of physics is of great 



527] Civil Engineering 43 

assistance to one taking work in Chemistry. The following 
courses will be given in 1918-19, provided the enrollment 
justifies them : 

Chemistry 1 n. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

One lecture (2 hours) and one laboratory period (2% hours) each 
week. No previous knowledge of chemistry is required for this 
course. The work covers the general principles and laws of chemistry 
and a study of the more important metallic and non-metallic ele- 
ments. In the laboratory selected experiments illustrating the pre- 
paration, properties and reactions of inorganic substances and the 
applications of chemical laws are performed. Those who have had 
laboratory practice, but no systematic instruction in Chemistry, 
will find this course very helpful. 

Text-book: "College Chemistry," by Smith. 

Chemistry 2 n. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will be largely a laboratory course with two sessions 
(2 1 / 2 hours each) each week. Occasionally a part or all of a session 
will be given up to a discussion of the theoretical principles of the 
reactions being studied. As the laboratory work is of an individual 
character, an effort will be made to meet the needs of each student 
in the kind of work assigned. 

Practice in the methods of gravimetric and volumetric quantita- 
tive analysis will be given, as such work is essential for one looking 
forward to a position in an industrial laboratory. 

Chemistry 3 n. Organic Chemistry. 

One lecture (2 hours) and one laboratory (2y 2 hours) each week. 
A systematic course in the general principles of organic chemistry 
and the properties and reaction of the paraffin and benzene deriva- 
tives. It will be possible to arrange the laboratory work to satisfy 
the condition for entrance into the medical schools. 

Civil Engineering 

Professors Tilden, Jones, Bringhurst, and assistants. Two 
evenings per week. Civil Engineering Building. 

Civil Engineering 1 n: Theory of the strength of materials 
and elements of structural design. Lectures, recitations 
and drafting room. 

Preparation required: Trigonometry and plane geometry, alge- 
bra (through quadratics), the elements of calculus, some knowledge 
of elementary physics (particularly statics and mechanics), and 
some ability in mechanical drawing. Familiarity with the slide rule 
is desirable, but not essential. 

This course will include the study of shear and bending moment 



44 Night Courses for Technical Workers [528 

diagrams; the theory of bending; tortion; stress and strain; the 
determination of change of shape in beams from the bending moment 
diagrams; internal stresses of tension, compression and shear; stress 
diagrams for framed structures; eccentric loads in tension and com- 
pression; column formulas; stresses in reinforced concrete columns 
and beams: and simple problems in the application of theory to the 
practical design of structures. 

Civil Engineering 2 N : Advanced course in design. Lectures, 
recitations and drafting room. 

Preparation required: Civil Engineering In or its equivalent. 

This course will include the Theory of Reinforced Concrete Design 
and practical problems illustrating the theory; taking in order 
Slabs, Beams, Columns, Footings, Retaining Wall, Dams and an 
introduction to Arches. 

Text-book : " Principles of Reinforced Concrete Construction," by 
Turneaure and Mourer. 

Civil Engineering 3 n : Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. 

Preparation required: An elementary knowledge of general bac- 
teriology and quantitative (volumetric) chemical analysis. 

The course will include methods of analysis of water and sewage; 
the interpretation of analysis; application of laboratory results to 
problems of water purification and sewage treatment. 

Text-book: "Standard Methods of Water Analysis" — Committee 
Report American Public Health Association. 

Electrical Engineering 

Professor Kouwenhoven, Mr. Lieberknecht, and assistant. 

Two evenings per week. Mechanical and Electrical 

Engineering Building. 
Electrical Engineering 1 n: Elements of Electricity and 

Magnetism and Direct Current Machinery. 

This course is intended for beginners. The aim of the course is 
to give the simpler relations of fundamental electrical theory in such 
form as to allow the student to make immediate practical applica- 
tions of them. The first half-year is spent in the class room and in 
the second half-year the time is divided hetween class room and the 
laboratory. 

The subjects discussed are the following: Magnets and Mag- 
netism, Electromagnetism, Ohm's Law, Electric Circuits, Power, 
Power Measurements, Measurements of Resistance, Measurements 
of Current, Measurements of Potential, Magnetic Fields due to a 
Current, Ferro-Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction, The Genera- 
tor, The Motor, Inductance, Capacity, Electrolysis. 

Preparation required: A knowledge of Arithmetic and the simpler 
elements of Algebra. 



529] Mechanical Engineering 45 

Text-books : " Elements of Electricity," by Timbie ; " Experi- 
mental Electrical Engineering," by V. Karapetoff. 

Electrical Engineering 2 n: Elementary Alternating Cur- 
rents. 

This course is a continuation of Course 1. Instruction is given in 
both class room and laboratory, and covers the following subjects: 
Frequency, Phase, Vector Diagrams of Simple Circuits, Resistance 
in A. C. Circuit, Inductive Reactance, Capacity Resistance, Imped- 
ance, Series and Parallel Circuits, Power Factor, A. C. Instruments, 
Simple Working Principle of the Transformer, of Alternator, of Syn- 
chronous Motor, of Induction Motor, of Synchronous Converter. 

Preparation required: A knowledge of Trigonometry and the 
elements of Calculus." 

Text -books : " Alternating Current Electricity," by Timbie and 
Higbie ; " Experimental Electrical Engineering," by V. Karapetoff. 

Electrical Engineering 3 n : Alternating Currents. Advanced 
Course. 

This course is open to those who have completed Courses 1 and 
2, or their equivalent. It has been arranged primarily to meet the 
needs of those who have already had collegiate courses in electrical 
engineering, and who desire to proceed further. 

The subjects covered are the following: Analytical and Graphical 
Representations of the Alternating Current Circuit, Kirchoff's Laws 
in A. C. Circuits, Use of Complex Quantities in Simplifying A. 
C. Circuits, Polyphase Systems, Characteristic Performance of 
the Transmission Line, Transformer, Induction Motor, Alternator, 
Induction Generator, Synchronous Converter, with laboratory work. 

Electrical Engineering 4 n : Radio Communication. 

This is a half-year course of two evenings per week and is Intended 
to provide training in the fundamentals of radio communication. 

This course deals mainly with Radio Communication as applied to 
military service and should prove of considerable value to men 
intending later to enter branches of the Service where such training 
is required. 

The following subjects are discussed: Electricity and Magnetism, 
Resistance, Self-induction and Capacity at High Frequency, The 
Oscillating Circuit, The Oscillation Transformer, Electro-magnetic 
Waves, Sending and Receiving Stations for Damped and Undamped 
Waves, Crystal Detectors, Vacuum Tube Characteristics and An- 
tenna. 

Mechanical Engineering 
Professor Christie, Mr. Smallwood, and instructor. 

All courses are two evenings per week throughout the year, 
except as noted. Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 
Building. 



46 Night Courses for Technical Workers [530 

Mechanical Engineering 1 n : Machine Design. 

This course deals with the elements of machine design and the 
methods of calculating the size of parts. It includes the working of 
numerous problems illustrative of engineering methods. The fol- 
lowing subjects are discussed in the course: Analysis of stresses in 
machine elements; Design of springs, -hafts and bearings with 
problems of lubrication: Theory of gear drives and gear designs of 
various types; Theory and design of usual styles of fastenings aa 
bolts, riveted joints, keys, forced fits, etc.; means of storing and 
distributing energy in machines leading to designs of flywheels, 
punches, etc.; Steam engine mechanism and the proportioning of 
engine parts; Gas engine design for various fuels and including 
stationary and automobile type engines; the structural design of 
boilers and boiler parts such as staying of flat surfaces, etc. 

Preparation required: Mathematics, through trigonometry, and 
some knowledge of Physics. 

Text-book: "Machine Design," by Kimball and Barr. 

Mechanical Engineering 2 x: Heat Engines. 

This is a practical course connecting the theory of heat engines 
with engine 'and boiler room practice. The theory is taught partly 
by lectures and text-book study and partly by working numerous 
problems which are selected with reference to their practical appli- 
cation in power plant operation. 

The subject matter treated in the class room is as follows : Sources 
of energy; laws of heat transformation; the action and cycles of 
perfect gases with special reference to engineering applications, as 
in gas engines and air compressor work; the properties of steam: 
expansion, losses, cycles, and efficiencies of steam in steam engine-: 
mechanical construction, operation, and regulation of various types 
of steam engines and turbines: analysis of the simple-slide valve, 
automatic cut-off valves, Corliss valves, etc.; theory, construction, 
and regulation of various types of gas and oil engines and gas 
producers. The analysis of combustion of coals, oils, and ga.-e- with 
special reference to the determination of losses and efficiencies in 
boiler room and gas engine practice; refrigerating and air compress- 
ing machinery; power plant auxiliaries. These classroom subject? 
are supplemented by laboratory periods, in which the more important 
power plant units are tested by the students. 

Preparation required: Mathematics, including elements of Trigo- 
nometry, and elements of Physics and Chemistry. 

Text-book: "Elements of Heat-Power Engineering," by Hirshfeld 
and Barnard. 

Mechanical Engineering 3 n: Power Plant Design. 

This course in Power Plant Design deals with the scientific and 
commercial methods of proportioning the various elements of a 
power plant, together with a discussion of the practical application 
of the underlying theory in each case. This includes boilers, fuels, 
furnaces, chimneys, boiler room auxiliaries, piping, feed water treat- 



531] Mechanical Engineering 47 

ment, heating systems, engines and turbines, condensers, etc. Con- 
sideration is given to costs in each case. Next a power plant design 
is worked out from a given load curve. Methods are developed for 
estimating the cost of power production with the selected apparatus 
and the fixing of rates on the basis of these costs. 

Emphasis is laid throughout the course on methods of improving 
plant performance and on the present trend of development of power 
plant equipment. 

Preparation required: Heat engines or a similar course in applied 
thermodynamics, and some knowledge of strength of materials. 

Text-book: "Mechanical Equipment of Buildings," Vol. 2, by 
Willard and Harding. 

Mechanical Engineering 4 n : Internal Combustion Engines. 
A half-year course of two evenings a week until February. 

This course is intended for men entering aviation and other ser- 
vices which require a working knowledge of internal combustion 
engines. 

It is designed to give the student a knowledge of the underlying 
principles of internal combustion engines and how these principles 
are applied in practice. It therefore includes considerable laboratory 
work in assembling and operating engines. 

The class work includes a discussion of engine parts, fuels, gas 
engine cycles, heat changes, carburetion, ignition systems, cooling 
and lubricating methods, governing devices, construction features 
of gas, gasoline and oil engines of stationary, automobile and aero- 
plane types, and of Diesel engines, and some operating character- 
istics of each type. 



Attendants on the Night Courses for Technical Workers, 
1917-1918, 207. 



The Johns Hopkins Press of Baltimore 



American Journal of Insanity. H. M. Hurd, E. N. Brush, G. A. Blumer, J. M. 
Mosher and C. K. Clarke, Editors. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume LXXV in progress. 
$5 per volume. Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

American Journal of Mathematics. Edited by Frank Morley, with the cooperation 
of A. Cohen, Charlotte A. Scott and other mathematicians. Quarterly. 4to. Vol- 
ume XL in progress. 86 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

American Journal of Philology. B. L. Gildersleeve and C. W. E. Miller, Editors. 
Quarterly. 8vo. Volume XXXIX in progress. 83 per volume. (Foreign postage fifty 
cents.) 

Bei trace zur Assyriologie und semitischen Sprachwissenschaf t. Paul Haupt 
and Friedrich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume X in progress. 

Elliott Monographs in the Romance Languages and Literatures. E. C. Arm- 
strong, Editor. 8vo. 83 per series. Three numbers have appeared. 

Hesperia. Hermann Collitz, Henry Wood and James W. Bright, Editors. Eleven 
numbers have appeared. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXIX in progress. $3 
per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XVIII in progress. 85 per volume. 
(Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins University Circular, including the President's Report, Annual Regis- 
ter, and Medical Department Catalogue. T. R. Ball, Editor. Monthly (except August 
and September.) 8vo. 81 per year. 

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Education. E. F. Buchner and C. M. Camp- 
bell, Editors. 8vo. Two numbers have appeared. 

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Under 

the direction of the Departments of History, Political Economy, and Political Science. 

Monthly. Svo. Volume XXXVI in progress. 83.50 per volume. 
Modern Language Notes. J. W. Bright, Editor-in-Chief, M. P. Brush, W. Kurrkl- 

meyer and G. Gruenbaum, Eight times yearly. 8vo. Volume XXXIII in progress. 

}3 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Fourth series in progres*. 

$2.00. 

Reports of the Maryland Geological Survey. Edited by E. B. Mathews. 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L. A. Baukr, Editor 
Quarterly. 8vo. Vol. XXIII in progress. 83 per voluma (Foreign postage, 25 cents.) 



Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. 86. 

Studies in Honor of A. Marshall Elliott. Two volumes. 8vo. 450 and 834 pp. 87.60. 

The Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland. 716 pp. Svo. $7.50. 

Bcclesiastes : A New Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 50 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 

The Book of Nahum : A Metrical Translation. By Paul Haupt. 53 pp. 8vo. 50 cents. 

The Eclogurs of Baptista Mantuanus. By W. P. Mustard. 156 pp. Crown 8vo. 81.50. 

The Piscatory Eclogues of Jacopo Sannazaro. By W. P. Mustard. 94 pp. Crown 8vo. $1. 

The Eclogues of Faustus Andrelinus and Joannes Arnollettus. By W. P. Mustard. 

123 pp. Crown 8vo, 81.00. 
Diplomatic Negotiations of American Naval Officers, 1778-1883. By C. O. Paullin. 

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A complete list of publications sent on request. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

BALTIMORE 

Founded 1876 



A FACULTY OF 341 PROFESSORS, ASSOCIATES, INSTRUC- 
TORS AND LECTURERS 



SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND WELL-EQUIPPED 
LABORATORIES 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
Degrees A. M. and Ph. D. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

Degree M. D. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Degree A. B. 

(Open to Men) 



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING 

Degrees B. S. in Eng., and in Chem. 

(Open to Men) 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Degree B. S. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 

Degrees D. P. H., Sc. D., and B. S. in Hyg. 

(Open to Men and Women) 

SUMMER COURSES 

With A. M., A. B. and B. S. Credits 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES FOR GRADUATES IN MEDICINE 
(Not offered in 1918) 



EVENING COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS AND IN 

ENGINEERING 

(Open to Men and Women) 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS PUBLICATIONS 



STATE BUREAUS 

Maryland Geological Survey, Maryland Weather Service, 

Maryland Forestry Bureau 



c 

I to 



Series, 1919 ,„,. , „ 

No s Whole Number 315 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

COURSES IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL 
ECONOMICS 

NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 

1919-1920 



Baltimobe, Mabyland 
Published bt the TJnivebsity 

ISSUED MONTHLT FBOM OCTOBEB TO JULY 

Mat, 1919 



UbekiMilitai) MUtfiT? SiHSf 



CALENDAR, 1919-20 



General Assembly, College Courses for Teachers, Saturday, October 

4, 10 a. m. (Donovan Room, Gilman Hall). 
General Assembly, Courses in Business and Social Economics, Friday, 

October 10, 8 p. m., Civil Engineering Building. 
College Courses for Teachers begin Monday, October 6, 1919. 
Courses in Business and Social Economics and Night Courses for 

Technical Workers begin Monday, October 13, 1919. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 27, 1919. All classes 

suspended. 
The Christmas Recess begins Wednesday morning, December 24, 1919. 
Exercises will be resumed Monday afternoon, January 5, 1920. 
College Courses for Teachers Mid-year Examinations begin February 

2, 1920. 
Commemoration Day will be observed Monday, February 23, 1920. 

All classes suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 1, and closes 

Wednesday evening, April 7, 1920. 
Courses in Business and Social Economics and Night Courses for 

Technical Workers close Friday, May 21, 1920. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, May 29, 1920. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

COURSES IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL 
ECONOMICS 

NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 

1919-1920 




BALTIMORE 
The Johns Hopkins Press 

1919 



COMMITTEES 

COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Edward F. Buchxer, Director of the College Courses for Teachers 

and Professor of Education. 
Eleanor L. Lord, Dean and Professor of History. Goucher College. 
Henry Wood, Professor of German. 



COURSES IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL ECONOMICS 

Jacob H. Hollander, Professor of Political Economy. 
Edward F. Buchner, Professor of Education. 
George E. Barnett, Professor of Statistics. 



NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL WORKERS 

Alexander G. Christie, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, Chairman. 
John B. Whitehead, Professor of Electrical Engineering. 
(To be appointed) Professor of Civil Engineering. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Eegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 
1, 1919. "Registration of former students should be made on 
or before October 4. 

The Director may be found in Room 217, Oilman Hall, 
Homewood, daily from September 20 to October 1 (3-5 
p. m., Monday to Friday; 10 a. m., Saturdays). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Henry Wood, Ph. D. 

Professor of German. 

LORRAIN S. HULBURT, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematics. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. D. 

Professor of Education. 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D. 

Professor of Classical Archaeology and Epigraphy. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

John H. Latane, Ph. D. 

Professor of American History. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D. 

Professor of Experimental Psychology. 

John C. French, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of English. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of German. 

William Rosenau, Ph. D. 

Associate in Post-Biblical Hebrew. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D. 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Associate in Philosophy. 

Florence E. Bamberger, A. M. 

Associate in Education. 

Gustav Gruenbaum, Ph. D. 

Associate in Romance Languages. 

Ellis Miller, Ph. D. 

Associate in Chemistry. 



German 

Mathematics 

Latin 

Education 

Art 

Chemistry 

History 

Psychology 

English 

German 

Semitics 

Semitics 

Philosophy 

Education 

French and Italian 

Chemistry 

5 



College Courses for Teachers 



[534 



Robert A. Stewart, Ph. D. 

Associate in Romance Languages. 

S. EDWIN Whitemax 

Instructor in Drawing. 

David E. Wegleix, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Education. 

Alfred Breit 

Albert L. Hammond, A. B. 



Spanish 

Drawing 

Education 

J'ussia a 
History of Philosophy 

French 

• Spanish 

Hans Froelicher, Ph. D. Art 

Professor of German and of Art Criticism in Goucher College. 

Joseph S. Shefloe, Ph. D. French 

Professor of Romanic Languages in Goucher College. 

Annette B. Hopkins, Ph. D. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Katherine J. Gallagher, Ph. D. History 

Assistant Professor of History in Goucher College. 






GENERAL STATEMENT 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
lias endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or " lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic 
instruction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have 
completed one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work has been 
done without any reference to credit toward an academic 
degree. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public service, 
the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation with 
Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of instruc- 
tion to teachers and others whose vocations prevent their 
attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the usual 
hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis for the 
courses announced below for 1919-1920. It is the primary 
aim of these courses to provide teachers in public and private 
schools with special opportunities for further personal culture 
and for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality and 
extent of instruction are concerned, to the corresponding 
courses given in the academic department. In order to give 
further encouragement to teachers in service and others to 
carry on extended systematic study, this plan of instruction 
also provides that satisfactory work accomplished in these 



8 College Courses for Teachers [530 

courses will be credited, under suitable regulations, toward 
the degrees of Bachelor of Art and Bachelor of Science. 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be admitted 
to these courses. They will be expected to present the proper 
qualifications for the subjects and courses they desire to 
pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the successful 
pursuit of these courses is that represented by the completion 
of a standard four-year high school course. In cases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or without 
reference to the baccalaureate degrees. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required courses of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses, in accordance with the following 
regulations : 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science must present evidence of having success- 
fully completed courses of study equivalent to the gradu- 
ating requirements of a standard four-year high school. This 
evidence may be offered by either of the following means : 

1. Presenting certificates : 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a 
course of study of four years, and approved by the 
Committee on Matriculation. 



537] Degree of Bachelor of Science 9 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or 
other approved examining boards. 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for 
matriculation, of which nine are prescribed and six are 
elective. The subjects in which the prescribed units must 
be offered are : 

English (three), History (one), Mathematics (Algebra 
and Geometry) (two), a Modern Foreign Language 
(tivo), Science (one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from 
the following group, the number of additional units accepted 
in the several prescribed subjects being indicated in paren- 
theses : 

Domestic Science (one) or Manual Training (one), 
Drawing (one), History (one, or two), Latin (two, or 
three, or four), Mathematics (one, or one and a half), 
Modern Foreign Language (two, or three, or four), 
Music (one, or two), Science (one, or two), Book- 
keeping (one), Commercial Arithmetic (one), Com- 
mercial Geography (one), Commercial Law (one). 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer 
approved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scien- 
tific school, normal school, training school, or technical school 
in advance of high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are : 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated 
students, namely : 



10 College Courses for Teachers [538 

English, two courses; Foreign Languages, three 
courses in at least two languages; Eistory, one course; 
Science, one course. 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject and 
of two courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required 
courses may not be counted as part of the work in the major. 

3. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one 
hundred and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of 
twenty-four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The 
maximum credit allowed a student in one .summer session is 
eight points. 

By a plan of co-operation with the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore, provision has been made whereby candidates for 
the degree who desire to offer a major in art may do so by 
completing the following courses : I. Drawing : Freehand 
drawing, first year, 6 hours ; drawing from the antique, second 
year, G hours; still-life and portrait drawing, third year, 
G or 9 hours; life drawing, fourth year, 6 or 9 hours. II. 
Cognate courses : Design, 6 hours, and history of art , 2 
hours. The first-year drawing may, and the history of art 
courses must, be taken at the University. The maximum 
amount of credit allowed for drawing is seventeen points. 

The Maryland Institute is also announcing a special 
Normal Art Course for the training of teachers and super- 
visors of art in public schools. Certain courses in education 
at the University form a part of this special course. 

Similar provision has been made, in co-operation with the 
Peabody Conservatory of Music, of Baltimore, whereby can- 
didates for the degree who desire to offer a major in music 
may do so by completing at the Conservatory the following 
regular courses : Musical literature, history of music, musical 
pedagogy, normal class, harmony and harmonic analysis, ear 
training, and at least one main branch, as piano, organ, violin, 
'cello, voice, harmony, or school music. The maximum 
amount of credit allowed for a major in music is twenty-three 



539] Degree of Bachelor of Arts 11 

points. Candidates completing a major in music may offer 
more than one main branch. 

CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. In the 
case of women who may desire to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, it is provided that such credits as 
they may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by Goucher 
College toward the degree. A similar provision is made by 
the academic department of the Johns Hopkins University 
in the case of those men who desire to proceed to the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. 

The instruction will be conducted as far as possible at the 
Johns Hopkins University. In some instances, classes and 
laboratory exercises may be held at Goucher College. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1919, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar. 

Those Who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1019-20, for a detailed statement of the corresponding require- 
ments in that institution. This circular may be had by 
addressing the Registrar of the College. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the University upon men only. 



12 College Courses for Teachers [540 



EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is ten dollars a year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout the 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 
hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the University, 
Eoom 121, Gilman Hall. Before payment of fees can be 
made, applicants must receive from the Registrar a card 
stating the courses to be taken. 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 
of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation is $5, 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. 

SESSION 

Instruction will begin Monday, October 6, 1919, and close 
on Saturday, May 29, 1920. Each course will include instruc- 
tion for thirty-one weeks, except as otherwise noted. Class- 
room and laboratory exercises will be given in the afternoon 
and evening from Monday to Friday and on Saturday fore- 
noon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which occur 
within the usual University recesses at Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas, and Easter. 

SCHEDULE OF HOUES 

Classes will be held in the University buildings at Home- 
wood. The complete schedule of hours can not be arranged 
prior to the opening of the courses on October 4. In addition 
to the usual afternoon and Saturday forenoon schedule, a 
number of classes will be held in the evenings at 8 o'clock, 
usually two hours in one session. Changes in the hours indi- 
cated may be made at the opening in order to meet the 






541] University Extension Centers 13 

convenience of students. Where days and hours are omitted, 
the convenience of students will also be considered in arrang- 
ing the schedule. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION CENTERS 

Under a regulation adopted by the Advisory Committee 
on the degree of Bachelor of Science in September, 1917, non- 
laboratory courses announced in the program, for which 
arrangements for instruction can be made, may be conducted 
at centers throughout the State of Maryland. The satisfac- 
tory completion of courses so conducted will be credited 
towards the degree of Bachelor of Science, and, also, will be 
accepted by the State Superintendent of Schools towards the 
renewal, or advancing the grade, of teachers' certificates. 

The general conditions, under which classes will be organ- 
ized at University Extension Centers, call for a minimum 
registration, and provision by the local class of the place of 
meeting and the incidental expenses of the visiting instructor. 
Class exercises are to be held weekly during the regular 
session, from October to May. The conditions of admission 
and tuition expenses are described on pages 8 and 12. 

Since the adoption of the regulation, courses in Education 
have been conducted for both secondary and elementary public 
school teachers at Salisbury, Frederick, and Elkton. County 
Superintendents of Schools and others interested in the 
organization of classes at University Extension Centers 
should communicate with the Director of the College Courses 
for Teachers. 

The Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore having 
extended the privilege of using certain of the public school 
buildings for classes in the College Courses for Teachers, the 
University will, within the limits of the schedule of the 
members of the Faculty, undertake the organization of classes 
to meet at convenient centers which may be available in parts 
of the city remote from Homewood. 



14 College Courses for Teachers [542 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Any course for which there are fewer than twelve applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficient demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, an effort will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the baccalaureate 
degrees, which will be allowed for the successful completion 
of each of the following courses, can be determined definitely 
only at the end of the year. 

Art 

1. History of Art. 
a. Ancient Art. 

A general outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and painting 
with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing as seen on 
vases. The development of the different branches of ancient art from 
prehistoric times will be systematically considered and their influence 
on later 'art emphasized. Lectures illustrated by slides, photographs, 
casts and original antiquities. Reports and required reading for 
credit. Books recommended: Reinach's Apollo (Scribner's Sons, 
New York, 1909, $1.50) ; Fowler-Wheeler, Greek Archaeology (New 
York, 1909, $2.00). 

Professor Kobinson. First half-year. Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

o. Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern 
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, recitations, reports 
on assigned topics. Text book: Reinach's Apollo. 

Professor Froelicher. Second half-year. Tuesday, 8- 
9.45 p. m. 

The course on the History of Art must be offered as part 
of the requirement of the major in art. 

2. Classical Art. 

'a. Mycenean and Cretan Art. 

A study of prehistoric art and civilization as shown by the dis- 
coveries of recent excavations. 
First half-year. 






543] Chemistry 15 

b. Outlines of Greek and Eoman Architecture. 

Second half-year. 

Professor Kobinson. Wednesday, 4 p. m. 

3. History of Modern Painting. 

The period studied extends from 1700 to the present. 
Professor Froelicher. Two hours a week, first half-year. 
Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

4. American Art. 

A study of the different phases of the development of art in the 
Americas, beginning with the archaeological material and including 
modern architecture, painting, and sculpture. 

Professor Eobinson. Second half-year. Tuesday, 8- 
9.45 p. m. 

Chemistry 

1. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The work covers 
the general principles and laws of chemistry and a study of the more 
important metallic and non-metallic elements. In the laboratory 
selected experiments, illustrating the preparation, properties and 
reactions of inorganic substances and the applications of chemical 
laws, are performed. 

Professor Gilpin" and Dr. Miller. Lecture, 8-9.45 p. m. ; 
and laboratory, 7.30-10 p. m., or Saturday, 9 a. m.-12 m. 

2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will include chiefly laboratory exercises, with two 
sessions each week. Occasionally a part or all of an evening will be 
devoted to a discussion of the theoretical principles of the reactions 
being studied. As the laboratory work is of an individual character, 
an effort will be made to meet the needs of each student in the kind 
of work assigned. Practice will Ibe given in the methods of gravi- 
metric and volumetric quantitative analysis. 

Dr. Miller. 7.30-10 p. m. 

3. General Organic Chemistry. 

A systematic course in the general principles of organic chemistry 
and the properties and reactions of the paraffin and benzene deriva- 
tives. It will consist of one lecture (two hours) and one laboratory 



L6 College Courses for Teachers [544 

period each week. The course will be so arranged as to meet the 
needs of those preparing for the Medical School, the School of 
Hygiene, or advanced work in Domestic Science. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 1. 

Professor Gilpin. Lecture, 8-9.45 p. m., and laboratory, 
at night, or Saturday, 9 a. m.-12 m. 

Laboratory fee: $10.00 for each course, in addition to 
breakage. 

Drawing 

The instruction in this course in freehand drawing aims to impart 
such knowledge of the principles of drawing as shall give students 
the ability to represent natural objects correctly. 

This course may be offered as the first-year requirement of the 
major in art. 

Mr. Whiteman. Six hours weekly. Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, 2-5 p. m. 

Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course offered will present in outline the history of Education, 
tracing the development of those ideas, practices and institutions of 
the past which have been most effective in determining the essential 
features and problems of education in the present. The work is based 
on Monroe's " Textbook in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. Principles of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education will undertake a study 
of education with a view to understanding the work of the school and 
the mental and social factors in individual development. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday, 4.20-6 p. m. 

3. Educational Psychology. 

This course will treat of mental development and the psychological 
basis of educational theory and practice, and include the special 
psychology of interest, work, practice, childhood and adolescence, 
learning, and the various school subjects. A survey of the recent 
studies in educational psychology will be made. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 



545] Education 17 

4. Principles of Teaching and Special Methods in 
Secondary School Subjects. 

The first part of this course will present the principles underlying 
the method of instruction and classroom management, and include 
such topics as habit formation, the laws of learning, and the nature 
of the thinking process. 

During the second part of the course application of these principles 
will be made to the problems of teaching the subjects in secondary 
courses of study. 

Professor Buchner, Miss Bamberger, and Dr. Weglein". 
Two honrs a week. 

5. Secondary School Organization and Class-Eoom 
Management. 

This course will deal with some of the principal topics related to 
the organization and administration of secondary schools, such as: 
The historical development and function of the American high school; 
comparisons with secondary schools in other countries; the main 
problems connected with the program of studies; the junior high 
school; extra-classroom activities; supervised study; methods of 
instruction. 

Reports and discussion of observation of classroom and other 
secondary school activities. 

Dr. Weglein. Tuesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

6. Special Problems in Secondary Education. 

A consideration of recent investigations in the field of secondary 
education. 

Dr. Weglein. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

7. Elementary Education. 

This course includes the study of the principles and aims under- 
lying elementary education. Among the topics to be discussed are: 
An examination of the social needs for subject-matter in each of the 
school subjects; the organization of the problems and materials of 
this subject-matter in response to the mental development of pupils; 
the classification of pupils and provision for individual differences; 
formulating of programs; proper methods of study; and measuring 
the results of teaching. 

For those interested in problems of supervision, a third period may 
be arranged, in which additional topics will be considered. The work 



1 8 College Courses for Teachers \ 5 \ 6 

in supervision is an optional additional hour, and may be offered 
for extra credit. 

Recitations will be observed with regard to method followed and 
the conduct of study periods will receive attention. Reports based 
on the observation of classroom work will be banded in from time 
to time. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 9.15-11 a. m. 

8. Elementary School Organization and Classroom 
Management. 

This course treats of the principles of teaching with special refer- 
once to the conditions of organization and management under the 
control of the teacher. Such topics will be included as: Teacher's 
arrangement of material; organization of the school; flexible group- 
ing of children; daily schedule; types of seat work; supervision of 
seat work; discussion of scales for measuring the achievement of 
pupils; program making; judgment of text books. Observations, 
discussions and reports will be required. 

Miss Bamberger. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 

9. Experimental Education. 

This course deals with psycho-educational processes in action from 
the scientific point of view, and is based upon a comparative study 
of investigations in educational research. Emphasis will be placed 
on methods of approaching educational problems and the application 
and evaluation of measuring scales and mental tests, including 
statistical methods of deriving results. Research will be undertaken 
in problems selected according to the chief interests of individual 
students. 

Professor Buchner. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include a review of the essentials of usage, the 
study of the principles of structure and style, and frequent practice 
in writing. Weekly themes will be required; these will be returned 
with written criticisms. 

Associate Professor French and an Assistant. Tuesday 
and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 



547] French 19 

2. The English Novel. 

A study of the history and technique of the English Novel from 
the Middle Ages to the present day. During the first half-year atten- 
tion is given to the development of narrative types and technique 
through mediaeval romance, the Renaissance, and the eighteenth 
century. Portions of the most important novels will be read in a 
book of selections. The novelists of the nineteenth century are 
studied during the second half-year, including Miss Austen, Scott, 
Dickens, Thackeray, George Eliot, Meredith, Hardy, and others. Four 
representative novels will 'be used as a basis for close study. Others 
will be assigned for rapid, supplementary reading. 

Professor Hopkins. Tuesday, 7.45-9.30 p. m. 



French 



1. French Elements. 



a. Grammar: — Fraser and Squair, Shorter French Course. 

b. French Texts: — Monvert, La belle France; Labiche et Martin, 
Le Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon; About, La Mere de la Marquise; 
Augier et Sandeau, Le G-endre de Monsieur Poirier; Daudet, Contes; 
Moliere, L'Avare; Sand, La Mare au Diable; Maupassant, Contes 
Choisis; France, La Livre de mon Ami; Merimee, Carmen and other 
Stories; Bowen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study of French 
and aims to impart a good reading knowledge of the language. It 
includes pronunciation, composition, and translation. Upon the 
successful completion of the course the student receives credit for 
one course if offered as college work; if offered for matriculation, it 
absolves the requirements in French. Graduate and medical students 
completing this course absolve the requirements in French of candi- 
dates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and for admission to the 
Medical School, respectively. 

Professor Shefloe. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.30-6 p. m. 

2. French Keading. 

A course in French reading, grammar, and composition, for 
students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. The texts will be 
chosen from modern authors, and the exercises in composition will 
be of a practical nature. 

Dr. GtRuenbaum. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 



20 College Courses for Teachers [548 

3. Practical French. 

Practical exercises in spoken French. The nature of this course 
will depend upon the previous training of those who wish to follow 
it. It is intended, however, primarily for those who desire to increase 
their knowledge of practical modern French. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

4. Nineteenth Century Literature. 

A study will be made of the general trend in the novel, drama and 
lyric poetry. Extensive reading and reports upon the authors read 
will be required, which will be supplemented by lectures in French. 

Two periods a week. 

German 

1. German Elements. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the study of 
German or who have had a partial introduction to the language. 
The work will include the principles of grammar, pronunciation, 
translation, and composition. Upon the successful completion of the 
work, the student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the requirements in 
German. Graduate and medical students completing this course 
absolve the requirements in German of candidates for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy and for admission to the Medical School, 
respectively. 

Associate Professor Eoulston. Three hours a week. 

2. German Heading. 

Modern prose readings with exercises in prose composition. Such 
writers as Storm, ,Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, Arnold, Schurz, etc., will 
be read. This course corresponds to collegiate German 1, and, if 
satisfactorily completed, will be credited accordingly. The two hours 
of literature and the one hour of composition may be taken jointly 
or separately. 

Associate Professor Eoulston. Three hours a week. 

3. Practical German. 

Practical exercises in spoken and written German. The nature of 
this course will depend somewhat on the previous training of those 



549] History 21 

who wish to follow it. It is intended, however, primarily for those 
who desire to increase their knowledge of practical Modern German. 

Associate Professor Koulston. Two hours a week. An 
evening session may be arranged. 

4. German Literature. 

A. Contemporary Drama and Novel. From Gerhart Hauptmann 

to Arthur Schnitzler. 

Or, 

B. 1. Goethe's Faust. Parti. 

October to February inclusive. 
2. German Lyric Poetry. {The Oxford Book of German Verse). 
March 1 to the end of the year. 

Professor Wood. Thursday, 5-7 p. m. 

History 

1. American Diplomacy. 

A study of the foreign relations of the United States from the 
Declaration of Independence to the present time, covering the prin- 
cipal disputes to which the United States has been a party, American 
contributions to international law, relations with Latin America, 
with the Orient, and with Europe. The course is designed to give a 
comprehensive view of America's relation to world politics. 

Professor Latane. Tuesday and Thursday, 5 p. m. 

2. A. Modern European History, 1400-1789. 

A survey course in early modern history, dealing with the so-called 
Renaissance, the Reformation, the Old Regime in Europe, and the 
beginnings of the colonial and dynastic rivalries of the modern 

European nations. 

Or, 

B. History of the United States, 1783-1883. 

A survey of the political, social and economic history of the United 
States during the first century of national development. A syllabus 
will be provided and no single text-book will be used. 

Assistant Professor Gallagher. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 



22 College Courses for Teachers [550 



Italian 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a reading 
knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronunciation. Prose 
composition will begin as soon as the most elementary part of the 
grammar has been mastered. The following text-books will be used : 
Shepard, Italian Grammar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short 
Stories; Collodi, Le Avventure di Pinocchio. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Thursday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

Latin 

Classical Literature. 

A series of lectures on great representative authors of classical 
literature from Homer to the Second Centry A. D. Special attention 
will be given to certain aspects of formal and artistic development 
and to the growth and influence of literary tradition. 

The course will require the reading in translation of the authors 
studied. A previous knowledge of Greek and Latin is desirable, but 
not essential. 

Professor Mustard. Two hours a week, 5 p. m. 

Mathematics 

Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry. 
Prerequisites: Plane Geometry and Algebra. 
Professor Hulburt. Two periods a week. 

Oriental Seminary 

The following courses, offered in the Oriental Seminary, 
presuppose no knowledge of the Hebrew or Greek language : 

1. History of the Ancient East (Egypt, Babylonia, 
Assyria, Persia, Israel, and Judah). 

Dr. Blake. Wednesday, 5 p. m. 

2. Biblical Archaeology. 

Dr. Rosenau. Thursday, 5 p. m. 



551] Philosophy; Psychology 23 

3. The Literature of the Old Testament (with special 
reference to date and authorship). 

Dr. Rosenau. Tuesday, 5 p. m. 

4. Interpretation of Selected Chapters of the Authorized 
Version. 

Dr. Blake. Friday, 5 p. m. 

Philosophy 

1. Philosophy of Art. 

This course includes two parts : ( 1 ) a discussion of the general 
principles underlying our appreciation of the beautiful; (2) a 
presentation of the aesthetic of the fine arts, as illustrated by the 
history in Renaissance Italy. 

Dr. Slonimsky. Wednesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

(In ease of a sufficient demand, a course on the Philosophy of 
Religion will be given in place of the above.) 

2. History of Modern Philosophy. 

A survey of the fundamental problems of philosophy, followed by 
a presentation of the great philosophical systems since the sixteenth 
century. 

Mr. Hammond. Thursday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

Psychology 

1. Introduction to Scientific Psychology. 

A study of the human mind in relation to the activities of the 
organism. Special attention will be given to the neural basis of 
consciousness, the development of perception, habit-formation, 
instinct, emotion, and will. 

Professor Dunlap. Monday, 7.45-9.45 p. m. 

2. Social Psychology. 

The course undertakes a survey of the psychological factors 
involved in social relations. Such topics are considered as the 
primary instincts and emotions, imitation and suggestion, efficiency 
and its evaluation, the family group, and the social function of 
religion. 

The course will be given only for a minimum registration of 
fifteen. 

Professor Dunlap. Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 



24 College Courses for Teachers [552 



Russian 

This course will include instruction in elementary grammar, 
colloquial and written Russian. Practical exercises will be based on 
standard prose works. 

Mr. Breit. Two hours a week. 

Spanish 

1. Spanish Elements. 

a. Fuentes and Francois, A Practical Spanish Grammar; oral and 

written exercises. 
6. Hills, Spanish Tales for Beginners; Alarcon, El Capitdn Veneno; 

Palacio Valdes, La Hermana San Sulpicio. 
A course intended for beginners. Upon successful completion of 
this course the student receives credit for one course if offered as 
college work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the require- 
ments in Spanish. 

Dr. Stewart. Wednesday and Friday, 4.10 p. m. 

2. Practical Spanish. 

A practical course in Spanish for those who have had the elements 
of the language, and who desire to gain a broader knowledge of the 
literature, together with facility in speaking and writing Spanish. 

Two hours a week. 

(In case of a sufficient demand, a course in conversational and 
written Spanish, including composition, in advance of Spanish 2 will 
also be given.) 

3. Spanish Literature. 

This course will include the history of Spanish literature, special 
attention being given to the classic drama and Cervantes, with 
exercises in oral practice, grammar, and Composition. 

Two hours a week. 



Attendants on the College Courses for Teachers, 1918-1919, 
345. 



COURSES IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL 
ECONOMICS 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and should be filled up and returned on or before 
October 10, 1919. 



INSTRUCTORS 



Jacob H. Hollander, Ph. D. 

Professor of Political Economy. 

George E. Barnett, Ph. D. 

Professor of Statistics. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Associate in Philosophy. 

William 0. Weyforth, Ph. D. 

Associate in Political Economy. 

Broadus Mitchell, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Political Economy. 

Joshua Bernhardt, A. B. 

J. Earle Uhler, A. B. 

J. Wallace Bryan, Ph. D., C. P. 

E. Lyell Gunts, A. B. 

Evert C. Palmer 



Political Economy 

Investments 

Social Ethics 



Foreign Trade and Exchange; 

Business and Social Statistics 

Labor Problems ; Social Reform 



Americanization ; Insurance 

Business English 

Elementary Accounting 

Principles of Advertising 

Principles of Salesmanship 



27 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



The Johns Hopkins University will offer during the 
academic year 1919-20 the following series of evening courses 
of instruction in subjects of direct interest and value to 
young men and women actually engaged in or contemplating 
entrance into business, industry and commerce. Such instruc- 
tion is made available at hours and under conditions designed 
to meet the convenience of those likely to make use thereof. 

SELECTION OF COURSES 

Students are advised not to limit their choice of courses 
to those subjects that are directly related to the particular 
business or activity in which they are engaged. All students, 
employed in business or in social service, will find the course 
in the Elements of Political Economy of particular value, as 
supplying a sound foundation for the more intelligent pursuit 
of the specialized courses. Such a general course should, 
indeed, whenever possible, precede or accompany special 
courses. The course in Elementary Accounting will be found 
profitable not only by those who wish to become professional 
accountants, but by all classes of business men interested in 
and concerned with the details of the financial organization 
of modern industry. 

While the courses are designed in the main to offer instruc- 
tion to those engaged in various fields of business and socu 
activity, the instruction will be designed to meet the need* 
also of those who have a more general interest in the subject. 

Instruction in modern languages and in a wide range of 
subjects ordinarily included in a college curriculum, as wel 
as in engineering subjects, is available in the " Teachers' 
Courses " and in the " Engineering Courses/' offered by this 
University. 

2S 



557] Admission; Fees 29 



ADMISSION AND ATTENDANCE 

There are no formal examinations for admission. Students, 
both men and women, will be admitted to such courses as 
they are found qualified by the respective instructors to 
pursue with advantage. The satisfactory completion of any 
of these courses will be recognized by the award of a certifi- 
cate of attendance. Credits so received may be used, upon 
matriculation, towards the degree of Bachelor of Science. 

Students are advised to register as far in advance of the 
opening of the session as may be possible. The office (Oilman 
Hall, Eoom 219) will be open for registration daily from 9 
a. m. to 5 p. m. Eegistration blanks may be obtained by 
written application to the Eegistrar. 

A preliminary assembly of all students who wish to attend 
the courses will be held on Friday, October 10, at 8 p. m., 
in the Civil Engineering Building. Opportunity for regis- 
tration will also be afforded at this time. Instruction will 
begin on Monday, October 13, and proceed in accordance 
with the schedule of the courses. 

LOCATION 

The courses in Investments and Foreign Trade and Ex- 
change will be given in the rooms of the Baltimore Chapter 
of the American Institute of Banking, 15 South street; 
all other courses in the Mechanical Engineering Building 
(Charles and Thirty-second streets). 

TUITION FEES 

The tuition fee is $20.00- for each course of two hours 
weekly extending through the academic year. Fees are pay- 
able at the office of the Treasurer (Gilman Hall, 121). 



30 Courses in Business and Social Economics | 558 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Political Economy 

The purpose of the course will be to acquaint those who are 
engaged in practical affairs with some knowledge of the principles 
underlying the modern industrial world. With this intention, the 
first half-year will be devoted to an elementary study of economic 
theory. Attention will be given to the well established doctrines of 
the science rather than to the unsettled issues. In the second half- 
year the practical application of economic principles to the problems 
of the business world will be considered. Such questions as produc- 
tive efficiency, the growth of population, the wages question, the 
circulating medium, international trade, rent and interest, and taxa- 
tion will be discussed. 

Professor Hollander. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Investments 

The more important topics covered in this course include: an 
analysis of the essentials of a good investment, a historical study of 
the rate of interest and of periodic fluctuations in the rate, definition 
of the essential legal characteristics of the various debt instruments 
and especially of the mortgage, historical and analytical description 
of the more important forms of investment, such as Government, 
State and municipal bonds, securities of private corporations, and 
real estate mortgages, theories of valuation and amortization. 

Professor Barnett. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Note: This course will be given in cooperation with the Baltimore 
Chapter of the American Institute of Banking and the class will meet 
in the rooms of the Chapter, 15 South Street. Members of the 
Chapter will make arrangements for admission to the course with 
the officers of the Chapter. Other persons who desire to take the 
course will enroll through the University on the payment of the 
usual fee of $20. 

Social Ethics 

This course is an attempt to formulate a theory of progress from 
the standpoint of ethics; and to analyze and appraise the existing 
social institutions — the state, the economic order, and the family — in 



559 I Statistics; Foreign Trade and Exchange 31 

the light of that theory. The ethical standard that serves as founda- 
tion may be described as rational idealism, as opposed to the instinc- 
tive idealism which dominates the thought and conduct of the age; 
i. e., it is an idealism grounded on the established facts and generali- 
zations of the life-sciences, — biology, psychology, sociology. The 
ethical test of any age lies in the ethical value of its institutions, 
the great social institution being the embodied expression of the 
moral consciousness of that age; and the present course is an attempt 
to appraise that value, i. e., to measure the true progress of the age 
by ascertaining the true value of the institutions for the sole ends 
which they should subserve, namely, human happiness and moral 
efficiency. The analysis shows that civilization does not necessarily 
mean progress, that much of our present progress is specious, and in 
conclusion points out the lines of reconstruction. 

Dr. Slonimsky. Monday, 8-10 p. m. 

Business and Social Statistics 

In this course a study will be made of statistical methods and 
their application to. business and social problems. The collection, 
presentation, and analysis of statistical data will be considered, and 
common errors in the use of statistics will be pointed out. Study 
will be made of the nature and use of various types of averages and 
of the methods of comparing statistical data. The principles of 
making index numbers will be taken up with special reference to 
price index numbers. Particular attention will be given to diagram- 
matic and graphical methods of presentation. The use of statistics 
in the analysis of business and social conditions and some of the more 
important sources of statistical information dealing with these condi- 
tions will be pointed out. 

Dr. Weyforth. Tuesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Foreign Trade and Exchange 

An analysis will be made of the economic principles underlying 
international trade, the tariff policies of the leading commercial 
nations will be examined, and the methods and organization of 
foreign trade and exchange considered. A study will be made of 
selling practices in foreign trade, of export-trade combinations and 
their possibilities under the Webb law, and of various governmental 
agencies for the promotion of foreign trade, such as the consular 
service, commercial attaches, and the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce. Special attention will be given to the financial 



32 Courses in Business and Social Economics [500 

aspects of the subject, including the development of foreign invest- 
ments, the establishment of branch banks, and the problems of 
foreign exchange. 

Dr. Weyfortii. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

Note: This course will be given in cooperation with the Baltimore 
Chapter of the American Institute of Banking and the class will meet 
in the rooms of the Chapter, 15 South Street. Members of the Chap- 
ter will make arrangements for admission to the course with the 
officers of the Chapter. Other persons who desire to take the course 
will enroll through the University on the payment of the usual 
fee of $20. 

Social Refoiim 

The lectures will fall naturally into two groups, one dealing with 
the various panaceas that have been brought forward by those who 
would change the economic order, and the other covering less 
thorough-going expedients which have been proposed or put into 
practice. Thus, under the first heading, the single tax, socialism, 
philosophical anarchism and syndicalism will be studied. The effort 
will be not only to explain the practical demands of these schemes 
for the betterment of society, but to look back of every program to 
discover the essential economic philosophy which inspired it. For 
this reason, it is highly desirable that persons taking this course 
should have had some economic training. 

In the second part of the year, study will be made of the proposals 
of those who prefer modification of the existing order rather than 
social upheaval. Such devices as profit sharing, the minimum wage, 
social insurance and improvement of distribution through certain 
kinds of taxes will be outlined. 

Dr. Mitchell. Monday, 8-10 p. m. 
Labor Problems 

The course aims to show the place of labor as an economic factor. 
It deals both with organized and unorganized labor. In treating of 
the former, the history of the organization of workmen will be traced, 
especially with reference to the United States; the types of unions - 
will be discussed, together with the methods used by employes and 
employers. The economic problems to which the organization of 
labor gives rise will be studied, and an attempt made to estimate the 
social justification for such associations among workers. In dealing 
with the subject of unorganized labor, some of the larger aspects of 
economic theory will be drawn into consideration. A part of the 
course will be devoted to the history of the change in the attitude 



561] Americanization; Principles of Insurance 33 

of the law toward labor; the individualist conceptions of the English 
common law will be watched until they are gradually transformed 
into principles which recognize the social character of the labor 
factor. Members of the class will be asked to report on various 
phases of the subject. 

Dr. Mitchell. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 

Americanization 

This course is aimed, primarily, to meet the requirements (a) of 
those social workers who come in contact with problems relating to 
the immigrant, and (b) of the teachers of immigrants. 

The course will consist of three parts : 

1. A brief historical survey for each of the principal national or 
racial groups which have emigrated to the United States in recent 
years, including an inquiry into the special causes for emigration of 
the various groups. 

2. A study of the social and economic problems emerging from the 
concentration of the immigrant in the large industrial centers of the 
United States, both from the viewpoint of the immigrant and of the 
community. 

3. The development of a practical social program to correlate the 
activities of those social agencies in a community which are either 
already employed or may be utilized in the immediate future in 
meeting the problems involved in the Americanization of the immi- 
grant, with special emphasis on the effective methods of instructing 
the immigrant in English and in the duties of citizenship. 

Mr. Bernhardt. Friday, 8-10 p. m. 

Principles of Insurance 

The aim of the course is to train the student to understand and 
apply the general principles that underly all forms of insurance. 
Concretely, the course will cover the following topics: the statistical 
basis of insurance, its history and present state, the theory of mor- 
tality and other insurance tables, the adaptation of the form of the 
insurance policy to the needs of the insured, description and discus- 
sion of various forms of policy, the theory of reserves, description of 
the more important forms of insurance carriers and the leading 
principles of the law of insurance. Illustrations will be drawn from 
the four most important forms of insurance — life, fire, compensation 
and fidelity. 

Mr. Bernhardt. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 



34 Courses in Business and Social Economics [562 



Business Englisb 

This course devotes the first liulf-year to the study of grammatical 
usage and structure, requiring weekly themes on commercial topics 
of general importance, such as the letter of credit, the clearing house, 
royalty, patent, bill of lading, income tax, mortgage. During the 
second half-year, the class studies the composition of such business 
letters as those of recommendation, introduction and application, and 
those of buyer, seller and collector, as well as advertisements, reports 
and office notices. Special attention is given to the style of commer- 
cial forms. The reading of selected books is prescribed, among them 
being Palmer's 8 elf '-Cultivation in English and Trades and Profes- 
sions, Husband's America at Work, and Eliot's Training for an 
Effective Life. 

Mr. Uhler. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

Elementary Accounting 

This course presents the fundamentals of accounting theory and 
practice. It is designed to afford, not only a basis for more advanced 
studies in accountancy, but also a practical familiarity with finan- 
cial records and statements that will be useful in every-day business 
activities. To these ends, the underlying principles of accounting 
science will be analyzed, and an explanation given of single and 
double-entry bookkeeping, the types and functions of books in general 
use, and the scope and purposes of the various accounts and state- 
ments. There will be instruction and practice in the opening, opera- 
tion, adjustment and closing of books and accounts, the construction 
and analysis of financial statements, and the solution of practical 
problems. The course will be comprehensive, but non-technical, in 
order that it may be available to persons who have no knowledge of 
bookkeeping, as well as to bookkeepers who wish to broaden their 
view of the science on which their profession is founded. 

Dr. Bryan. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

Principles of Advertising 

The course will include the study of ways and means to analyze a 
market — market conditions and competition, as well as methods of 
distribution, merchandising and planning of a selling and advertising 
campaign from beginning to end. The mechanics of advertising will 
be fully treated. Buying motives will be studied and classified 



563 | Principles of Salesmanship 35 

according to their relative importance. The relation of advertising 
to selling will be discussed. Practice will be given in layouts and 
copy writing. Commercial art will be treated from all angles. 
Methods of determining the value of advertising media will be an 
important feature of the course. Sales and advertising organization 
building will be analyzed and agency methods fully explained. The 
course will have a two-fold interest — first to the man or woman in 
business who desires to understand the relation of advertising to 
merchandising, and second to the student who expects to make 
advertising a life work. 

Mr. Gunts. Thursday, 8-10 p. m. 

Principles of Salesmanship 

This course covers (a) the definite selling principles which are the 
basis for successful salesmanship; (b) the elements of business 
psychology including a comprehensive treatment of the buying 
motives which will enable the salesman to determine the keynote of 
the interview; (c) character analysis; (d) developing personality; 
this subject includes special tests to determine the strength of the 
sales presentation. It also includes studies in the qualities of char- 
acter, in the art of concentration and constructive work that will 
assist in overcoming personal faults; (e) the art of selling — that 
is, the application of these principles in actual work; (f) selling by 
mail; (g) principles of salesmanagement; and (h) tests and research 
work. 

Mr. Palmer. Wednesday, 8-10 p. m. 



Attendants on the Courses in Business Economics, 1918- 
1919, 242. 



NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 



A blank form of application for admission to these courses 
is enclosed herewith, or it may be obtained from the Kegis- 
trar of the Johns Hopkins University. This should be filled 
up and returned on or before October 6, 1919. 

Instructors will hold consultation hours from 7.30 to 9.30 
p. m., October 8, 9, and 10, in the Engineering Buildings at 
Homewood. The best entrance to the grounds is at Charles 
and Thirty-second streets. 



COMMITTEE ON NIGHT COURSES FOR TECHNICAL 
WORKERS 

Alexander G. Christie, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, Chairman. 
John B. Whitehead, Professor of Electrical Engineering. 
(To be appointed) Professor of Civil Engineering. 



INSTRUCTORS 



LORRAIN S. HULBURT, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematics. 

John B. Whitehead, Ph. D. 

Professor of Electrical Engineering. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

(To be appointed) 

Professor of Civil Engineering. 

Alexander G. Christie, M. E. 

Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 

James B. Arthur 

Associate Professor of Electrical En: 

Julian C. Smallwood, M. E. 

Associate in Mechanical Engineering. 

Ellis Miller, Ph. D. 

Associate in Chemistry. 

Clarence E. Coolidge, Ph. B. 

Instructor in Mechanical Engineering. 

Alexander E. Bauhan, E. E. 

Instructor in Electrical Engineering. 



Mathematics 

Electrical Engineering 

Chemistry 

Civil Engineering 

Mechanical Engineering 



Electrical Engineering 



fineenng. 



Mechanical Engineering 

Chemistry 

Mechanical Engineering 

Electrical Engineering 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



The Department of Engineering of the Johns Hopkins 
University announces a series of evening courses in various 
branches of Engineering and in Chemistry and Mathematics 
for the season 1919-20. These courses will be given in the 
Engineering Buildings at Homewood, which may be reached 
from the entrance to the grounds at Charles and Thirty- 
second streets. The courses are especially prepared for those 
who wish to improve their technical training, but who are 
prevented by professional or other occupations from availing 
themselves of the regular day courses offered in the Univer- 
sity. For the special benefit of the students taking Night 
Courses, an endeavor has been made to have these courses 
conducted by members of the instructional staff who teach 
similar subjects to the regular day students. 

The courses are given primarily for those who, without 
reference to an academic degree, wish to avail themselves of 
the opportunity to study special or general subjects in which 
they are interested The amount of previous preparation 
necessary differs for the various courses and is stated sepa- 
rately for each course. 

The Night Courses as now given do not lead to a degree. 
A special certificate is granted by the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity to each student who has satisfactorily completed a 
course in any subject. 

The Department of Engineering has given these evening 
courses for the past three years. They have been attended by 
a large number of students in spite of war conditions, which 
indicated that there was a real demand for such Night 
Courses for Technical Workers. The war has emphasized the 
great value of higher technical training. Such training will 
be valued even more highly in the future in the commercial 

40 



569] Application for Admission 41 

life of the coming years. All indications point towards larger 
classes than ever during the coming year. 

The work for the year 1919-20 has been planned so that 
those who have pursued evening classes during the past years 
will be able to continue in more advanced courses during the 
coming year. At the same time provision has been made for 
the entering class of new students. New courses in Ad- 
vanced Electrical Engineering and in Eeinforced Concrete 
have been added, for which a demand seems to exist. By 
special request the course on Industrial Organization, which 
had a very large attendance three years ago, will also be 
offered this year. 

Instruction in the evening courses will begin on Monday, 
October 13, 1919. Each prospective student is advised to 
consult with the instructor in charge of the course he intends 
to take, before finally registering in that course. An oppor- 
tunity for such consultation with instructors will be given 
from 7.30 to 9 p. m., on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday 
evenings, October 8, 9, and 10, in the Engineering Buildings 
at Homewood. The University may be reached by car lines 
17 or 29 from downtown. 

APPLICATION FOE ADMISSION 

Application for admission should be made on the blank 
form enclosed herewith; it may also be obtained from the 
Eegistrar of the University. The application should be 
mailed to the Eegistrar, so as to be received not later than 
October 6. This is requested in order that the applications 
may be examined in a preliminary way before the consulta- 
tion periods on October 8, 9, and 10. Filling out and sub- 
mitting the application blank carries with it no obligation 
to undertake the work, if upon consultation with the instruc- 
tor the student decides otherwise. 

The Committee in charge of Night Courses reserves the 
right to withdraw any of the courses offered, if in its opinion 
there are too few students registered to warrant giving the 
course. 



42 Night Courses for Technical Workers [570 



ADVISERS 

In general the instructor in the course in which the student 
registers will act as his adviser during the year. During the 
consultation periods the student may interview several in- 
structors before deciding on the course he wishes to take. 
The names of the instructors and the rooms in which they 
may be found will be posted at the entrance to the Electrical 
and Mechanical Building during registration. In case of 
difficulty, the chairman of the Committee on Night Courses 
may be consulted. 

FEES 

The cost of instruction is the same as for the College 
Courses for Teachers, $10 a year for each hour per week. 
Regular courses in any subject given one evening a week 
(two hours) cost $20 per year; courses occupying two even- 
ings a week $40 per year. In the Chemistry courses there 
is an additional laboratory fee of $15, making the total cost 
of each of these courses $55 per year. Fees may be paid, if 
desired, in two instalments, the first on registration. 



571] Math ematics ; Ch em istry 4:3 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Mathematics — 1 n 

An Elementary Course in Plane Trigonometry and Analytic 
Geometry. Professor Htjlbtjrt. Two evenings a week. 
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building. 

The course in Mathematics is provided to meet the needs of stu- 
dents proposing to undertake work in the engineering subjects, but 
who are insufficiently prepared to enter the courses. 

It is designed for beginners in the subjects of Trigonometry and 
Analytic Geometry, and is open to all students who have had some 
instruction in Algebra and Plane Geometry. The first part of the 
course will be devoted to Plane Trigonometry and will include the 
solution of triangles and so much of the formulae of Trigonometry 
as will be needed for the study of Analytic Geometry and Calculus. 
The remainder of the course will be given to Plane Analytic Geo- 
metry. This work will cover the subjects of the Straight Line, 
Circle, Conies, some Curves of Higher Order, and, if time permits, 
an introduction to the study of the Calculus. 

Chemistry 

Professor Gilpin, Dr. Miller, and assistants. Two evenings 
a week for each course. Civil Engineering Building, 
Eoom 114 and laboratory. 

These courses are designed to meet the needs of several classes 
of students: those who are unable to follow a regular college course, 
and wish to pursue work in Chemistry alone: those who are working 
in analytical or industrial laboratories and wish to increase their 
knowledge of the theoretical principles of the subject or pursue work 
of a more advanced character than that which they have already 
taken; those who wish, by taking the course in Organic Chemistry, 
to prepare for the Medical School, the School of Hygiene, or work 
in Domestic Science. The courses are arranged so that one can take 
them in the following order: General inorganic chemistry, quali- 
tative and quantitative analysis, organic chemistry. With outside 
reading and work in industrial laboratories, a good general training 
can be acquired in three or four years. A previous knowledge of 
physics is of great assistance to one taking work in Chemistry. The 



44 Night Courses for Technical Workers [572 

following courses will be given in 1919-20 provided the enrollment 
justifies them. 

Chemistry 1 n. General Inorganic Chemistry! 

One lecture (2 hours) and one laboratory period (2% hours) each 
week. No previous knowledge of chemistry is required for this 
course. The work covers the general principles and laws of chemistry 
and a study of the more important metallic and non-metallic ele- 
ments. In the laboratory selected experiments illustrating the pre- 
paration, properties and reactions of inorganic substances and the 
applications of chemical laws are performed. Those who have had 
laboratory practice, but no systematic instruction in Chemistry, 
will find this course very helpful. 

Chemistry 2 n. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will be largely a laboratory course with two sessions 
(21/2 hours each) each week. Occasionally a part or all of a session 
will be given up to a discussion of the theoretical principles of the 
reactions being studied. As the laboratory work is of an individual 
character, an effort will be made to meet the needs of each student 
in the kind of w r ork assigned. 

Practice in the methods of gravimetric and volumetric quantita- 
tive analysis will be given, as such work is essential for one looking 
forward to a position in an industrial laboratory. 

Chemistry 3 ar. Organic Chemistry. 

One lecture (2 hours) and one laboratory (2% hours) each week. 
A systematic course in the general principles of organic chemistry 
and the properties and reaction of the paraffin and benzene deriva- 
tives. It will be possible to arrange the laboratory work to satisfy 
the condition for entrance into the medical schools. 

Civil Engineerixg 
[Instructors to be appointed.] Civil Engineering Building. 

Civil Engineering 1 x. Reinforced Concrete Construction. 
Two evenings a iveeJc. 

This course is intended for those engaged in building construction 
and who have a fair knowledge of the elements of structures and of 
field methods. 

It will include the Theory of Reinforced Concrete Design and 
Foundations together with practical problems illustrating the theory. 



573] Electrical Engineering 45 

The following constructions will be discussed: slabs, beams, col- 
umns, footings, retaining walls, dams, foundations and an intro- 
duction to arches. 

Preparation required: A knowledge of algebra, trigonometry, 
plane geometry and calculus, together with the elements of struc- 
tural design. 

Electrical Engineering 

Professor Whitehead, Associate Professor Arthur, and 
Mr. Bauhan. Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 
Building. 
Electrical Engineering 1 n. Elements of Electricity and 
Magnetism and Direct Current Machinery. Mr. Bau- 
han. Two evenings a week. 

The aim of the course is to give the simpler relations of funda- 
mental electrical theory in such form as to allow the student to make 
immediate practical applications of them. The first half-year it. 
spent in the classroom, and in the second half-year the time is 
divided between the classroom and the laboratory. 

The subjects discussed are the following: Magnets and Magnet- 
ism, Electromagnetism, Ohm's Law, Electric Circuits, Power, Power 
Measurements, Measurements of Resistance, Measurements of Cur- 
rent, Measurements of Potential, Magnetic Fields due to a Current, 
Ferro-Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction, The Generator, The 
Motor, Inductance, Capacity, Electrolysis. 

Preparation required: A knowledge of Arithmetic and the simpler 
elements of Algebra. 

Textbooks : " Elements of Electricity," by Timbie ; " Experi- 
mental Electrical Engineering," by V. Karapetoff. 

Electrical Engineering 2 n. Elementary Alternating Cur- 
rents. Associate Professor Arthur. Two evenings a 
week. 

This course is a continuation of Course 1. Instruction is given in 
both classroom and laboratory, and covers the following subjects: 
Frequency, Phase, Vector Diagrams of Simple Circuits, Resistance 
in A. C. Circuit, Inductive Reactance, Capacity Resistance, Imped- 
ance, Series and Parallel Circuits, Power Factor, A. C. Instruments, 
Simple Working Principle of the Transformer, of Alternator, of Syn- 
chronous Motor, of Induction Motor, of Synchronous Converter. 

Preparation required: A knowledge of Trigonometry and the 
elements of Calculus. 



K; Night Courses for Technical Workers [57-1 

Text-books: "Alternating Current Electricity," by Timbie and 
Higbie; "Experimental Electrical Engineering/' by V. Karapetoff. 

Electrical Engineering 3 \. General Electrical Engineering. 
Advanced Course. Professor Whitehead. One even- 
ing a week. 

This course is open to those who have completed courses 1 and 2. 
or their equivalent. It will not be given unless there are at least 
ten applicants. 

The subjects treated will be Electric Power Transmission and 
Distribution, Motor Applications and Electric Illumination. The 
work will consist of lectures, problem-, recitations and conferences. 

Mechanical Engineering 

Professor Christie, Mr. Smallwood. and Mr. Coolidge. 

Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building. 

Mechanical Engineering 1 N. Machine Design. Mr. Cool- 
idge. Two evenings a iveek. 

This course has been arranged to satisfy the requirements of oper- 
ating executives, foremen, machine designers, draftsmen, and sales 
engineers connected with plants where a general variety of machines 
is constructed. Registrants will have the opportunity to inves- 
tigate the many considerations involved in commercial machine 
design. 

Some of the detailed features of the course will include the fol- 
lowing: An investigation of the engineering materials available for 
machine construction; a discussion of their physical and other pro- 
perties, such as their susceptibility to surface lubrication, etc. : an 
analysis of the various static and kinetic loads imposed on machine 
members; the relative motion of machine members to each other 
together with their dynamic effects; the proper economical selection 
of combinations of material; the proportional dimensions for bal- 
ancing the external loads imposed; a discussion of the more common 
elementary components in assembled machines, such as machine 
frames and their attachments, bolts, keys, pins, riveted joints, 
brakes, clutches, springs, crank and other shafts, tubes, pipes, bear- 
ings, flywheels, pulleys, rotating discs, belting, screws; machine bal- 
ancing; the general application of motor drives, etc. 

During the course certain specimens of materials will be sub- 
jected to test loads in the testing machines in the laboratory to 
determine their physical properties. 



575] Mechanical Engineering 4-7 

Preparation required: Registrants in this course are expected to 
be practical men of mechanical experience, having had previous 
instruction in algebraic equations, plane geometry and simple trigo- 
nometry. 

Mechanical Engineering 2 n. Heat Engines. Mr. Small- 
wood. Two evenings a week. 

This is a practical course connecting the theory of heat engines 
with engine and boiler room practice. The theory is taught partly 
by lectures and text-book study and partly by working numerous 
problems which are selected with reference to their practical appli- 
cation in power plant operation. 

The subject matter treated in the classroom is as follows: Sources 
of energy; laws of heat transformation; the action and cycles of 
perfect gases with special reference to engineering applications, as 
in gas engines and air compressor work; the properties of steam; 
expansion, losses, cycles, and efficiencies of steam in steam engines; 
mechanical construction, operation, and regulation of various types 
of steam engines and turibines; analysis of the simple-slide valve, 
automatic cut-off valves, Corliss valves, etc. ; theory, construction, 
and regulation of various types of gas and oil engines and gas 
producers. The analysis of combustion of coals, oils, and gases with 
special reference to the determination of losses and efficiencies in 
boiler room and gas engine practice; refrigerating and air compress- 
ing machinery; power plant auxiliaries. These classroom subjects 
are supplemented by laboratory periods, in which the more important 
power plant units are tested by the students. 

Preparation required: Mathematics, including elements of Trigo- 
nometry, and elements of Physics and Chemistry. 

Text -hook: "Elements of Heat-Power Engineering,"' by Hirshfeld 
and Barnard. 

Mechanical Engineering 3 N". Power Plant Engineering. 
Professor Christie. One evening a week. 

This short course in Power Plant Engineering deals with the sci- 
entific and commercial methods of proportioning the various elements 
of a power plant, together with a discussion of the practical applica- 
tion of the underlying theory in each case. This includes boilers, 
fuels, furnaces, chimneys, boiler room auxiliaries, piping, feed water 
treatment, heating systems, engines and turbines, condensers, etc. 
Consideration is given to costs in each case. Next a power plant 
design is worked out from a given load curve. Methods are developed 



48 Night Courses for Technical Workers [570 

for estimating the cosit of power production with the selected appara 
tus and the fixing of rates on the basis of these costs. 

Emphasis is laid throughout the course on methods of improving 
plant performance and on the present trend of development of power 
plant equipment. 

Preparation required: Heat engines or a similar course in applied 
thermodynamics. 

Text -book: "Mechanical Equipment of Buildings," Vol. 2. by 
Willard and Harding. 

Mechanical Engineering . 4 N. Industrial Organization. 
Professor Christie. One evening a week. 

This course is intended for mechanics, foremen, office clerks, en- 
gineers, executive officials, and all interested in the fundamental 
principles governing the economical organization of an industrial 
plant to produce goods in quantity. Modern problems of shop man- 
agement are fully discussed. 

The course is offered in response to a demand for instruction in 
the methods of organizing and planning manufacturing processes. 

The subject matter of the course includes the following: A brief 
economic history of industry to indicate the cause of present labor 
troubles. A study of the principles of industrial organization as 
applied to productive industries. Modern industrial tendencies, 
forms of ownership, types of organization, the functions of a con- 
ventional factory organization and its system for handling orders. 
Storekeeping methods. Planning, routing, and scheduling work. 
Shop records and costs; wage payment; betterment plans; safety- 
first organization; employment methods; burden and depreciation. 
Plant location and arrangement. 

The second part of the course deals with engineering contracts 
and specifications and with some portions of commercial law. 

Text-book : Kimball's " Principles of Industrial Organization " 
and notes. 



Attendants on the Night Courses for Technical Workers: 

1917-18 208 

1918-19 157 






The Johns Hopkins Press of Baltimore 



American Journal of Insanity. E. N. Brush, J. M. Moshkr, C. K. Clarke, 
C. M. Campbell aDd A. M. Barrett, Editors. Quarterly. 8to. Volume LXXV in 
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American Journal of Mathematics. Edited by Frank Morley, with the cooperation 
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Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXX in progress. $3 
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Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XIX in progress. 85 per volume. 

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BALTIMORE 

Founded 1876 



A FACULTY OF 350 PROFESSORS, ASSOCIATES, IN- 
TORS AND LECTURERS 



SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND WELL-EQUIPPED 
LABORATORIES 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
Degrees A. M. and Ph. D. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



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Degree M. D. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Degree A. B. 

(Open to Men) 



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING 

Degrees B. Eng.. and S. B. in Chem. 

(Open to Men) 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Degree S. B. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



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Degrees D. P. H., S. D., and S. B. in Hyg. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES 

With A. M., A. B. and S. B. Credits 

(Open to Men and Women) 



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(Not offered in 1919) 



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AND IN ENGINEERING 
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Maryland Forestry Bureau 



V 

sw Series, 1920 Whole Number 325 

No. 5 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS, 
1920-1921 



PROCEEDINGS OF 

THE UNIVERSITY PHILOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION, 1919-1920 



% 



%«». 



Baltimore, Maryland 'c//v n . 
Published by the University 
Issued Monthly, except February, June, August, September 
July, 1920 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917. Authorized on July 3, 1918 



<ew Series, 1920 Whole Number 325 

No. S 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS, 
1920-1921 



PROCEEDINGS OF 

THE UNIVERSITY PHILOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION, 1919-1920 



Baltimore, Maryland 
Published by the University 
Issued Monthly, except February, June, August, September 
, July, 1920 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second! class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917. Authorized on July 3, 1918 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

1920-1921 



PROCEEDINGS OF 

THE UNIVERSITY PHILOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION, 1919-1920 




'he 



* ILL; 



BALTIMOR E 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

1920 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



CALENDAR, 1920-1921 



College Courses for Teachers begin Monday. October 4. 1920. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 25, 1920. All classes 

suspended. 
The Christmas Recess lupins Friday morning, December 24, 1920. 
Exercises will he resumed Monday afternoon, January 'i. 1021. 
College Courses for Teachers Mud-year Examinations begin February 

2, 1921. 
Commemoration Day will be observed Tuesday. February 22, 1921. 

All classes suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, March 24. and closes 

Wednesday evening, March 31. 1921. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday. May 28, 1!>21. 



REGISTRATION 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Registrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 
1. 1920. Registration of former students should be made on 
or before October 2. 

The Director may be found in Room 217, Oilman Hall. 
Homewood, daily from September 20 to October 1 (3-5 
p. m., Monday to Friday; 10 a. m.. Saturday). 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 



INSTRUCTORS 

Paul Haupt, Ph. D. 

W. W. Spence Professor of the Semitic Languages. 

James W. Bright, Ph. D. 

Caroline Donovan Professor of English Literature. 

LORRAIN S. HULBTJET, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematics. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D. 

Professor of Latin. 

Edward F. Buchner, Ph. 1). 



Biblical Literature 
Anglo-Sascon 

Mathematics 

Latin 

Education 



Director of the College Courses for Teachers 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D. 

W. H. C. Vickers Professor of Archaeology. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D. 

Professor of Experimental Psychology. 

GlLBEBT CHINABD, L. ES L. 

Professor of French. 

Tenney Frank, Ph. D. 

Professor of Latin. 

H. Cabbington Lancaster, Ph. D. 

Professor of French Literature. 

John C. French, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of English. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of German. 

Florence E. Bamberger, A. M. 

Associate Professor of Education. 

Btford J. Johnson, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 

J rank R. Blake, Ph. D. 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

Gcstay Grtjenbaum, Ph.D. 

\-»<m iate in Romance Languages. 

Samuel E. Wh item an. 

Instructor in Drawing. 



Professor of Education. 

Art 

Chemistry 

Psychology 

French 

Latin 

French 

English 

German 

Education 

Psychology 

Ancient History 

French and Italian 

Drawing 



1 



College Courses for Teach 



i e rs 



[638 



David E. Weolein, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Education. 

Charles c. Thach, M. 8. 

Assistant in Ilistorx and Political Science. 

FELIX S. CABELLOj A. B. 
Instructor in Spanish. 

Ray M. Merrill, A. M. 

Instnuctor in Fren< h. 

Henry Slonimsky, Ph. D. 

Lecturer in Philosophy. 

Albert L. Hammond, A. 15. 

Instructor in Philosophy. 

Francis A. Litz, A. B. 

Instructor in English. 

John F. King, A. B. 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

James E. Sharp, S. B. 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

William F. Albright, Ph. D. 
Alfred Brett 
Victor Dtjlac, Ph. D. 
G. Ellis Porter, A. B. 

Editorial Staff of The Sun, Baltimore. 

Jonathan T. Rorer. Ph.D. Education 

Head of Department of Mathematics. The William Penn High School, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sarah E. Simons, A.M. Education 

Head of Department of English. High Schools. The District of Columbia. 

Florence L. Speare English 

Hans Froelichee, Ph. 1). Art 

Professor of German and of Art Criticism in Goucher College. 

Annette B. Hopkins, Ph. D. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Ernest P. Kuhl, Ph.D. English 

Professor of English in Goucher College. 

Raymond P. Dougherty, Ph.D. Old Testament Literature 

Professor of Biblical Literature in Goucher College. 

Katherine J. Gallagher, Ph.D. Historg 

Professor of History in Goucher College. 



Education 
Political Boii net 

Spanish 

Frt nch 

Philosophy 

J'li Uottophif 

English 

Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Oriental Religions 

Russian 

French 

Journalism 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or "lesson 
courses " have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic 
instruction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have 
completed one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work was done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic degree. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public ser- 
vice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent their 
attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the usual 
hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis for the 
courses announced below for 1920-1921. It is the primary 
aim of these courses to provide teachers in public and private 
schools with special opportunities for further personal culture 
and for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality and 
extent of instruction are concerned, to the corresponding 
courses given in the academic department. In order to give 
further encouragement to teachers in service and others to 
carry on extended systematic study, this plan of instruction 
also provides that satisfactory work accomplished in these 
courses will be credited, under suitable regulations, toward 
the degrees of Bachelor of Art and Bachelor of Science. 



6 College Courses for Teachers l r »J ( ) 

Persons other than teachers will, as in the past, be admitted 
to these courses. They will he expected to present the proper 

qualifications for the subjects and courses they desire to 
pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the successful 
pursuit of these courses is that represented by the completion 

of a standard four-year high school course. In eases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or with- 
out reference to the baccalaureate degrees. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required courses of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses, in accordance with the following 
regulations : 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of Bachelor 
of Science must present evidence of having successfully completed 
courses of study equivalent to the graduating requirements of a 
standard four-year high school. This evidence may be offered by 
either of the following means: 

1. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a course of 
study of four years, and approved by the Committee on 
Matriculation. 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or other ap- 
proved examining boards. 



641 ] Degree of Bachelor of Science 7 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for matricula- 
tion, of which nine are prescribed and six are elective. The subjects 
ill which the prescribed units must be offered are: 

English (three). History {one), Mathematics (Algebra and 
Geometry) {tiro), a Modern Foreign Language (tiro), Sci- 
ence (one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from the fol- 
lowing group, the number of additional units accepted in the several 
prescribed subjects being indicated in parentheses: 

Domestic Science (one) or Manual Training (one), Drawing 
(one), History (one, or tiro), Latin (two, or three, or four), 
Mathematics (one, or one and a half), Modern Foreign Lan- 
guage (tiro, or three, or four), Music (one, or two), Science 
(one, or two), Book-keeping (one), Commercial Arithmetic 
(one), Commercial Geography (one), Commercial Law (one). 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer ap- 
proved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scientific school, 
normal school, training school, or technical school in advance of 
high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are: 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated students, 
namely: 

English, two courses; Foreign Languages, three courses in at 
least two languages; History, one course; Science, one course. 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject and of two 
courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required courses may not 
be counted as part of the work in the major. 

3. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one hundred 
and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of twenty- 
four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The maximum 
credit allowed a student in one summer session is eight points. 



s College Courses for Teachers [642 

By ;i plan of co-operation with the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore, provision has been made whereby candidates for 
the degree who desire to offer a major in art may do so by 

completing the following courses: 

I. Drawing: Freehand drawing, fir-i year, <) hours; drawing from 
the antique, second year, <> hours; still-life and portrait drawing. 
third year. l> or !> hours; life drawing, fourth year, (i or li hours. 

II. Cognate courses: Design, 6 hours, and history of art. 1 hours. 
The first-year drawing may. and the history of ait courses must, be 
taken at the University. The maximum amount of credit allowed 
for drawing is seventeen points. 

The Maryland Institute is also announcing a special 
Normal Art Course for the training of teachers and super- 
visors of art in public schools. Certain courses in education 
at the University form a part of this special course. 

Similar provision has heen made, in co-operation with the 
Peabody Conservatory of Music, of Baltimore, where))}' can- 
didates for the degree who desire to offer a major in music 
may do so by completing at the Conservatory the following 
regular courses : 

Musical literature, history of music, musical pedarrorry. normal 
class, harmony and harmonic analysis, ear training, and at least one 
main branch, as piano, organ, violin, "cello, voice, harmony, or school 
music. The maximum amount of credit allowed for a major in 
music is twenty-three points. Candidates completing a major in 
music may offer more than one main branch. 

CO-OPERATION WITH G01TCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall he given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins Fniversity and Goucher College. In the 
case of women who may desire to become candidates for the 
degree of Rachelor of Arts, it is provided that such credits as 
they may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 
forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by Goucher 
College toward the degree. A similar provision is made by 



643] Degree of Bachelor of Arts; Expenses 9 

the academic department of the Johns Hopkins University 
in the case of those men who desire to proceed to the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. 

THE DEGREE OF BACI^LOR OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1920, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. 

Those who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1920-21, for a detailed statement- of the corresponding re- 
quirements in that institution. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the University upon men only. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is ten dollars a year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout the 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 
hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. 

Students in all other divisions of the University, paying 
full tuition or on scholarship appointment, are permitted to 
register in any courses given in the College Courses for 
Teachers without payment of additional fees, except the regu- 
lar laboratory fees. 

Fees are payable in semi-annual instalments, in October 
and February, at the office of the Treasurer of the University, 
Room 121, Oilman Hall. Before payment of fees can be 
made, applicants must receive from the Registrar a card 
stating the courses to be taken. 



10 College Courses for Teachers [644 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 

of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation is $5, 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. 

JUMBLK-1XN SCHOLARSHIPS 

■ 

The Jumble-Inn Scholarships were established in 1920 by 
the gift of a fund to the University from the Jumble-Inn 
Committee, Mrs. Sunnier A. Parker, Mrs. Walter Wickes, 
Mrs. W. W. Keith, Mrs. James H. Preston. Mrs. Julian 
Ridgeley, Mrs. William McMillan, and Miss Sarah Fischer. 
The income of the fund only is to be used for the benefit of 
women teaching in the elementary public schools of Baltimore 
who are residents of the city, and who are pursuing instruc- 
tion in the College Courses for Teachers as candidates for 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. Preference in every award 
is to he given to those in need of financial assistance in com- 
pleting a college course. Application should he made to the 
President of the University. 

SESSION 

Instruction will begin Monday. October 1. 1920, and close 
on Saturday, May 28, 1921. Each course will include in- 
struction for thirty-two weeks, except as otherwise noted. 
Classroom and laboratory exercises will be given in the after- 
noon and evening from Monday to Friday and on Saturday 
forenoon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual University recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

Classes will be held in the University buildings at Home- 
wood and in certain public school buildings in the city. The 
complete schedule of hours can not be arranged prior to the 
opening of the courses on October 4. In addition to the 
usual afternoon and Saturday forenoon schedule, a number of 
classes will be held in the evenings at 8 o'clock, usually two 
hours in one session. Changes in the hours indicated may be 



645] University Extension Centers 11 

made at the opening in order to meet the convenience of 
students. Where days and hours are omitted, the conveni- 
ence of students will also be considered in arranging the 
schedule. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION CENTERS 

Under a regulation adopted by the Advisory Committee 
on the degree of Bachelor of Science in September, 1917, non- 
laboratory courses announced in the program, for which 
arrangements for instruction can be made, may be conducted 
at centers throughout the State of Maryland. The satisfac- 
tory completion of courses so conducted will be credited 
towards the degree of Bachelor of Science, and, also, will be 
accepted by the State Superintendent of Schools towards the 
renewal, or advancing the grade, of teachers' certificates. 

The general conditions, under which classes will be organ- 
ized at University Extension Centers, call for a minimum 
registration of twenty students, and provision by the local 
class of the place of meeting and the incidental expenses of 
the visiting instructor. Class exercises are to be held weekly 
during the regular session, from October to May. The con- 
ditions of admission and tuition expenses are described on 
pages 6 and 9. 

Since the adoption of the regulation, courses in Education 
have been conducted for both secondary and elementary pub- 
lic school teachers at Salisbury, Frederick, Elkton, Rising 
Sun, and Havre de Grace. County Superintendents of 
Schools and others interested in the organization of classes 
nt University Extension Centers should communicate with 
the Director of the College Courses for Teachers. 

The Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore having 
extended the privilege of using certain of the public school 
buildings for classes in the College Courses for Teachers, the 
University will, within the limits of the schedule of the 
members of the Faculty, undertake the organization of classes 
to meet at convenient centers which may be available in parts 
of the city remote from Homewood. 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer Hum twelve applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficienl demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, an effori will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the baccalaureate 
degrees, which will be allowed for the successful completion 
of each of the following courses, can be determined definitely 
only at the end of the year. 

Art 
1. History of Art. 

a. Ancient Art. 

A general outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and painting 
with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing as seen on 
vases. The development of the different branches of ancient art from 
prehistoric times will he systematically considered and their influence 
cri later art emphasized. Lectures illustrated hy slides, photographs. 
casts and original antiquities. Reports and required reading for 
credit. Books recommended: Reinach's Apollo (Seribner's Sons. 
New York. 1000, .$1.50); Fowler-Wheeler. CJreek Archaeology (Xew 
York, 1000, $2.00). 

Professor Robinson. First half-year. Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

ft. Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval. Renaissance, and Modern 
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, recitations, reports 
on assigned topics. Text hook: Reinach's Apollo. 

Professor Eobinson. Seeond half-year. Tuesday, 8-9.45 
]). m. 

The course on the History of Art must be offered as part of the 
requirement of the major in art. 

12 



647 J Chemistry \:\ 

2. The Art of the Far and the Near East — Oriental Art. 
The course will include the art of Turkey, India, China, and Japan, 

with lectures on Mohammedan and Buddhist art, and on the history 
of oriental architecture, sculpture and painting. 

Professor Robinson. First half-year. Thursday, 8-9.45 p.m. 

3. History of Modern Painting. 

The period studied extends from 1700 to the present. 
Professor Froelicher. First half-year. Tuesday, 8-9.45 
p. m. ; 

4. Roman Life, as illustrated by Latin Literature and the 

Monuments. 
One hour weekly through the year. Professor Robinson. 

5. An Introductory Course in Roman Archaeology and Art. 
One hour weekly through the year. Professor Robinson. 

6. Topography and Monuments of Greece and Asia Minor. 

Centers of Greek and Roman Life. 
Professor Robinson. Wednesday, 4 p. m. 

7. Greek and Roman Vases. 
Professor Robinson. Tuesday, 4 p. m. 

Chemistry 

1. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

Xo previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The work covers 
the general principles and laws of chemistry and a study of the 
more important metallic and non-metallic elements. In the labora- 
tory selected experiments, illustrating the preparation, properties 
and reactions of inorganic substances and the applications of chem- 
ical laws, are performed. 

Professor Gilpin, Messrs. King and Sharp. Lecture, 
8-9.45 p. m. ; and laboratory, 7.30-10 p. m., or Saturday, 9 
a. m.-12 m. 

2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will include chiefly laboratory exercises, with two 
sessions each week. Occasionally a part or all of an evening will be 



14 College Courses for Teachers [648 

devoted to a discussion of the theoretical principles of the reactioni 

being studied. As the laboratory work i- of an individual character, 
an effort will be made to meet the need- of each -indent in the kind 
of work assigned. Practice will be given in the methods of gravi- 
metric and volumetric quantitative analysis. 

Messrs. Kinc and Shaim*. 7.30-10 p. m. 

:). General Organic Chemistry. 

A systematic; course in the general principle-, of organic chemistry 

and the properties and reactions of the paraffin and benzene deriva- 
tives. It will consist of one lecture (two hours) and one laboratory 
period each week. The course will be so arranged as to meet the 
needs of those preparing for the Medical School, the School of 
Hygiene, or advanced work in Dome-tic Science. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 1. 

Professor Gilpin, Messrs. King and Shabp. Lecture, 

8-9.45 p. m., and laboratory, al night, or Saturday. 9 a. m.- 
12 m. 

Laboratory fee: $15.00 for each course, in addition to 
breakage. 

Drawing 

The instruction in this course in freehand drawing aims to impart 
such knowledge of the principles of drawing as shall give students 
the ability to represent natural objects correctly. 

This course may be offered as the first -year requirement of the 
major in art. 

Mr. Whiteman. Six hours weekly. Monday, Tuesday. 
Wednesday, Thursday, 2-5 p. m. 

Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course presents in outline the history of Education, tracing 
the development of those ideas, practices and institutions of the past 
which have been most effective in determining the essential features 
and problems of education in the present. The work is based on 
Monroe's " Textbook in the History of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 



649] Education 15 

2. Principles of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education undertakes a study of 
education with a view to understanding the work of the school and 
the mental and social factors in individual development. 

Professor Buchner. Tuesday, 4.20-6 p. m. 

3. Educational Psychology. 

This course treats of mental development and the psyeliologieal 
basis of educational theory and practice, and includes the special 
psychology of interest, work, practice, childhood and adolescence, 
learning, and the various school subjects. A survey of the recent 
studies in educational psychology is made, and attention is given to 
the class-room values of mental measurements. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

4. Principles of Teaching and Special Methods in 
Secondary School Subjects. 

The first part of this course presents the principles underlying 
the method of instruction and class-room management, and includes 
such topics as habit formation, the laws of learning, and the nature 
of the thinking process. 

During the second part of the course application of these prin- 
ciples is made to the problems of teaching the subjects in secondary 
courses of study. 

Professor Buchner, Miss Bamberger, and Dr. Wegletn. 
Two hours a week. 

5. Secondary School Organization and Class-Kooin 
Management. 

This course deals with some of the principal topics related to 
the organization and administration of secondary schools, such as: 
The historical development and function of the American high 
school; comparisons with secondary schools in other countries; the 
main problems connected with the program of studies; the junior 
high school; extra-class-room activities; supervised study; methods 
of instruction. 

Reports and discussion of observation of class-room and other 
secondary school activities. 

Dr. Weulein. Friday, 4.10 p. m. 



K; College Courses for Teachers [650 

6. Special Problema in Secondary Education. 

A consideration of recoil investigations in the field of secondary 
education. 
Dr. WegleiN. Tuesday and Friday, 5.10 p. m. 

7. The .Junior Bigh School. 

The reorganization of education, historical survey of the junior 
high school, articulation of junior high Bchools with elementary 
schools and with senior high schools, provision for individual differ- 
ences, programs of study, problems of administration and super- 
vision. 

Dr. Weglein. Tuesday. 4.10 p. m. Western High School. 
Room 103. 

8. The Teaching of English Composition in the Junior 

High School. 

The course includes a consideration of the grammar program for 
ihe junior high school, the grammar of use. fundamentals, mini- 
mum essentials; of spelling; of oral expression, with suggestions 

for voice training; of written expression, with emphasis on the sen- 
tence in relation, and the letter; the use of the project, imitation, 
and dramatization as devices for vitalizing the composition course; 
the correction of written work; the conference; teste. Specimens 
of current work in the class-room are used as illustrative material. 

NOTE.— This course will be given for the minimum registration of 
twenty. 

Miss Simons. Friday. 3.15-5.30 p. m. Western High 
School, Room 101. 

9. The Teaching of Mathematics in the Junior High 
School. 

This course offers special consideration of the problems in teach- 
ing arithmetic, algebra, and geometry in the junior high school based 
upon courses of study, texts, and current reports. Attention is given 
to the diagnostic values of mathematical tests, from the teacher's 
point of view. 

Note. — This course will be given for the minimum registration of 
twenty-five. 

Dr. Rorer. Saturday, 10 a. m.-12 m. 



<>51 | Education 17 

10. Elementary Education. 

This course includes the study of the principles and aims under- 
lying elementary education. Among the topics to be discussed are: 
An examination of the social needs for subject-matter in each of the 
school subjects; the organization of the problems and materials of 
this subject-matter in response to the mental development of pupils; 
the classification of pupils and provision for individual differences; 
formulating of programs; proper methods of study; and measuring 
the results of teaching. 

For those Interested in problems of supervision, a third period may 
be arranged, in which additional topics will be considered. The work 
in supervision is an optional additional hour, and may be offered 
for extra credit. 

Recitations will be observed with regard to method followed and 
the conduct of study periods will receive attention. Reports based 
on the observation of class-room work will be handed in from time 
to time. 

Associate Professor Bamberger. Saturday. 9.15-11 a. m. 

11. Elementary School Organization and Class-room 
Management. 

This course treats of the principles of teaching with special refer- 
ence to the conditions of organization and management under the 
control of the teacher. Such topics will be included as: Teacher's 
arrangement of material; organization of the school; flexible group- 
ing of children; daily schedule; types of seat work; supervision of 
seat work; discussion of scales for measuring the achievement of 
pupils; program making; judgment of text books. Observations, 
discussions and reports will be required. 

Associate Professor Bamberger. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.- 
1 p. m. 

12. Experimental Education. 

This course deals with educational measurements and tests and 
includes a comparative study of investigations in educational re- 
search. Attention is given to methods of attacking educational 
problems in the fields of standardized scales and surveys of pupil 
achievements in school subjects and of rating the intelligence of 
school children, with special reference to the application of results 
to the control of instruction and the organization of schools. Re- 
search will be undertaken in problems in either elementary or sec- 
ondary education selected according to the chief interests of indi- 
vidual students. 

Professor Buchner. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.-l p. m. 



IS College Courses for 7 '('(tellers \_Q52 

Knglish 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include a review of the essentials of usage, tin- 
study of the principles of structure and style, and frequent practice 
in writing. Weekly themes will be required; these will lie returned 

wit 1 1 written criticism. 

Mr. Litz. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 \>. m. 

2. American Literature. 

(a) During the first half-year American narrative and lyric verse 
studied with particular reference to the significance of literary types. 

(h) During the second half-year, a -imilar Btudy of American 
prose, including the essay, the novel, and the short story. 

Throughout the course literary history and hiography will he 
dealt with incidentally. Opportunity for critical writing will he 
provided. 

Associate Professor French. Tuesday and Thursday, 

5.10 p. m. 

3. The Appreciation. of Poetry. 

A study of the leading types of poetry, chiefly English, such as 
drama, lyric, epic, hallad, nineteenth century novels in verse, and 
other kinds of narrative poetry; seventeenth and eighteenth century 
philosophical and journalistic verse. A hook of selections will he 
used, supplemented by outside reading. 

Professor Hopkins. Tuesday. 7.45-9.30 p. m. 

4. Shakespeare. 

A special study of the following plays: Othello, Henry V, Antony 
and Cleopatra, The Winter's Tale, and Troilus and Cressida. 

Professor Kuhl. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

5. Modern and Contemporary Drama. 

A course in appreciation and criticism of the drama, and a study 
of its technique. The survey comprises representative plays from 
the founding of modern British drama, through the British School 
of Sincerity, and will include the New Movement in the drama. 
Continental dramatists are studied and compared, and the funda- 
mental laws of technique underlying the development of all drama 



653] French 11) 

are shown. Typical plays of representative American dramatists, 
from Bronson Howard through Clyde Fitch, Moody, Mackaye, to 
Eugene O'Neil are to be analyzed. Some attention is given to the 
principles of stage-structure, scenic design, and lighting. 

Other dramatists studied will be Pinero, Barrie, Shaw, Galsworthy, 
Granville Barker, Arnold Bennett, St. John Ervine, Dunsaney, and 
the Irish School. Plays of Continetal dramatists, Hauptmann, Ros- 
tand, Brieux, Maeterlinck, Giacosa, Chekov, and Schnitzler, will be 
read in English translation. 

Mrs. Speare. Saturday, 10 a. m.-12 m. 

G. Anglo- Saxon. 

An introductory course, offered in the English Seminary, with 
lectures on the Germanic and Indogermanic relationship of the 
language. 

Professor Bright. Friday, 3-5 p. m. 

French 

1. French Elements. 

a. Grammar: — Fraser and Squair, French Grammar. 

b. French Texts: — Monvert, La belle France; Labiche et Martin, 
he Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon; About, La Mere de la Marquise; 
Augier et Sandeau, he Gendre de Monsieur Poirier ; Daudet, Contes; 
Moliere, h'Avare; Sand, La Mare an DiaMe; Maupassant, Contes 
Clioisis; France, La Livre de mon Ami; Merimee, Carmen and other 
8 lories; Bowen, French Lyrics. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study of French 
and aims to impart a good reading knowledge of the language. It 
includes pronunciation, composition, and translation. Upon the suc- 
cessful completion of the course the student receives credit for one 
course if offered as college work; if offered for matriculation, it 
absolves the requirements in French. Medical students completing 
this course absolve the requirements in French of candidates for 
admission to the Medical School. 

Mr. Merrill. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.30-6 p. m. 

2. French Elements. 

In case of sufficient demand, a night class similar to French I, or 
in advance thereof, will be organized. 

Mr. Merrill. Monday and Wednesday, 8-9.30 p. m. 



20 College ('nurses for Teachers [654 

-'}. French Elements. 

This course is planned for students beginning the -tnd\ of French. 
It includes grammar, pronunciation, composition, and translation. 

Dr. Dulac. Monday, L10-6 p. m. Western High School, 
Lloom 101. 

4. Intermediate French. 

This course provides for a continuation of grammar, pronuncia- 
tion, composition, translation, and conversation based on reading and 

(in-rent expressions and idioms. 

Dr. Dulac. Thursday, L10-6 p. m. Western High 
School, Room 101. 

5. French Reading. 

A course in French reading, grammar, and composition, for 

students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. The texts will he 
chosen from modern authors, and the exercises in composition will 
he of a practical nature. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

6. Practical French. 

Practical exercises in spoken French. The nature of this course 
will depend upon the previous training of those who wish to follow 
it. It is intended, however, primarily for those who desire to in- 
crease their knowledge of practical modern French. 

Dr. Dulac. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

The following graduate courses arc open to those with ade- 
quate preparation, the hours to be arranged on Saturday or 
an afternoon: 

7. The Realistic Novel. 

Professor Chinard. One hour a week. 

8. Explication de textes: les Parnassiens. 
Professor Chinard. One hour a week. 

9. Nineteenth Century Drama. 
Professor Lancaster. One hour a week. 



655] German; History 21 

German 

1. German Elements. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the study of 
German or who have had a partial introduction to the language. 
The work will include the principles of grammar, pronunciation, 
translation, and composition. Upon the successful completion of the 
work, the student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the requirements in 
German. Medical students completing this course absolve the re- 
quirements in German of candidates for admission to the Medical 
School. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Three hours a week. 

2. (A) German Reading. 

Modern prose readings with exercises in prose composition. Such 
writers as Storm, Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, Arnold, Schurz, etc., will 
be read. This course corresponds to collegiate German 1, and, if 
satisfactorily completed, will be credited accordingly. The two hours 
of literature and the one hour of composition may be taken jointly 
cr separately. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Three hours a week. 

Or, 

(B) German Literature. 

1. Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. 
October to February 15. 

2. Gottfried Keller. 

February 15 to the end of the year. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Two hours a week. 

History 

1. A. Recent United States History. 

This course covers the period from the Civil War to the present. 
It supplements by means of a more detailed study the survey course 
of United States history from 1783-1883. Especial emphasis is laid 
upon economic developments and their bearing upon domestic politics. 
The evolution of the foreign policy of the United States is traced 
in detail. 

Or, 

B. History of the United States, 1783-1883. 



22 College Courses for Teachers \ <"»."»(; 

A survey of the political, social and economic historj of tin- United 
States during the ftrsl centurj of national development. A syllabus 
will be provided and no single text-book will be used. 

Professor Gallagher. Monday, 8-9.45 a. m. 

2. Contemporary European History: Development of 
Slavonic Europe. 

This course offers a study of Slavonic origins and early institu- 
lions. Slavonic migrations and settlement, and the general progress 
of each of the national Slavonic groups. During each historical 
period, the economic problems, and the social and intellectual accom- 
plishments of each nation will be followed, as well as the political 
and constitutional developments. Special emphasis is laid upon the 
domestic and foreign policies of imperial Russia, and the causes of 
the revolutionary movements of L905 t<> 1!»17. 

The course is conducted by lectures, reference reading, and class 
reports. 

Professor Gallagher. Thursday, L10-6 p. m. Western 

High School, Poom 103. 

Italian 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a reading 
knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronunciation. Prose 
composition will begin as ><><>n as the most elementary part of the 
grammar has been mastered. The following text books will be used: 
Phelps, Italian Grammar; Wilkins and Altrocchi, Italian Short 
stories; Collodi, Lc Avventure <li Pvnocchio. 

Dr. Gruenbaum. Thursday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

Journalism 

The Principles and Practice of Journalism. 

This course of lectures on, journalism and practical exercises in 
newspaper work includes discussions of the journalistic styles, news 
stories, the reporter and his work, the departments of a modern 
newspaper, and the technical processes of publication. 

The course is given in co-operation with The Sun. Baltimore. 
Students are offered an opportunity to study the making of a news- 
paper in practice, to use the plant of The Sun as a laboratory for 
such study, and to write under the direction and criticism of a 
member of its editorial staff. 

Mr. Porter. Wednesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 



657] Lat in; Mathematics; Oriental Seminar;/ 23 

Latin 

1. Classical Literature. 

A series of lectures on great representative authors of classical 
literature from Homer to the Second Century A. D. Special atten- 
tion will be given to certain aspects of formal and artistic develop- 
ment and to the growth and influence of literary tradition. 

The course will require the reading in translation of the authors 
studied. A previous knowledge of Greek and Latin is desirable, but 
not essential. 

Professor Mustard. Two hours a week, 5 p. m. 

2. Vergil and Horace. 

The Seminary in Vergil and Horace is open to teachers and others 
with adequate preparation. 

Professor Prank. Thursday, 4-6 p. m. 

Mathematics 

Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry. 
Prerequisites: Plane Geometry and Algebra. 
Professor Hulburt. Two periods a week. 

Oriental Seminary 

The following courses in oriental history, literature, and 
archaeology, offered in the Oriental Seminary, presuppose no 
knowledge of the Hehrew or Greek languages: 

1. Interpretation of Selected Chapters of the Authorized 
Version. 

Professor Haupt. Wednesday, 5 p. m. 

2. The Literature of the Old Testament (with special 
reference to date and authorship). 

Dr. Dougherty. Wednesday, 4 p. m. 

3. History of the Ancient East (Egypt, Bahylonia, Assy- 
ria, Persia, Israel and Judah, preceded by a sketch of the 
Prehistoric Period). 

Dr. Blake. Friday, 5 p. m. 



24 College Courses for Teachers [658 

1. Historical Geography of Palestine. 

Dr. Albbight. Monday, 5 p. m. 

5. Biblical Archaeology (Egypt, Babylonia, Palestine). 
Dr. Albbight. Tuesday, 5 p, m. 

6. The Religions of Western Asia. 
Dr. Albbight. Thursday, 5 p. m. 

Philosophy 

1. Social Ethics. 

After a preliminary survey of the beginnings and growth of 

morality, study will be made of the principles of social ethics in 
application to the whole system of organised social relations. — the 
state, economic order, and the family. 

Dr. Slonimsky. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

2. Contemporary Philosophy. 

A discrimination and criticism of some of the major motive- of 
present-day philosophy and their appearance in popular thought and 
in literature and art. The doctrines of several philosophers may he 
examined in more detail: James. Royce. Bradley. Santayana. 
Russell, and Bergson. 

Mr. Hammond. Thursday. 8-9.45 p. m. 

Political Science 

The Government of Modern States. 

This course will deal with the principles of free government, the 
problems which have arisen in connection with the application of 
these principles, and the manner in which these problems have been 
met by the United States. CJreat Britain, and the leading European 
countries. 

Mr. Thach. Wednesday and Friday. 4.10 p. m. 

Psychology 

1. Introduction to Scientific Psychology. 
A study of the human mind in relation to the activities of the 
organism. Special attention will be given to the neural basis of 



659] Russian 25 

consciousness, the development of perception, habit-formation, in- 
stinct, emotion, and will. 

Associate Professor Johnson. Thursday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

2. Social Psychology. 

The course undertakes a survey of the psychological factors in- 
volved in social relations. Such topics are considered as the primary 
instincts and emotions, imitation and suggestion, efficiency and its 
evaluation, the family group, and the social function of religion. 

The course will be given only for a minimum registration of 
fifteen. 

Professor Dunlap. Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

3. Problems in Social Psychology. 

Reports and discussions of selected topics chosen by the members 
of the class. The course is open only to students who have satis- 
factorily completed Psychology 2. 

Professor Dunlap. Hours to be arranged. 

Students who satisfy the instructor as to their preparation may 
bo enrolled in the course in the Psychology of Childhood announced 
in the list of graduate courses. See Register for 1919-1920. 



Russian 



1. Russian Language. 



This course will include instruction in elementary grammar, col- 
loquial and written Russian. Practical exercises will be based on 
standard prose works. 

Mr. Breit. Friday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

2. Russian Civilization and Literature. 

a. The first half-year is devoted to a study of the historical devel- 
opment of Russian culture in its educational, economic, ethical and 
intellectual aspects from the beginning of Russia as a national entity 
to the present time. 

&. The second half-year offers a survey of Russian literature in its 
historical development from the period of the oral ballads and lyrics 
to present-day writers, special attention being given to the classical 
writers. 

This course does not require a knowledge of the Russian language. 

Mr. Breit. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 



20 College Courses for Teacher* [660 

Spanish 

1. Spanish Elements. 

a. Fuentes and Francois, 1 Practical Spanish Grammar} oral and 
written exerci 

b. Hills, Spanish Tales for Begmn&rs; Alan-on, El Capitdn \ eneno; 
Palacio Valdes, La Hermana San Sulpicio. 

A course intended f<>i beginners. Upon successful completion of 
this course the student receives credit for one course if offered as 
college work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the require- 
ments in Spanish. 

Mr. Cabello. Wednesday and Friday. 4.10 p. in. 

2. Practical Spanish. 

A practical course in Spanish lor those who have had tin- elements 
of the language, and who desire to gain a broader knowledge of the 
literature, together with facility in speaking and writing Spanish. 

Mr. Cabello. Wednesday and Friday. 5.10 p. ni. 

3. Spanish Literature. 

Explanation of the texts of short stories by modern Spanish 
authors. Pedro de Repide. La voz dc la conseja (three volumes). 

Mr. Cabello. Monday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 



Attendants on the College Courses for Teachers, 1919- 
1920, 633. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 
1919-1920 

Edited by David M. Kobinson, Secretary 



The University Philological Association meets on the third 
Friday of every month at 11.30 a. m. At the meeting on May 
19, 1916, it was voted that abstracts of the minor communi- 
cations and of the principal papers should be printed in the 
Johns Hopkins University Circular, as was the custom in the 
early days of the Association. 

In accordance with this resolution the Secretary has secured 
abstracts so far as he could from the readers themselves, and 
with their help has prepared the material for publication in 
the Circular, as has been done the last four years. 

Three hundred and thirty-fourth meeting 
October 17, 1919 

President Collitz made some introductory remarks on the 
history and purpose of the Association and on the value of 
the study of Latin and Greek, referring especially to Professor 
PitzHugh\s recent pamphlet on the Letters of Thomas Jeffer- 
son and the Classics. Professor Haupt then presented a minor 
communication on The Partitions of the Babylonian Ark. 

The ship of the Babylonian Noah had six floors (ruJcbeti = 
ruqpeti) or decks between the roof and the bottom, and nine trans- 
verse partitions, so that there were seventy compartments; see my 
explanation of 11. 57-80 of the Flood tablet in Actes du Seizieme 
Congres International des Orientalist es, Athens, 1912, p. 72. The 
Assyrian equivalent of the Sumerian ideogram for compartments 
(Heb. qinnim, Gen. G, 14) is unknown, but the characters gi-sa-ma- 
du-mes mean reed + nctioorlc 4- ship + structure + plural. The par- 

27 



28 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [6«2 

lit ions consisted of a network of reeds. If these wattled hurdle- 
were coated with asphalt [cf. Gen. 6, 14; 11, 3; ESxod. 2. '.'»} the\ 
constituted watertight bulkheadf, 10 thai tome of the compartment - 

could be used for storage of water, oil, &c. Thii construction cor- 
responded, in some respects, to our modern concrete ship-. The 

Babylonian Noah says that he poured six Mrs (about 1,680,000 gal- 
lons) of asphalt into the pitch pot i Syr. Kara, karija ; .JA<>S 'M , 
322, n. II). 1 

Round basket-boats coated with asphalt are <till used on the 
Euphrates and Tigris (MIA .'{.3, 434; cf. fig. 131 in Bonomi'g Nine- 
veh and its Palaces and pp. 515. 7<>7. 745 of Maspero's Damn of 
Civilization). The Babylonians had also basket-pots (Syr. leaf aria 
=sAssyr. karpatu) i. e. vessels of basket-work made water-tight with 
asphalt (fMI/N 33, 433). In e. 7 of his Popular Account of Dis- 
coveries <il Nineveh Layard gives a picture of a wicker hridge across 
the Zah near Lizan (NE of Mosul): stake- are firmly fastened 
together with twigs forming a long hurdle reaching from one side 
of the river to the other. The huts of the native laborers employed 
during the German excavations at the ancient capital of Assyria, 
Kal'at Shergdt (S of Mosul) consisted of mats of rushes; the mod- 
ern Babylonian carifah is an arched structure of reeds and reed- 
mats fenced in witli reeds (.TAOS 32, 7). On p. 92 of his Travels 
and Researches in Chaldea and Susiana (1857) Loftus describes the 
reed-palace of an Affej chief in iSouth Babylonia; this building was 
forty feet long and eighteen feet high; it was said to be half a 
century old. The medieval Irish houses were built chiefly of wattles 
and wicker-work. 2 just as the walls of the prehistoric Swiss lake- 
dwellings were formed of clay-daubed wattle-work (EB 11 14.768; 
10, 92; 7, 378). 

In the cuneiform account of the Flood a reed-hut is called qiqqi&u, 
a reduplicated form of Heb. qa$, straw. French cliaume (=Lat. 
calamus, culmus; Eng. halm, haulm) denotes not only strain, but 
also a straw-cabin (French chaumicre. chauminc) . Cabin is de- 
rived from Lat. cabanna, hut of watchmen in a vineyard, which is a 
transposition of canaba, booth, especially the booth of a sutler fol- 
lowing the Roman legions. French cabana ge denotes a camp of 
Indians. Another variation of canaba (cannaba. canava. canapa, 
lanaba)* is caupona, tavern, which appears in Greek as Kairr\\elov. and 






'For the abbreviations see Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 38, 
p. 142. — MIA = Modern Language Notes. 

2 Cf. Greek yeppov, French ramce, Lat. trichila, tricla. trellis, 
bower, arbor, summer-house. 

3 Cf. Ital. capanna, Span, cabana. 



<i<;:|| P, Hani'/ 29 

in German as Kneipe. Cabaret stands for cabanet, just as KairrjXeiov 
is a modification of ^Kairaveiov, Kafiaveiov. Also Ger. Kaufmann (Eng. 
chapman) is connected with Lat. caupo, Greek KairrjXos, Heb. Adn&od- 

m. All these words are ultimately derived from Heb. hanut, shop, 
originally vcmJt (JAOS 28, 110; cf. also 37, 316 and BL 132). 

Ger. Hiitte (syn. Schanze, Kampanje) denotes the cabin in the 
stern of a ship. The officers living there were therefore called 
Jfiittengiistc. The primary connotation- of hut is basket. French 
hutte (=Ger. Hiitte) is a hut, and hotte ( = Ger. Hotte, Swiss 
Huttc) denotes a basket or panier. Ger. Kajiite, cabin of a ship, 
is the French Canute, hovel. Kabine (French cabine, cabane) is 
used in German for stateroom, also for what is called in English 
seaside-resorts a bathing-machine, i. e. a wheeled bath-house that 
may be drawn out into the water. Other German terms for state- 
room are Kammer (=> Kafiapa. vault)* and Koje, a byform of Kane 
(— Lat. cavca, cage; cf. cavus, hollow) which denotes a hut of a 
woodman or mountaineer. Kojen is used also for bunks or sleeping- 
berths in ships. 

The Assyrian equivalent of the Sumerian ideogram for wattled 
partitions may have been massaku, chamber, from sakdku, to inter- 
weave (JBL 37, 228, 1. 4). 5 From the same stem we have in Hebrew : 
sukkd. hut, 6 and mosdk (not musak) — massak. compartment, stall, 
box; see Kings (SBOT) 250, 27. In Assyrian, sukku denotes the 
revetment of the bank of a canal, because mats or fascines were 
used for this purpose. Also for Heb. musak, cover (GB 16 440) we 
must read mosdk, mat, textile fabric. Tn Prov. 23, 2 iakkin is mis- 
written for sakkon, muzzle, i. e. a basket of rope-netioork around the 
jaws (JBL 33, 200). We must render there, not Put a knife to thy 
throat (Graec. Venet. /ecu drfceis uaxcu'pioj' ev eanaaei gov) but Put 
a muzzle on thy jaw (Heb. 16'; Assyr. laxu; cf. Arab. ni'). Maski- 
yoth lebdb (Ps. L 73, 4) means webs of the wit. The original signifi- 
cation of Ethiop. maskot, window (which is not identical with Arab. 
miskdt, niche for the reception of a. lamp) is lattice, and the primary 
connotation of Syr. sd kki, to look for, is to look through the lattices 
(Eccl. 12, 3). 

The last three lines of the description of the construction of the 
Babylonian Ark mean: The gangways were steep; when the com- 
partments were filled- (Arab, hdbila) above and below, she drew 140 
feet of water. 



4 Cf. Span, camara, camarote; Ttal. eamerino. 

5 Cf. GB">« sub mag gal, sickle, and maSSdq, running. 

6 The Feast of Tabernacles (Heb, hag has-sukkot) is called in 
Spanish: fiesta de las cabanas. 



30 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [664 

Professor Collitz then read the principal paper on The 
Causes of Phon etic Change. 

Language serving ae a system of tools, as it wen-, for the titter* 
ance of sentiments and thoughts, there will naturally be ;i tendency 
to improve these tools bj making alteration! whenever they do not 
seem to answer the purpose of unmistakable and adequate expression. 

It is from this utilitarian point of view that the hulk of changes 
in languages — as far at Leas! as words and forms are concerned- 
must he and may be understood, notwithstanding the fact that 
grammarians and Lexicographers are generally inclined to give the 
preference to the unchanged forms, bo as to brand subsequent altera- 
tions as the result of misunderstanding or confusion. This holds 
true, e.g., with regard to all instances of so-called "popular 
etymology." Words Like Engl, sparrowgrass, female, or Ger. Armbruat, 
no doubt, were intended as improvements on the earlier forms 
asparagus, femell (=Lat. femeUa), arbrost (= French arbaleste) , 
altho they are referred to in the dictionaries as corruptions. There 
is no reason why we should not accept them as legitimate instances 
of linguistic transformation. 

The theory we advocate must not be interpreted as meaning that 
the members of a speaking community are fully aware of the part 
they are playing in the development of the language. We may take 
it for granted that the individual is always satisfied with choosing 
what appears to him as the proper form of expression. The fact, 
however, that he is left to make his own choice implies that he 
cannot help taking a share in shaping the tool he is using for the 
purpose of communicating with his fellow-beings. He will, of course, 
decide in favor of that form which appears to him preferable, and 
his decision, though not necessarily the result of deliberate reflection, 
will not generally be made without a proper knowledge of the perti- 
nent facts. The individual, e. g., addressing his friend as Tom, is 
without doubt aware of the fact that his friend's Christian name is 
Thomas; yet the flavor, as it were, of the two forms being different, 
he has good reasons for preferring the shorter form. Or, to quote 
another example, the individual using the short forms Frisco or 
Balmore 1 may be supposed to be acquainted with the "correct" 
geographical names, but prefers a dissyllabic to the polysyllabic 
form. 

Will it be possible to apply the same principle to the so-called 



1 Though seldom found in print, Balmore is, as every Baltimorean 
knows, the favorite popular form for Baltimore. 



665] H. Collitz :)\ 

phonetic change or sound-change? The answer to this question will 
largely depend on our attitude toward the much debated problem of 
the nature of the so-called phonetic laws. Some fifty years ago it 
seemed possible to regard phonetic change generally as the result of 
an " economy of effort," i. e., of " the tendency to make the work of 
utterance easier to the speaker " ( Whitney, Language and the Study 
of Language, N. Y., 1867, p. 69). This theory was contested, with 
plausible reasons, by E. 'Sievers, Grundziige der Phonetik (Lpz., 
1876), p. 126 (=5. Aufl., 1901, p. 268). The classification of 
phonetic changes, however, suggested by Sievers as a substitute for 
the opinion he rejects, serves less to explain the underlying causes 
than the outward forms of phonetic change. 

Nor can it be said that an agreement as to the causes of phonetic 
change has been reached otherwise. In fact, we can hardly expect 
to arrive at a satisfactory explanation of these causes as long as 
the current theory of the nature of phonetic laws is adhered to. This 
theory has remained largely the same as suggested by Brugmann 
and Osthoff in the preface of their Morphologische Untersuchungen, 
vol. i (Leipzig, 1878), to the effect that phonetic laws should be 
looked at, as regards their scope, as dialect-laws, and as regards 
their nature, as mechanical laws. A mechanical element, no doubt, 
enters largely into the make-up of every phonetic law, because these 
laws are so intimately connected with the mechanism of the organs 
of speech that a phonetic change necessarily implies a change in the 
working of this mechanism. We must be careful, however, not to 
confound a change in mechanism with a change of a purely mechani- 
cal nature or with a change made for mechanical reasons. The work- 
ing of the mechanism of speech rests after all on human will-power 
and is, moreover, as a means of mutual communication, subject to 
the control of a social community. While the so-called phonetic laws, 
then, appear as mechanical law r s at the surface, their origin must be 
sought rather in the mental disposition of the speaker and in his 
association with other individuals. 

Due allowance is made for psychical and social factors in the 
elaborate effort to ascertain the causes of phonetic change made by 
Professor Oertel in his Lectures on the Study of Language (N\ Y., 
1902), pp. 189-273. Yet little probably is gained by Oertel's distinc- 
tion between ultimate and immediate causes and by his attempt to 
separate the latter into causes of a mechanical or psychical or social, 
etc., nature, so as to assign every phonetic change to but one of 
these categories. As a matter of fact, every phonetic law means a 
complication of physical, psychical, mid social processes. While 
within certain limits an attempt to analyze the various factors 
participating in the phenomena of phonetic change may prove instruc- 



32 Philological A ssociation, 1919-1920 [666 

live, yet our main task obviously should be to explain their con 

ccitcd action toward a common goal. It if, in other wor<! 
thetical rather than an analytical procedure that promises to he 
successful. 

My own attitude toward the problem in question has been briefly 
stated in a review of the ftrsl volume of Morpholog. I *t0P$UCh. in 
the Anzeiger f. dt. Mi., vol. v MsT't), p. 320ff. In opposing the 
explanation of phonetic change on a strictly mechanical basil I 
advanced the theory thai phonetic law- are primarily the result of 
articulators fashions, and that the general adoption of such fashions 
by a social community involves a more or less conscious choice 
between a former and a new fashion of pronunciation. A few yearu 
later this theory found an advocate in the late professor i'ricdri-'h 
Mttller of Vienna — in an article " Sind die Lautgesetze Naturge- 
set/x'? " (Techmer's Zeitschr. /'. lUlgem. Spfachw., vol. i. 1884, pp. 
318-321) — who, however, was not apparently aware of the fact that 
in assigning phonetic laws to the sphere of fashions he had any 
predecessor. 

A more detailed exposition of this theory and of its relation to 
the general principle governing changes in language must he reserved 
for a later occasion. 

Three hundred and thirty-fifth meeting 

November 21, 1910 

Professor Bright presented a minor communication on The 

Individuality of Speech. 

No two individual members of the same family, or of the same 
community — and it follows, of the same state or nation — speak their 
common language in identically the same manner. Since Paul's 
Prlncipien this truth has been made especially prominent in linguistic 
philosophy. This diversity in individual speech relates to inevitable 
peculiarities by which one person is distinguished from another. But 
whatever falls under this head of personal peculiarities in speech 
does not invalidate the conception of a theoretic norm, a standard- 
form of the language spoken. All that is peculiar to the speech of 
any one taken separately may be summed up as being his own set 
of linguistic reactions to environment and education. These reactions 
reflect the character of his mind and temperament. Tho obviously 
true that a man maintains an individuality in speech just as he 
maintains an individuality in appearance and in character, it is the 
purpose in this brief communication to fix attention on the linguistic 
fact, so well recognized in the science of language, that no one speaks 



667] -/• W. Bright 33 

exactly as another, and on the concomitant fact that, in strictness, 
no one speaks as he pleases. These truths are verifiable in one's own 
experience and, under the severest tests of a homogeneous, cultivated 
community. 

Cyrano de Bergerac has reported that the people of the Moon do 
not possess articulate language; that they communicate with each 
other by means of other devices. The simpler classes employ move- 
ments of the hands, fingers, arms, eyes, lips, and of the feet; but the 
higher classes have an inarticulate language of the voice and, inter- 
changeable with this, a conventionalized use of sounds and phrases 
of sound produced on musical instruments. With the use of musical 
instruments a discussion of ah important topic may be carried on 
by a dozen or more people, and the effect is described as being ' the 
most harmonious consent of music,' a symphony of agreeable sounds. 
But even on the Moon it must be true that no one can play better 
than in his own way, however much he may please to do so; better, 
that is to say, than is made possible by his own attainments in the 
use of the instrument. Here is an analogy that makes manifest the 
relation of the practical to the artistic use of language. The equa- 
tion holds that the reported practical use of music is related to 
music as a fine art just as the practical art of speech is related to 
the fine art of literature. The possible approximation of the practical 
to the artistic use of language will vary — this is the teaching of the 
analogy — with every individual in a community, the variation, in 
each instance, reflecting the peculiar conditions in which the ' mother 
tongue ' has been acquired, and the manner in which it has been 
cultivated at school and in the freer years of self-discipline. 

There are, then, three chapters in the history of the acquisition 
and use of one's vernacular tongue. The subject of the first chapter 
is the dependent imitation of childhood and the iterated admonitions 
of the family, to which is added the initial and elementary training 
of the school; the second chapter reports the school teaching grammar 
and rhetoric and inculcating a sense for conscious advancement in 
the art of speech and writing; and the final chapter discloses the 
attitude of the mature man to his language. 

It is not using a figurative statement to declare that to speak is 
to employ a practical art. The designation is true, and by direct 
implication it puts the right stress on the process of acquiring and 
cultivating one's mother tongue, and on that personal variation 
which is inevitable in the practice of any art whatsoever. 

Obviously enough, thus far the argument by analogy does not 
completely exhibit the nature of the practical art of speech, for this 
art differs from all other arts because of its function in the develop- 
ment of the mind and in the determination of personality. The 



:;i Philological Association, 1919-1920 [668 

argument by analogy may, however, be continued by turning from 

the arts to the study of the human will. 

The moralist contents himself and his purpose justifies him in 
doing so — with the practical tenet lhat every man is wholly respon- 
sible in the exercise of his will. EpictetUB may he named to repre- 
sent this empirical view that the only thing a man can truly call 
his own is his will. On the other hand. M. de Bon SXgues biologically 
and psychologically that the character of the individual will is the 

result of the operation of the law of hal.it ual responses, from child- 
hood onward, to the impacts of experience, and consequently becomes 
established as the inevitable rule of conduct; in other words, that 
the will is the least voluntary of the agencies in the life of the 
individual man. To borrow an expression used in another connection 
by Mr. Wilson Folld [Bwrper's Vagaame, Oct., 1019, p. 700), "One 
can do only what one is." 

Now, the acquisition of the mother tongue is a process that is 
psychologically similar to the concurrently gradual fixation of habit 
in responses to the impacts of experience — the habit called the will. 
And both results agree in begetting the common conviction that one 
possesses something that is as undeniably only one'a own as is the 
possession of a physical feature. The conviction is unassailable, and 
the quoted expression may be reapplied in the form c one can speak 
only in one's own manner,' with the addition that in personal appear- 
ance one can be only what one is. 

The ethical view of the empirical freedom of the will does not 
contradict the genetic theory. It merely accepts the will of adoles- 
cent and of maturer years and insists on the conscious cultivation 
of it. So, too, personal appearance may within limits be, let us say, 
tutored; and there is surely a wide margin for the cultivation of 
one's so-called ' inherited speech.' 

The outline has thus been sketched of the argument that speech 
is a practical art; and that this art differs from all other arts by 
being acquired not only as an art, but also as a condition of the life 
of the mind, somewdiat as the will is acquired as a condition of 
personal character. It follows that the characteristics of the indi- 
vidual mind and disposition or temperament constitute an organic 
tie between personal character (in the broadest ethical sense) and 
personal manner of speech. 

The manner of using one's native tongue is therefore an acquisition 
that is so intimately interwoven with all that makes for personality 
as to be not only inseparable from it. but also governed by it. But 
on the most external side of this peculiar art. there is a tuargin for 
individual independence or caprice in manner — a margin that is 
easily misunderstood to be wider than it is. Empirically tested, no 



GG9] •/. W. Bright; Morris -las/row; Tenney Frank 35 

isolated caprice, or innovation, or affectation lias more than a negli- 
gible effect on the speech of an individual, who must speak essentially 
his own language. This may undergo changes due to lapsing into 
careless or bad habits; or by submission to the influences of farther 
cultivation which proceeds by stages from the Correction and refine- 
ment of colloquial use, into the higher style of formal discourse, and 
finally into the fine art of literature. But whether the quality of 
his language-art rises or falls, according to environment and other 
influences, it still as truly as before represents himself and holds 
him under the law of his personality. It is his complete self that 
speaks at any one time, tho that self may have passed thru periods 
and processes of change in respect of his habitual manner of using 
his language. This is true in the matter of styles in writing, and it 
is true in the practice of all other arts. 

This communication was discussed by Professors Collitz 
and Bloomfield, and then Professor Morris Jastrow, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, spoke on Snmerian Law Codes 
and on the Hittite Problem. After some remarks by Profes- 
sor Blondheim, Professor Tenney Frank read the principal 
paper on Vergil's Apprenticeship. 

This study undertakes to bring new evidence on the problems of 
the Appendix Vergiliana by attempting to reconstruct the historical 
background. In the ninth Catalepton, 1. 40 seems to imply that 
Messala was at the time of writing closely connected with the libera- 
tors, Brutus and Cassius, while 1. 3 assumes that he was about to 
return as a distinguished member of their triumphal party. The 
poem was, therefore, written when the author had heard of the first 
battle at Philippi but before the second, i. e., about August 42 b. c. 
A comparison of 1. 17 with Vergil, Eel. n indicates that Vergil wrote 
Catalepton ix. Catalepton in can best be explained as a reference to 
Pompey made by Vergil when a soldier in Caesar's army. Catalepton 
xiv was probably written about 44 b. c. when Vergil first attempted 
an epic of Rome. ef. Eel. vi, 3; Catal. xi, 62; and the Vita of Doriatus 
" res Romanas." 

The Culex belongs to the autumn of 48 B. c. Swncte puer, 1. 26, 
refers to the priesthood bestowed upon Octavius at that time; and 
if in the reference given by Donatus we alter xvi to xxt we arrive at 
the year 48. The poem was meant as a Lehrgedicht to a boy at 
school; its purpose was to weave numerous mythological references 
into the fabric of a fable. Horace Epode II, written about 40 B. c. 
is a compliment to Vergil for his Culex, while Vergil at the end of 
Georgies II repays the compliment, thereby acknowledging the Culex 
as his own. 



36 Philological Association, 1919-1920 |<;7<> 

The < iris is also Vergil's. Catal. in. 61, refers to it. tin- use of 
communem Deum for Mars in both poems (both suppressed for tin* 
time being) proves that, both earns from the same author, and the 
persona] references in the dedication of the ('iris fit tin- period 
44-.'} is. c There seems now to be no reason for refusing to acknowl- 
edge Vergil as the author of the Culex, the Ciris, and the Catalepton. 

(This paper lias been published in classical Philology, xv. l!i^o. 
pp. 23 1., 103 f.) 

Three hundred and thirty-sixth meeting 
December 19, 1919 

Professor Bloomfield read a shorl paper on The Hindu 
Practice of Giving Annuals Strong Drink. 

The Saint Svagata is delegated by the Buddha to convert the 
murderous Naga (serpent). Aevatirthaka. His success in thi< task 
lias secured for him the admiration of the Brahman Ahitundaka 
who lias previously tied from that Naga to the city of Qr&vastf. 
This brings the Svagata story. Divyfivadfina xiii, to p. 188, 1. 12. 
At that point the king of (Yfivastl. named Prasenajit Kaucala, 
lakes Ahitundaka in his employ: ia rajfia . . . hastimadhyasya 
vievilsikah sthapitah. Emend the senseless "madhyasya to "mad- 
yasya, 'intoxicating liquor,' to wit': 'He (namely, Ahitundaka) 
was placed in charge of the elephants' liquor.' In the sequel Ahitund- 
aka, now liquor trustee, in order to show appreciation of Svagata's 
saintly power, invites him to a good meal, at the end of which he 
hecomes solicitous ahout the Saint's digestion. He decides to give 
him water to promote the digestive processes: tena (sc. Ahitunda- 
kena) panakam sajjikrtya hastimadad aiigulih prfiksiptfi (emend, 
prak ksiptii), 'while preparing the drink Ahitundaka's finger was 
thrust forth from the elephant's liquor.' This very weak high-hall 
makes Svagata drunk; he falls upon the ground, but the Buddha 
himself conjures by magic a hut of leaves over Svagata, to hide his 
shame. The story is an extreme plea for total abstinence on the 
part of monks. 

In Cullahaiisa Jataka (533) Devadatta. a hater of the Buddha, 
tries to kill him by an elephant. He asks the keeper of the king's 
elephant Nalagiri how much rum the elephant is wont to drink on 
ordinary days, and when he answers. 'Eight pots.' he says, 'To- 
morrow give him sixteen pots to drink, and send him on the street 
frequented by the ascetic Gotama.' But the Buddha converrs, yea, 
the rum-mad elephant. 

Mettlesome horses also were given strong drink, either to inspirit 
them, or to restore them after fatigue. Tn Yalodaka Jataka (1S3) 



671 | M. Bloomfieldj II. 0. Lancaster; P. Uaupt 37 

horses returning from buttle are given fermented grape-juice which 
they take without getting drunk. But the leavings are strained 
with water and given to donkeys who thereupon gallop about the 
palace yard, braying loudly: 

•'This sorry draught, the goodness all strained out, 
Drives all those asses in a drunken rout: 
The thoroughbreds, that drank the potent juice, 
Stand silent, nor skip capering a.bout.' 

Animals also intoxicated themselves without knowing: cats, with 
fermented liquor, in Kumbha Jataka (512) ; a jackal, in Sigala 
Jataka (113) ; a pair of crows, in Kaka Jataka (146). A delicious 
bit of satire, known to the. modern world in some form or other, 
tells, in Guthapana Jataka (227), how a dung beetle gets drunk on 
rum drippings, and climbs upon its native lump. The dung, being 
moist, gives way a little. *' The world cannot bear my weight ! ' he 
exclaims, and challenges an elephant. The elephant, in disgust 
drops a great piece of dung, killing him, then scampers into the 
forest, trumpeting. 

A brief paper was read by Professor Lancaster with regard 
to two letters written by Jean Eacine to his sister, formerly 
belonging to Alfred Morrison and published only in a book- 
seller's catalogue. He gave the text of the two letters. By 
comparing them with another letter, already published, and 
by reference to the date of Ash Wednesday in the years 1678- 
1686, he was able to determine that the letters were written 
in 1685 and that they are concerned with Eacine's efforts to 
reestablish his brother-in-law in the salt office at La Ferfe 
Milon. The article has appeared in Modern Language Notes. 

Three hundred and thirty-seventh meeting 
January 16, 1920 

Professor Haupt presented a minor communication on The 
Golden Psalms. 

Several Psalms (10 and 56-60) have the title Miehtam of David. 
AV 1 gives in the margin: A golden Psalm of David, 2 but this ren- 



voi* the abbreviations see Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 38, 
p. 142. 

2 There are no Psalms of David; see these Circulars, No. 163, p. 
54, and No. 310, p. 9. 



88 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [672 

dering is impossible. Also at the beginning of the Psalm of Thanks- 
giving (attributed to King Hezekiah of Judah) in [s. 38, 9 \\<- must 

read miktam instead of mil, tub. writing; -o there were seven poems 
designated as miktam. The famous Beven pre-Islamic poems of the 
ancient Arabs, known as 'the lio'aUaq&tj were called also mudahho- 
bat, the golden one-. Thej were supposed to have been written in 
gold on pieces of Coptic linen and hung up in th<- ELa'ba at Mecca 
(EBii 18, 632; cf. BL 07). The Avesta of Zoroaster is said to have 
been written on cowhides with golden ink (EBu 28, 968 b ). 

The LXX regards miktam as equivalent to miktab, writing; it 
renders: <jT7)\oypa<pla, for which the Vulgate has lihdi inscriptio. 
This is better than St. Jerome's humilis ei simplex or prrfectus, 
dividing miktam into two words {male from muk, a byform of 
makak, and tarn). We find the same interpretation in the Talmud 
(Sold 10 b ). In modern Hebrew, miktam is used for epigram, which 
denoted originally a poetical inscription placed upon a statue, monu- 
ment, tomb, building, &c. The term was afterwards extended to any 
little piece of verse expressing a delicate or ingenious thought; in 
French it is used even for delicate meat served as an entree, e. g. 
a small fillet of game, poultry, or lamb (CD 1969). The editor of 
Melanchthon's epigrams included in his collection some translations 
from the Psalms. In Delitzsch's Hebrew translation of the NT, 
miktab is used for eiriypacpri and t/tXos, the superscript ion or title 
on the cross, This is the King of the Jews or Jesus of Nazareth, the 
king of the Jews. The same word may, of course, denote an inscrip- 
tion and a poem. Our posy, which is a contraction of poesy, denotes 
a short inscription or an epigram. A posy-ring is a ring inscribed 
with a short poetical motto which was also called chanson. Some- 
times epigraph is used in the sense of motto. We call the inscrip- 
tions on monuments, or the words and letters stamped on coins, 
legends, and legend signifies also a poetical (non-historical) nar- 
rative. In the name of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
lettres the term inscriptions means legends on medals; the Academy 
was originally charged with the office of furnishing inscriptions, 
devices, and legends for medals (EBu 1, 103 a ). 

Heb. miktam, however, does not mean inscription, but something 
covered. Grotius uses tecta locutio as the Latin equivalent of 
dWrjyopia, Cicero employs the phrase verba tecta, and for to make 
veiled allusions you say in French: dire quelque chose a mots 
converts (i. e. d'ime maniere detournee) . Heb. miktam does not 
mean CTwXoypacpla, but eUovoXoyla, lingua figuris abundans, tro- 
pology, imagery, figurative speech, imagerial poem. The seven Hebrew 
poems designated as miktam contain several tectae locutiones. In 
Ps. 10 (cf. the translation in J ACS 32, 124) we find e. g. the lines 



G73] P. Haupt 39 

are. fallen unto me in pleasant places, i. e. I am happy, but the 
original meaning of the phrase is: The lot, or portion of land, which 
has been divided off for me by the measuring line, is situated in a 
pleasant place (Pur. 18). In the same Maccalbean poem we read: 
even at night my reins exhorted me (=Thou are never out of my 
thoughts) and Thou tvilt not suffer Thy faithful ones to see the Pit 
(= Judaism is immortal). The hemistich My tears are placed in 
Thy bottle (=Thou doest not forget my misery) in Ps. 56, 9 may be 
illustrated by the jar filled with tears, carried by the children, at 
the end of the fourth act of Gerhart Hauptmann's Die versunkene 
Gloclcc and the Volksmarchen in Grimm's Mytjiologie (p. 884) 
quoted in T. S. Baker's edition of Hauptmann's dramatic fairy-tale 
(New York, 1900) p. 195. 1 On p. 188 Dr. Baker says of Heinrich's 
wife, Magda: Her sufferings and sorrows are described symbolically 
by reference to the jar filled with tears (cf. also Duhm ad Ps. 
56, 9). In Ps. 60, 5. 10 we read Thou didst make us drink stag- 
gering wine (cf. our bitter pill, dose, &c.) and Moab is my toash-bowl 
=> We shall bathe our feet in the streams of Moab, or we shall invade 
the well-watered valleys of Moab (FV 281) . The washing of the feet 
was necessary, because they were protected only by sandals (EB 
5273. 4492). The line in Is. 38, 12, Thou hast wound up, like a 
weaver, my life, cutting me off from the thrum, reminds us of 
the Northern Norns, who weave the destinies of men, and the Greek 
Atropos, the eldest of the three Fates, who severs the thread of life 
that has been placed on the spindle by Clotho, and drawn off by 
Lachesis. 

The legend on Jean Houdon's bust of Benjamin Franklin, Eripuit 
coelo fulmen, mox sceptra tyra/nnis, may be called miktam; it is 
figurative and epigrammatic, eUovoXoyia, ar-nXoypatpia, titulus, also 
simplex et perfectus, though not humilis. Franklin's personality, 
however, reflected the humility of the Quaker, and humility was one 
of the thirteen virtues he advocated, recommending imitation of 
Jesus and Socrates. The miktam on the bust of Franklin, with 
which D'Alembert Avelcomed him as a member of the French Acad- 
emy, is generally cited in the form Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque 
tyrannis. It seems to have been suggested by the German adven- 
turer Baron Friedrich von der Trenck who was confined by Frederick 
the Great in the fortress of Magdeburg for ten years. It is based on 
a line (1, 104) in the Astronomica of the Roman poet Manilius 
(c. 12 b. c.) and Cardinal Melchior de Polignac's posthumous Anti- 



1 Cf. the notes on Ohamisso's poem Die Mutter wnd da# Kind in the 
edition of the Bibliograph. Tnstitut. vol. 2, p. 406, ad p. 144. 



40 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [674 

Lucretius, 1, 96 (174.1). Manilius says of human reason: Eripuit- 
que Jovi fulmen viresqut tonondi, and Polignac'a line, which ii 
aimed at Epicurus, is: Eripuit fulmenqiu Jovi Phoeboqw iagittas. 
The inscription on the bust of Franklin is often attributed to Turgot, 
The great French economist ua- fond of verse-making, lie trans- 
lated the fourth book of the .Kneid into French hexameters, and 
Voltaire called this rendering the onlj prost translation in w } 1 i < -1 1 
lie found any enthusiasm. Turgot opposed, on grounds of economy, 
the participation of France in the American War of Independence 
( BB" 27, 413\ 416"). 

Professor Kurrelmeyer presented a communication on 
Pisschulle — Pistol (e) . 

Various etymologies have been suggested for Pistol(e), which. 
in this spelling, appears almost simultaneously in French, German, 
and English texts of the third quarter of the sixteenth century. 
Contemporary writers derived the word from the name of the Italian 
city of Pistoja, where the weapon itself was thought to have origi- 
nated. This etymology is accepted, in some cases with reservations, 
by Diez, Korting (Lat.-row. AYbcl,.. 1891), the A FA), the DWb., and 
Kluge [Etym. Wlch., 1015). In his third edition (1007) Korting 
prefers to derive the word from pis to, the etymon of French (and 
English) piston. ' Stampfe, Kolben.' Similarly. Frisch, in his 
Teutsch-Lat. Wtch. (1741), had proposed to connect the word with 
pistillum. All the lexicographers mentioned agree to this extent, 
that they attribute to the Avord a Romance origin, as does also 
Weigand in his Deu. Wbch., who even cites a German form Bistollc, 
as of the latter half of the fifteenth century, i. e., a century older 
than the earliest recorded Romance forms. 

An entirely different etymology, proposed more than a quarter of 
a century ago, is not even mentioned by these lexicographers: in the 
Let. slov. Mat., 1894, p. 32, which is not accessible to me, and again 
in 1904 in the Archiv fiir Slavische Pliilologie, xxvi, 408, K. strekelj, 
in an article entitled " Zur Kenntnis der slavischen Elemente im 
italienischen Wortschatze." brings forward new grounds for the old 
view [die alte Ansiclit) that Pistole is derived from Cechish pist'al. 
He then points out that this word, which in the Slavic languages 
means ' Pfeife, Schalmei, Rohrflote/ is cited in Dalj's Russian Dic- 
tionary in the sense of ' Feuerwaffe. Belagerungsgeschiitz, Jagdge- 
wehr, Kugelbiichse, Sehrotgewehr.' Strekelj is unable, however, to 
>show how the word passed into the other European languages, 
although he correctly surmises that this might well have happened 
during the Hussite Wars. His further conjecture, that the word 



(i7.~> | W. Kurrelmeyer 4:1 

came into German through the Bavarian dialect, turns out to be 
incorrect, as it is in Silesian documents that the forerunners of the 
later form Pistole make their first appearance. 1 The following cita- 
tions are all taken from Volume vi of the Keriptores rerum Silesia- 
caruni (Breslau, 1871). All refer to Silesian military operations of 
the years 1421-1420. in connection with the Hussite Wars. In the 
earliest document, an enumeration of the artillery to he contributed 
by the several Silesian cities, we read (p. 11) : 

Item die Sweidnitzer land vnd stete sullen mit jn nemen eine 
grosse bochse. 15 tarrassteinbiichsen vnd 100 pisschullen. . . . 
Summa summarum der bochsen, 20 grosse bochsen, domete man 
mawren fellen mag, 300 tarrasssteinbiichsen, 2000 pisschullen. 

An editorial note assigns to pisschullen the meaning of " Hand- 
feuerwaffen," but no attempt is made to explain the origin of the 
word. It occurs again in two documents of the year 1429, each 
time in a slightly different spelling: 

auch so haben wir eyn wenig pulffer und vier pischczaln mit uns 
weg brocht (p. 78). vnd das man vndir sie rechte sere schoss mit 
Imchsen, pischoln etc. da gingen sie abe (p. 83). 

It hardly needs to be pointed out that this latter spelling is very 
close to our modern Pistol (e). A clue to the etymology of the word 
is found in still another passage, from a document dated 1427: 

czwu adir dry steynbuchsen vnd pulver vnd steyne, dorczu eyne 
notdorfft. vnd ouch pfeiffen vnd hawfenicz, das meisten, so her mag 
gehaben (p. 55) . 

What were these pfeiffen? Evidently some sort of fire-arm, for 
the term hawfenicz, coupled with them, is the Bohemian hufnici 
(this spelling is found on p. 168), which later appears as Haubitze, 



1 " Die Entlehnung des slav. Wortes in die europ. Sprachen ist 
bei dem maehtigen Aufschwung des Feuerwaffengebrauchs in den 
Hussitenkriegen nicht unglaublich. Die Entwickelung des slavischen 
pi-st'al zu Pistole ist bei Annahme der Vermittelung durch Deutsche 
bairischen Stammes nicht schwer erklarbar." I may state here, that 
Strekelj's article, which is not mentioned in the usual reference 
books, only came to my notice after the present study had been 
practically completed, by reference to Fascicle 7 (1914) of Meyer- 
Liibke's Romanisches Etymologisches Wbch. Here the Romance word 
is definitely derived from the German: "Das deutsche Wort wiirde 
auf tschisch pist'al " Pfeife," " Rohre," alt auch " Schiessgewehr," 
russisch pistaV, " Schiesswaffe " beruhen, doch fehlt die historische 
Begriindung dieser Auffassung; zu Pistoja Diez Wb. 250 ist auch 
fonnel] schwierig." 



42 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [676 

English Imirii: 1 1 1 ) . French obw, etc. [f we now Look up the 
Bohemian equivalents of Pfeife, we find in modern dictionaries p 
pipe, whistle, while Dobrowsky 1 records pisstale, 'Pfeife, in der 
Musik'; pastussi pisstala, Hirtenpf eife ; similarly, in Polish, pipe, 
life, reed are rendered by piszezalka, a form closer to the German 
spelling pischczal quoted above. It is safe to assume, therefore, thai 
in both Polish and Bohemian of the early fifteenth century the word 
pistol was used als<> in the sense of fire-arm; t ln<<- of the German 
writers above quoted took over this word bodily, jusi as hawfenia 
was taken over, while ■ fourth translated it by it- German equiva- 
lent Pfeife. As Silesia, where all these documents were written, is 
situated directly between Poland and Bohemia, it is difficult to 
decide from which of these Languages the word was actually taken. 

The transfer in meaning from pipe, tube, to gun, fire-arm, particu- 
larly at a time when these were juai coming into general use, hardly 
requires comment. The German Rohr, at the present day, denotes 
not merely pipe, reed, tube, but also gun, gun-barrel; Feuerrohr, 
Flinte, is used by Kirchhof. Gryphius, and Goethe; to the instances 
of Handrohr cited in the DWb. may he added the following: mit IS 
hakenpuchsen, handroren, stehlenbogen woll Btaffiret. 1 Similarly the 
simple word Rohr: 200. halbe Haeken, und Bonst lange R6hr, neben 
etlich Paar kurtzen ROhren. 4 Cf. also DWb. vnr. 1121. 

It is difficult to determine exactly what sort of fire-arm was desig- 
nated by pisohulle: to judge from similar lists of the fifteenth 
century, it might have been either a HaJcenbuchse or a HcmdbUchse. 
Compare e.g.: eyne vierteil buchsse, vier hawffnitzen vnd dreyssig 
hockenlbuchssen . . . eine hawffnitze, eine tharres vnnd tzwelff hock- 
enhuchssen. 5 aindlef hauptpiichsen vnd acht mdrser, viel haufnitz, 
terraspuchsen, hackenpiichsen vnd hanntpuchsen. 6 

It may be noted in conclusion that a word Pischull, Pischulle, 
schlechtes Bier, is recorded in Frischbier's Prenssischcs Worterbuch, 
but it seems to have a different etymology. 

Professor Chinard read the principal paper on L'exotisme 
sentimental dans In litterature frangaise an dix-neuvieme 
siecle. 

2 Ausfiihrliches . . . deutsch-bohmisches . . . Wjorterbuch, 2 Bde.. 
Prag, 1800-1821. 
8 Scriptores rerum Prussicarum] v, 475: event of 1516. 
* Script, rer. Sties, iv. 10: event of 1578. 

5 Script, rer. Lttsaticarum, X. F. n. 80: event of 14SS. 

6 Font ess rerum Austriacarum, 2. Abt., xx. 103: event of 1546. 



r,77 J G. Chinard; P. Shorey 43 

L'auteur de cette communication s'est propose, tout d'abord, d'ar- 
river a une definition du mot exotisme. Apres avoir examine les 
differentes formes d'exotisme dont on peut constater l'existence dans 
la litterature franchise depuis la Renaissance jusqu'a. nos jours, il 
est arrive a cette conclusion que pour le dix-neuvieme siecle on peut 
distinguer trois formes principales d'exotisme: un exotisme pit- 
loresque, qui traite au point de vue descriptif des aspects de pays 
inconnus ou mal connus; un exotisme philosophique qui a pour 
theme principal la comparaison des civilisations etrangeres et sur- 
tout des societes primitives avec notre propre civilisation, enfin un 
exotisme psyoliologique, ou sentimental, qui s'efforce de comprendre 
et de decrire des mentalites entierement differentes de la notre. 

Cette derniere forme de l'exotisme s'est developpee surtout au 
dix-neuvieme siecle a partir de Chateaubriand qui en reste le grand 
ma it re. Les romantiques, malgre leur desir de faire de la couleur 
locale, n'ont guere fait que de l'exotisme pittoresque. C'est le cf>t6 
pittoresque des civilisations disparues ou des siecles passes qui les 
a attires. lis out vu dans l'exotisme un moyen d'echapper a leur 
milieu, mais dans un decor nouveau, ils ont place des personnages 
qui ont la mentalite de Francais du commencement du dix-neuvieme 
siecle. C'est le cas de Victor Hugo dans ses drames et dans ses 
romans historiques; c'est le cas de Vigny dans ses poemes; c'est 
encore le cas de Gautier dans des ouvrages comme Le roman de la 
Momie. Dans leurs recits de voyage meme, ils se montrent plus 
soucieux de decrire de nouveaux paysages que de penetrer la psy- 
chologie des peuples etrangers qu'ils visitent. 

II faut attendre jusqu'a Flaubert avec Salammbo pour trouver 
une tentative de ce genre. Mais, il n'en reste pas moins que c'est 
seulement avec Loti que Ton voit reparaitre dans la litterature 
franchise l'exotisme sentimental que Chateaubriand y avait intro- 
duit et dont il avait donne dans les NatcJiez la formule la plus 
complete. 

Three hundred and thirty-eighth meeting 
February 20, 1920 

On the motion of Professor Kurrelmeyer the usual order 
of business was changed, and the principal paper was read 
first, by Professor Shorey on Euripides and the Radicals. 

The main body of this paper consisted of illustrations of the uses 
to which Euripides, and more particularly Professor Murray's trans- 
lation of Euripides, has been put in the advanced liberal or radical 
literature of the last twenty years. The introduction treated first 



44 Philological Association, 1919-1920 078 

of the qualities in ECuripides' mind and arl thai have aW 
attracted minds of this type, ;in<l then went on to present ;< -ketch 
of the history of opinion aboul Euripides. The modernist preference 
of Euripides i- due largelj to the influence of Browning, sfahaffy, 
and Professor Murray. The use or abuse of Euripides in pacifist, 
radical and other propagandas was exemplified in quotations, mis- 
quotations, mistranslations of text- too numerous and too specific 
to reproduce in this summary. 

Professor Haupi thou presented a minor communication on 
The Logos in Goethe's " Faust" which was discussed by Pro- 
fessors Bloomfieldj Shorey, CoHitz, and Miller. 

In the first act of Goethe's drams (11. L224-1237) Fausi is diasi 

tied with the traditional rendering of John 1. 1. //' //" beginning ,r„ s 
the Word, and prefers the translation //// Anfang war der Sinn, i.e. 
Reason : hut then he think> it oughl to he //// Anfang nur du Kraft, 
i.e. Force, and finally he writes 1 m Anfang nor die Tat, i.e. Action. 
Force is what modern physicists call energy. While \6~,os may mean 
both Word and Reason, it cannot denote Fora or Action.. The 
rendering Sinn — Reason as well as the substitutes Kraft = Force 
and Tat— Action, it may he supposed, were inspired by Herder (BL 
xxii. xxxiv. xxxvi). 1 The English translations of Faust have for 
der Sinn, die h'nifi. die 'I'm th<- unsatisfactory renderings //" s< 
or the thou <rlil. 2 or the mind; the power or the force; the deed or the 
net. According to the Stoics, Reason (\6yos) was the active principle 
in the formation of the universe ( KB' 1 25, 942"; 13. 310*; 24. 375"). 
We find Stoic phraseology not only in the XT. but al<o in the OT 
(Eccl. 2). The reason why the rendering Reason has not been 
adopted by the theologians is that Faith and Reason are supposed 
to be incompatible. The strangling of Reason is regarded as a most 
acceptable offering. Tertullian is said to have formulated the prin- 
ciple Credo quia absurduni; in De came Vhristi 5 he -ays: prorsus 
credibile quia ineptum est. Even Luther denounced Reason as a 
cunning fool, a pretty harlot (EB 11 23. 22\ 21 b ). The peace of God 
is superior to all reasoning (Phil. 4, 7). 

This paper has been published in full in vol. 41 of the American 
Journal of Philology, pp. 177-180. 



1 For the abbreviations see Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 38, 
p. 142. 

"Schiller, Die Worte des Glaubens (1707) says: Und ein Gott 1st, 
ein heiliger Wille lebt, | wie aueh der menschliche wanke; | hoch 
uber der Zeit und dem Raume webi | lebendig der hbchste Gedanke. 



679] T. Michelson; J . E. Snyder; II. C. Lancaster 45 

Three hundred and thirty-ninth meeting 
March 19, 1920 

Dr. Truman Michelson, of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology of the Smithsonian Institution, presented a minor 
communication on The Linguistic Affinities of Ardhamagadhi 
Prakrit. 

Professor Liiders, in his Bruchstiicke Buddhist ischcr Dramen, 
makes the claim that Ardhamagadhi Prakrit is a descendant of the 
Asokan Magdhan dialect. The question as to what early Middle 
Indie dialect Ardhamagadhi is descended from is not easily solved, 
for almost all Ardhamagadhi texts are so badly edited as to be 
unusable; and the Ardhamagadhi in even well edited texts is not 
uniform : either Ardhamagadhi as we actually have it, represents no 
dialect spoken at any one time or place (and this is Professor 
Michelson's opinion) or it has numerous loans from other dialects. 
The numerous doublets make one or the other of these hypotheses 
imperative. In spite of the mixture, there remains sufficient evidence 
to show that the bulk of Ardhamagadhi as we have it in the redac- 
tion of the canonical books of the Svetambara Jains which has come 
down to us, can not be descended from Asokan Magadhan. The 
article will be printed in extenso in the American Journal of 
Pit ilology. 

Mr. Snyder presented a minor communication on the word 
Logos, which was discussed by Professors Haupt. Collitz, 
Bloomfield, and Miller. 

At a meeting of the Greek Seminary of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity on January 23, 1914, Professor Gildersleeve, speaking of Hera- 
clitus, commented briefly on the beginning of the Fourth Gospel (see 
above, p. 18) and stated that h dpxfj %p 6 \6yos should evidently be 
translated: In the beginning there was Reason, and Reason was with 
God, and Reason was God. In the notes on John 1.1. the Cambridge 
Bible for Schools and Colleges calls attention to the fact that Tertul- 
lian mentions thje renderings sermo and verbum, but prefers the 
translation ratio. 

Professor Lancaster then read a short papef on A Note on 
Elizabeth and' Essex. 

The legend that Queen Elizabeth once gave to the Earl of Essex a 
ring with the promise that, if he ever sent it to her, she would 



1<; Philological Association, 1919-1920 680 

pardon any crime he might have committed; that, when condemned 
to death, he did send her the ring, but that it was purposely witli- 
held by the woman to whom Ik- intrusted it till after hit execution 
is usually traced hack a- far m Aulrt'-iy Du Maurier'i Vemotres 
pour scnir a Vhistovre de JSoUande (1680), a rersion -aid to have 
conic originally from Sir Dudley Carleton, or to the lh tot •> of the 
most renowned Queen Elizabeth and l<< r great favorite, an anony- 
mous book which appeared about 1650 and was followed by Francis 
Osborn in 1658. But the story had already appeared in La C'al- 
prenede'e <'<>int<- d'Eseea, published in 1630, written a year or two 
before. The author declares that what is apparently non-historical 
in his play is based on memoranda coming from persons of rank who, 
perhaps, took part in the episode. This evidence .-hows that the 
ring-story grew up in England in the first third of the seventeenth 
eentury. In the minds of those who repeated the story of 1. 
there must have been a desire to reconcile the facts that the Queen 
was in love with him and that she signed his death warrant. The 
Queen stated to the due de Biron that she would have pardoned 
Essex had it not been for his pride, but this explanation was unsatis- 
factory, for accounts of his death show him to have been almost 
unduly penitent on the scaffold. An undelivered message would 
easily explain this contradiction. The use of a token to attest the 
genuineness of a message was common practice. That this token 
should take the form of a ring previously given with a promise of 
pardon may have resulted from a confusion between the case of 
Essex and that of Cranmer, to whom Henry VIII gave a ring to 
enable him to appeal from his council to himself, an authentic inci- 
dent, related by Cranmer's secretary and given wide publicity by 
Foxe and by Shakespeare, who based upon it Henry VIII, v, 1-3. 
In the original form of the legend there was probably no love affair 
between Essex and the woman to whom he entrusted the ring, her 
accomplice was Cecil, and no third woman was introduced. 

This paper was discussed by Professors Bloomfield, Collitz, 
and Wood. Professor Haupt then read the principal paper 
on The Poems of Hablaku'k. 

The name Habbakuk (not Habakkuk!) may mean basil (Arab. 
Iidbaq, Syr. hankd (BL 91, n. 40). 1 In the legends of Bel and the 
Dragon, which we find in the Septuagintal additions to the Book 



1 For the abbreviations see Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 38, 
p. 142. 



681] P. Haupt 47 

of Daniel, Habbakuk is said to have been carried by an angel from 
Judea to Babylon, so that he might give Daniel in the lion-pit a dish 
which he had prepared for the reapers in the field. This story is 
said to be taken from the prophecy of Habbakuk, the son of Jesus, 
of the tribe of Levi (DB 2, 272 b ). Jesus (or Joshua) may be the 
leader of the Hellenizers in Judea at the beginning of the reign of 
Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria (175-164 b. c. ). He was a younger 
brother of the high priest Onias III {Pur. 6, 0) and Jesus" (Gre- 
cized: Jason's) son may have been more like his noble-minded uncle. 
The Book of Daniel was composed in 164, and the poems of Habba- 
kuk in 161. 

Sir George A. Smith inserts Hab. 1, 5-11 after 2, 4, following 
Budde; but vv. 6-9 must be inserted after 1, 17, and 1. 10. 11 should 
be appended to 2,4 preceded by 2, 5. 6. According to Budde, 1, 2-4 
describes the oppressions of Israel by the Assyrians, 2 but the violence 
and distress complained of represent the sufferings of the Jews dur- 
ing the Syrian persecution at the beginning of the Maecabean period. 
The ivicked are the Hellenizers. who were willing to sacrifice the 
Mosaic Law to Greek culture, and the righteous represent the faith- 
ful Jews, while traitors denotes the Jewish apostates ( AJSL 19, 
139, n. 32). The hemistich translated in AV: The just shall live 
by faith (Hab. 2, 4) means The righteous will survive despite their 
firmness in resisting Antiochus Epiphanes' edict that Jewish rites 
should cease and heathen customs be observed, under pain of death. 
The phrase The just shall live by faith has been spiritualized In the 
N'T, but there is no basis for the doctrine of the justification by 
faith in the poems of Habbakuk. 

The work, which Jhvh will do in the days of the people apostro- 
phized in 1, 5. although they will not believe it when told, is the 
restoration of religious liberty and political independence. In 162 
Lysias, the regent-guardian of Antiochus Epiphanes' son, granted 
the Jews permission to live after their laws as they did before, 
and the yoke of the heathen was taken from them in 142 (1 Mac. 
6. 59; 13, 41). 

The Maccabees knew that their hopes could not be realized at 
once, but .they were willing to wait, firmly convinced that their 
purpose would be accomplished without fail, that religious liberty 
and political independence would come, and not too late (Mie. 3S. 
n. 17). In the New Year's message cabled to Ireland on Dec. 26, 
1919 De Valera said: Endure yet a little while. You will be sus- 
tained. The year 1920 may see the Republic of Ireland officially 



% Cf. Kalinski (1748) cited in Delitzseh's Habaluk (1843) p. xxiv. 



48 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [682 

recognized by the United States, and then Anal victory after 750 
years of work and prayer (cf. E£ab. 2, 3). On March In. 1920 the 
r. S. Senate passed a resolution of sympathy with the aspirations 
of the Irish people for a government of their own choice, declaring 

Hint when such government is attained by Ireland ;i con-ummat ion. 

it is hoped, i- at hand it should promptly be admitted to the 

League of Nations. 

Judas Maccabaeus was the George Washington of the Maccabean 
rebellion, and the Syrian generals Apollonius, Gorgias, Lysias, Xi- 
canor, Bacohides correspond in the English generals in the American 

War of Independence. Gage, Howe. Clinton. Burgoyne and Cornwal- 

lis. dust as the anniversary of the capture of General Cornwall!- at 

Yorktown (Oct. 19. 1781) was long observed a- a holiday with pa- 
rades and sham battles, -<> tin- defeat of Nicanor at Ada-a on the 

13th of Adar 101 b. c. was celebrated at tin- Feast of Purim [Mie. 

15. n. 14). 

ITalihakuk (1. 10. 11) says of the Maccabce-: 

They'll make a mock of the great king. 

all princes are a scoff unto them; 
They'll laugh every stronghold t<» scorn. 

They'll throw up earthworks and take them. 
Then they'll sweep by as the wind, and pass on, 

they'll destroy them, and sacrifice to God. 

This triplet is universally referred to the Chaldeans, hut it descril 
the valor and mobility of the Maccabees. The great king (JSOR 
2, 81, n. 21) is the king of Syria, and the princes are his generals 
{Mic. 38, n. 11). For the destruction of the strongholds cf. 1 Mac. 
5. 4. 28. 35. 30. 44. 51. 05. 6S; 10. 84; 11. 4. 20. 48. 01. GG; 12, 33; 
13, 51, and for the sacrifice: 1 Mac. 5. 54. 

The Chaldeans in the poem of Hahhakuk are the Syrians. Xebu- 
chadnezzar in the Book of Daniel represents Antiochus Epiphanes. 
Tn Ps. 137 the Seleucid kingdom is apostrophized as Babel's daughter, 
thou she-devastator [Mic. 55. n. 49). In other Maccabean poems we 
find Assyria for Syria, and Xineveh for Antioch [Mic. 54, n. 47; Joel 
382; J.BL 38, 158). The Roman Catholic Xestorians in Mosul. Bag- 
dad, Mardin, Diarbekr. Urmia. &c. are now called Chaldeans; their 
patriarch has the title Chaldean Patriarch of Babylon. The name 
Chaldeans for the Syrians of the Maccabean period is more appro- 
priate than the term Chaldee for Biblical Aramaic. 

The two triplets describing the Chaldeans in Hab. 1, 6-9 may have 
originally referred to the Chaldeans of Xebuchadnezzar; they may 
have been composed by a pre-Exilic poet, but they were quoted by 
the Maccabean author of the Book of TTabbakuk (Mic. 30, n. 41). 



683] P. Haupi 40 

In the Maccabean liomily known as the Book of Joel an ancient 
poem describing an invasion of locusts is quoted, but to the hearers 
of the homily the locusts symbolized the Syrians who came locusting 
upon Judea (Joel 388). The pre-Exilic original of the two triplets 
referring to the Chaldeans in Hab. 1, 6-9 may have begun For, lo, 
I raise up the Chaldeans, referring to Jhvh, but in the Maccabean 
poem we must read: For, lo, he raises up the Chaldeans, i. e. the 
Syrians, referring to Alcimus (cf. JBL 38, 161) who solicited help 
from the Syrians, whereupon Demetrius sent an army under Bac- 
chides to install the ungodly Hellenizer as high priest (1 Mac. 7, 9). 
These two triplets should stand at the end. of c. 1, preceded by v. 17. 

The first poem in the Book of Habbakuk consists of eight triplets 
which may be grouped in four stanzas. They are followed, by two 
stanzas in the same meter, containing four imprecatory triplets, each 
beginning with Wae! (JAOS 40, 221). Also the paean in c. 3, which 
was afterwards incorporated in a hymnal for the Temple service, 
exhibits the same rhythm with 3 + 3 beats in each line; but of the 
five stanzas, each of which consists of two triplets, two represent 
later additions. The first of these is an illustrative quotation de- 
scribing Jhvh's coming from Teman, just as the triplet at the begin- 
ning of the Song of Deborath, describing Jhvh's departure from Seir 
is secondary (WF 225; JAOS 34,418). The final stanza in Hab. 
3, 17. 18 is a euphemistic liturgical appendix (JBL 31, 123; Mic. 
42, n. 16) which may have been added in the days of Simon (142- 
135). The famine alluded in the first triplet is mentioned in 1 
Mac. 9, 23 (see Joel, p. 383, 1. 11). The original hymn in c. 3 
( JHUC, No. 316, p. 20) was composed after the victory over Nicanor 
in 161 and antedates the patriotic poem predicting the survival of 
the faithful. The paean was written before the death of Judas Mac- 
cabaeus, but the preceding two chapters reflect the situation after 
this tragic event, when the wicked ( i. e. the Hellenizers) began to 
put forth their heads in Judea, and there arose up all such as 
wrought iniquity. Bacchides chose the wicked men and made them 
lords of the country. They brought Judas' friends to Bacchides 
who took vengeance on them; so there was a great affliction in 
Judah, which was heightened by a very great famine ( 1 Mac. 9, 
23-26). 

The first stanza in c. 1, comprising two triplets of elegiac pen- 
tameters, represents a liturgical introduction which has displaced the 
first line of the original poem (JAOS 34, 418). It may be restored 
on the basis on Ps. 94, 16, while the last line of the paean in c. 3 
may be restored on the basis of Ps. 119, 21 and Is. 13, 11. The 
sequence of the genuine verses in c. 3 should be: 2. 15. 16. 13 a . 12. 



,,ii Philological Association, 1919-1920 

IP. 13 b . 14. 9. 11. S. ami in cc. 1. 2: 1, L2-14. 17. 6-9; 2 ; L-3. 5. fj\ 4; 
1, 10. 11; 2, 0-17. 

A metrical translation of tin- poems of Sabbakuk with restoration 
of the Hebrew t < - x t and critical and explanatory notes will be given 
elsewhere. 

Three hundred and fortieth meeting 
April 16, 1920 

President Collitz appointed Professors Hanpl. Bright, and 
Wood a nominating committee to repori a1 the May meeting. 

Professor Kurrelmeyer presented a minor communication 
on Rostorfs Dichter-Garten, Wiirzburg L807, and exhibited 
a copy containing contributions by Sophie Bernhardi, Etostorf 
(K. (J. A. v. Eardenberg), Fr. Schlegel, and Sylvester (('•. A. 
v. BOardenberg) . Only two other copies of tin- publication 
are known to exist, which probably account.- for the fact that 
Groedeke (Grundriss, v. p. 23) fails to take notice of Fr. 
Schlegel's contribution, consisting of thirty-one poem-. T 
in part, show interesting variants when compared with the 
text of the Uedichte, 1 SO*), and of the Sammtliche Werke of 
1823: e. (/., Das versunkene 8 Mass (p. 42): EvJenspiegel 
(p. 56) ; Fortunata (p. 1G4). 

Professor Haupt then spoke on The Silver Cord and the 
Golden Bowl. 

Nearly thirty years ago, on April 17, 1891, I presented to the 
University Philological Association a paper on the Book of Ecclesi- 
astes, in which I explained Eccl. 12, 1-7 as an allegorical description 
of senile decay. Grotius (1644) said of these verses: Poeticis locu- 
tionibus, multis intersertis metaplioris, describit scncctutis incom- 
moda. The view which I advanced in 1891 ( JHUC, No. 90, p. 115* J 1 
that a considerable portion of the hook consisted of subsequent ad- 
ditions by various glossators, explanatory, supplemental, illustra- 
tive, polemical, has since been adopted by Siegfried, McNeile, Barton, 
Jastrow, &c. My lecture on Ecclesiastes (1894) was reviewed by 
Siegfried in TLZ 20, 513. My translation of Ecclesiastes was pub- 
lished in 1905 (cf. TLZ 30, 672; 31, 676). 



1 For the abbreviations see the Journal of Biblical Literature, 
vol. 38, p. 142. 



685 1 P- Haupt 5 1 

I explained the silver cord and the golden bowl in Eccl. 12, 6 as 
the spinal cord and the brain, but the breaking of the golden bowl 
does not mean that the brain loses its power when old age sets in, 
as Jastrow states in A Gentle Cynic (Philadelphia, 1919). Nor is 
Jastrow's explanation correct that the hemistich the silver cord is 
severed means: the spine is bent, so that one no longer walks erect, 
although the same interpretation was given by Andre du Laurens 
( AJSL 32, 144) and Grotius {marcescat medulla dorsi, unde fit ut 
dorsum curvet ur). Instead of vase d'or Laurens rendered: aiguierc 
d'or and referred this to the heart. The majority of the modern 
commentators think that the golden bowl and the silver cord denote 
a golden lamp hanging by a silver cord: the cord is severed, the 
lamp falls, the bowl is broken, the oil lost, and the light goes out, 
which is supposed to be a fit emblem of the sudden dissolution of 
the body and the escape of the spirit (so Barton, 1908). For the 
correct interpretation of Zech. 4, 2, on which this explanation is 
based, see JBL 32, 118. According to H. A. Halm (AJSL 32, 141) 
the silver cord is the wick of the lamp. Augusti-DeWette (1809) 
rendered: goldener Leuchter, and Philippson-Landau-Kaempf 
(1863): goldenc Ampel. 

The breaking of the golden bowl and the severance of the silver 
cord do not refer to the breaking of a golden lamp suspended by a 
silver chain, but to apoplexy and paraplegia. The Targum correctly 
explains the golden bowl as the brain {moqrd de-resd) but interprets 
the severance of the silver cord as paralysis of the tongue (it'dldm 
lisSdn ) . The golden bowl denotes not the brain, but the brain- 
cavity, the interior of the skull containing the brain. In the Tal- 
mud {Hull. 45 a ) the brainpan (brain-box, brain-case) is called 
qederd, pot (BT 8, 939, 1. 3; cf. BL 116, ad 36). In Latin, testa 
is used in the same way, while in Italian it is the common word for 
head (French tete) . The German name for brainpan is Hirnschale, 
i. e. brain-bowl. Similarly we find in Greek: cfkvQLov (a diminutive 
of <TKi>(f>os, bowl, cup) as a synonym of KpavLov, cranium; cf. Kapa, 
head, Lat. cerebrum,;, and German Him. Our skull is connected with 
scale, bowl or dish of a balance. Lat. calva may be combined with 
the Greek poetic word /ceXe'jSTj, cup, bowl. We must read in Eccl. 
12, 6: ieruttdq, it is unchained, unfettered, disjoined (not ierateq, 
JBL 36, 46) and terog (a form like iero e , impf. Nifal of ra'd 1 , con- 
formed to the verbs mediae u) . The Targum renders: tehe re'i'd; 
the Peshita: nistahhuq; Grace. Ven. OpavaOij; LXX: dvarpaTrfi which 
can hardly be a corruption of dvappayij or drroppayrj ; the verb dvarpe- 
ireiv means to destroy. 

The correct Latin form is not paraplegia, but paraplegia; rrapa- 
irXrjyla instead of irapcnr\T)£la is Ionic. We say apoplexy, not apo- 



52 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [68(1 

plegia. Paraplegia denotes especially paralysis of both lower J iml*-. 
It is also called spinal paralysis. IT the trouble ii not due to s 

lesion of the spinal cord, hut to ncopla-ni- of 1 lie spina] canal, we 

have paraplegia dolorosa. The ancients, of course, knew nothing of 
embolism and thrombosis (firsi investigated by the Father of modern 
pathology, Virchow, in 1845) hut they had observed that a lesion 
of the spinal cord may produce paralysis of the lower limbs: we 
have an Assyrian sculpture of a Lioness with arrows in her spine 
and both lower limbs paralysed (see Bonomi's Viniveh*, flg. 
cf. Kaulen"'. fig. 97; Maspero, Agypten un<i Aasyrien, Leipsic, 1891, 
fig. 141). Paralysis (especially hemiplegia) and apoplexy are often 

combined, hut there may he apoplexy without paralysis, and paraly- 
sis without apoplexy. 

The Hebrew pessimistic poet calls the sudden loss of consciousness 
caused by the rupture of a blood-vessel in the brain a break of the 
golden hoirl. and he alludes to the interruption of the motor and 
sensory paths which connect the brain with the spinal gray matter 
as a severance of tin silver cord. The gray substance of the spinal 
cord is encased in white. Shakespeare ( )f<icl)< ill 2. 3, 137) speaks 
of Duncan's silver shin laced with golden Mood, hut golden in our 
passage means precious: ef. Golden apples o>? silver branches in 
Prov. 25. 11 (ZDMO 64, 711. n. 2). 

Professor Collitz presented a minor communication on 
Ags. reef nan. 

In Anglo-Saxon we find the following verbs of similar sound and 
meaning: 

(1) cefnan 'to perform, execute, labor, show.' This verb has a 
companion in 0. Xorse cfna ' to perform, execute.' and is derived 
from a prehistoric form *abnjan, connected by ablaut with *6bjan 
' to perform ' = 0. Sax. objan, OHO. voben ( i. e. iioben) , MHG. iieben, 
Mod. G. uben. (Cf. Falk and Torp. German. Wor1scha1z = Fiek, 
Vergl. Worterbuch* in, p. 15 f.) 

(2) efnan 'to even' = 'to level, bring to a level with, to make 
equal.' 

efnan, to he sure, occurs sometimes also in the sense of ' to per- 
form ' as a mere variant of erf nan (Cf. Sievers. Ags. Gramm.* 
§164n., Bulbring, Altengl. Element arbuch, §169b; Toller. Suppl 
s. v. efnan it.) In the meaning of 'to even, to level.' etc., however, 
it must he regarded as a different verb, identical with 0. Xorse 
jafna 'to make straight, sleek, adjust' and OHO. ebanon 'to even." 
These verbs point to a West Germanic weak verb *e&won, for *ibnon, 



687] //. Coll ilz 53 

parallel to Gothic ya-ibnjan and derived, like the latter, from the 
adj. Goth, ibns == W. Germanic *eb'n 'even.' (Cf. Toller's Suppl.s.v. 
efnan I, where the correct etymology is found.) 

(3) rwfnan (pret. pi. rwfndon) 'to endure, suffer, undergo; to do, 
perform, accomplish, carry out,' and 

(4) wrcefrian or arwfnan (pret. arwfnde) 'to bear, endure; to 
bear in mind, ponder; to carry out, practise, perform.' 

In rein's Sprachschatz and Bosworth-Toller's Ags. Dictionary, 
no reference is made under rwfnan to the verb as f nan. The two 
verbs, however, are regarded as identical in Sievers' Ags. Gramm. 
§ 193 n., and in the Glossary to J. W. Blight's Ags. Reader rwfnan 
is correctly derived from *ar-wfnan. The initial r- of rwfnan then 
is identical with the prefix generally appearing in Anglo-Saxon (as 
in the Heliand) as a-, e. g., in a-risan = Mod. Engl, arise or Mod. 
Engl, awaken. The latter again cannot be separated from the 
Gothic prefix us- (=ur- when immediately followed by initial r-) ; 
cf. Ags. <l-risan = Got]\. ur-reisan, Ags. a-rceran=Go. ur-raisjan, 
Ags. a-risan (d-lysan) =Go. us-lausjan, Ags. d-eoren (prt. pi. of 
(i-ceosan) = Go. us-kusans, and numerous similar instances. From 
the fact that in Anglo-Saxon as well as in Old Saxon the form a- 
is never found before an initial vowel, we may infer that in com- 
position with verbs beginning with a vowel the final r of the prefix 
originally remained intact, in conformity with OHG. verbs like 
ar-eiscon, ar-offonon, ar-ougen (see for additional examples Graff. 
Ahd. Spraehschatz I, 396). (Such verbs, however, being in the 
minority as compared with those in which ar- had been changed 
before consonants to a-, the prefix ar- made the impression of an 
irregular element, and was. therefore, either replaced by more 
familiar prefixes (e. g. Ags. ge-dscian, ge-openian, ge-lewan) or re- 
duced to simple r, so as to lose the appearance of a prefix, and to 
become instead the initial consonant of a new verb. 

The reduction of the form ar- to r- has a parallel in the Old 
Icelandic verb reyna 'to prove.' The latter — as I expect to show 
elsewhere more in detail — is the equivalent of "ar-angnian ' to give 
evidence ' or ' to obtain evidence,' a verb found in Mod. German in 
the form er-eignen (earlier er-augnen). It is a peculiar coincidence 
that both in Anglo-Saxon and in Icelandic this r- has apparently 
survived in but a single instance. 

If rwfnan has developed from arwfnan, the question arises whether 
the Ags. verb arwfnan, generally looked at as a compound consisting 
of a + rwfnan, may not be separated into ar -\- wfnan, so as simply 
to represent the earlier form of rwfnan. (The latter view seems to 
be held bv J. R. Clark Hall in his Coneise Ags. Dietionary) . We 



54 Philological Association, 1919-1920 

may feel tempted to decide the matter in favor of the current ex- 
planation on account of the alliteration in Andreas 1. B17: 

rodera rfledend J>a \>u arafnan ne mint, 

where r is regarded ae tlie initial coneonanl of the syllable rasf. 

But the form of the alliteration may be explained here ae due to 
the analogy of such familiar instance* ae H-radan: rwdan, or 
Ci-rceman : rceman, or <i rceran: rceran, or H-reoceani reccean, etc. 

With the means at our disposal it will hardly be possible to 
decide the question with certainty, lint there remains at least the 
possibility of seeing in the or- of wrtefnon a remnant of the prefix 
ar-, though later on (i. e., at a time when rcefnan had become the 
current form) the initial a may have been felt to be of the same 
nature as that in <l-r<ul<ni . fi rlsaii. etc. 

After a discussion of Professor Oollitz'e communication by 
Professor Bright, Professor Bloomfield read the principal 
paper on The Language of the Hittites. 

Following certain preliminary announcements, Professor Friedrich 
Hrozn.v, of the University of Vienna, published in 1917 'Die Spraehe 
der llethiter. ihr Ban und Zugehftrigkeit zum indogermanischen 

Sprachstamm ' (Leipzig, 1017), in which, as says the title, he claims 
that the cuneiform language of this interesting people, excavated 
on the site of the Hittite capital at Boghazkod in Cappadocia, is 
Indo-European. His work will certainly count among the memor- 
able events in the history of language and ethnology. The acumen, 
learning, and infinite diligence displayed, by the author is excelled 
only by the depth of his sincerity which almost reminds one of the 
prophet. One thing is clear without further ado: if his illustra- 
tions are based upon sound decipherment of the cuneiform character 
in which Hittite is written; if his translations are impeccable; and 
if the resulting speech units admit of no other linguistic interpre- 
tations than those proposed, then Hittite must be Indo-European. 
In general. Hronzy's plea that Hittite morphology is Indo-Euro- 
pean is the strongest point in the book. Let us enter with him into 
the heart of the matter. There is a non-thematic, or mi-verb, yami 
which means, rather unexpectedly, 'I make' (not, ( I go'). Its 
conjugation in the present active is as follows: 





Singular 




Plural 


1. 

2. 


yami 
yasi, yesi 




yaweni 
yatteni 


:?. 


yazi. yazzi, yezzi, 


yizzi 


yanzi, yenzi 



639] M. Bloomfield 55 

This paradigm is certainly impressive, and. it has impressed. I 
would remark that the z of the third person forms is not as simple 
as it might seem. We instinctively think with the author that it 
is for t, mouillated by i (cf. Gr. <n for n) . But the participle 
present in Hittite, according to the same grammatical theory, ends 
in za, e. g. adanza 'eating': * adanzi 'they eat.' Now the morpho- 
logical connection between these two types in I. E. is such that the 
third plural of the present in -nti minus the i is the stem of the 
participle ((pepoun: (pepovr-) . The explanation of -zi through pala- 
talization, therefore, leaves za unexplained. We encounter the same 
difficulty several times more: zig is assumed to be the word for 
1 thou,' where both the z and the i are difficult (comparison with Gr. 
av-ye is a whitened sepulchre) . The assumed root ad ' eat ' shows the 
forms ezzazi, ezzazzi 'he eats'; ezzateni 'ye eat'; ezzaten, ezaten, 
* eat ye ' ; and ezzai ' he eats,' flanked by adanzi ' they eat,' and 
adanza 'eating.' Disturbingly the same type of participle papranza 
' cooking ' occurs also as paprandaza (p. 83 ) , and furthermore the 
whole class is supposed to have passive, as well as active value. 
As inspection narrows down to the two elements zi and za there 
steals upon me the sense of the presence of two particles, post- 
positive conglutinates, adverbial, deictic, or localizing, and this im- 
pression is not weakened by the apparent existence of an infinitive- 
supine in -wanzi, -uwanzi, which interchanges with a parallel form 
without -zi, e. g. su-ma-as w T a-al-ah-hu-wa-an-zi u-iz-zi ' he comes to 
annihilate you,' and bi-es-ki-u-wa-an ti-i-ia-u-e-ni ' we come to fur- 
nish (cavalry) '; see p. 91. I am inclined to think that Hittite 
interpretation will have to contend sooner or later with a different 
theory, according to which it is not inflectional at all, in the sense 
of I. E. or even Shemitic. It may be a language which has no 
morphology in the sense to which we are accustomed, but rather 
carries on its correlations by means of deictic, modifying, allusive 
particles of great mobility and freedom of position. I recommend 
the inspection of this same element za in a variety of other con- 
nections, particularly as imbedded in long groups of other particles: 
ZAG -za ' to the right side ' ( which by the way varies with ZAG 
-az; see pp. 4, 11, 13, etc.; nu-za, and nu-za-kan 'now then'; ma-ah- 
ha-an-ma-za-kan 'when further for me'; am-mu-ug-ma-za; am-mu- 
ug-wa-za, am-mu-uk-ka-za, 'I further' and 'me further'; see the 
particle za in the Index to the Grammar, and particularly pp. 102, 
106. 

The present indicative of yami as given above is not the only type 



The type is nominative singular; one would expect adanzas. 



56 Philological Association, 1919-1920 [690 

of present inflection. There is another, about aa glaringly different 
as can be imagined, in which the three lingular forma are repre- 
sented by d&hhi "I give,' datti or daitti 'thou givest,' and dai ' he 
gives. 1 Many verba ~h"\\ freelj forma of l > * * t ] i types. Thus arnumi 
•| bring' makes its second singular either arnuii or arnutti; tin- 
third person of dfi 'give' ia either dai or -dfiizzi, and the inflexion 
of pS 'give,' or 'draw' ia in the singular: 

1. pflimi or pahhi, ' I give,' 

2. pfiisi ur paitf i. • thou gives! .' 
:{. paizzi or pai, ' he gives.' 

The thought comes to the mind of the author, wrell-versed u 

]u> is in [. E. organisms, that the inflectional pahhi, paitti. pfii 
represents the o- verb or thematic conjugation. With pahhi he com- 
pares I.E. bhero (0Vpw), but this is hardly more than what the 
physicians call a placebo. The h of the form is a persistent 'form- 
ative* element (p. 177 I so that the ending i- hi. The form dai 
reminds Hrozn^ of <ir. 4>4pei, itself problematic; Scheftelowitz thinks 
of Aryan e (=ai) the middle ending of the 1m and 3d singular 
perfect (p. 1. note 2). No real conviction of either speaker or 
hearer goes with this. Again, if we confront mi and ti as first and 
second person suffixes, we can hardly fail to remember the same two 
suffixes in Arzawa at the end of nouns in the sense of •mine' and 
'thine' (Knudtson, Zwei Arzawa Briefe, p. 41; Bugge, p. 100: Torp, 
p. 113). These same suffixes, as well as forms mil, and ta (du), 
appear also in the Boghazkfli documents (p. 120, and 12S) with the 
full measure and weight of non-Indo-European conglutinates ; ex- 
planation of one without the other seems to be illusory. It is as 
though in I. E. Greek one could say not only <pafii ' I say.' but also 
o'Uo-fju ' my house.' 

Perhaps second in importance as regards organic appearance and 
breadth of scope are the noun-stems in a. i. and u, making nomina- 
tives in as, is, and us. An Indo-Europeanist's mind is sure to 
respond to the stimulus of u-stems. This category when oxytone, is 
the very own of primary adjectival function, describing physical 
properties. In Latin adjectives in u have regularly been extended 
into u-i stems. In order to be on familiar ground I cite first Latin 
suavis, brevis. levis, pinguis. mollis, tenuis; in order to show both 
the extent and primary lexical character of the same type I cite in 
addition Skt. ti;sus = Goth. J>aursus. 'dry'; Skt. prthus = Avestan 
parabu ; Gr. irXarvs 'broad'; Skt. mrdus = Gr. /3pa5t's 'slow'; Skt. 
purfis = Gr. TroXe 'much'; Skt. acus = Gr. wkvs 'swift'; Sk. urns 
= Gr. evpvs 'broad'; Skt. rjtis, 'straight'; rbhiis 'clever'; Greek 
yXvKvs 'sweet'; fiaOvs 'deep'; Goth, tulgus 'firm.' In early I. E. 



691 | M. Bloom /id </ 57 

u-stems have scarcely a respectable rival in this semantic field, 
except perhaps the primary adjectives in -ro ( ipvdpo-s = Skt. rudh- 
irfis = Lat. ruber, 'red'; Skt. citra-s = OHG heitar. 'bright'). 
Of both these types of adjectives, which pervade to this day every 
nook and corner of I. E. speech, not a single one is to be found in this 
Hittite of 1500 b. c. ; yet their type of inflection is supposed to have 
remained over. It is as though a Parisian salad had been carried 
through the house of Hatti, and had left behind nothing but its 
soupcon of onion aroma. The results of speech mixture are varied 
and not easy to predict, but it is difficult to conceive processes appar- 
ently so concerted and intentional as to wipe out all such words as 
'sweet,' 'short,' Might,' "'thick,' 'thin,' 'soft,' 'broad,' 'wide,' 'dry,' 
f swift,' etc., etc., of the invading language, yet leave behind the 
inflection of these words in the orphaned result, so to speak. And 
the same conditions characterize the i and a- stems; here also there 
is not left a single member of the I. E. lexicon. 

iStill a theory as to linguistic appurtenance derives its strength 
from cumulation. Hittite exercises its most bewitching enchantment 
in the domain of the pronouns. The personal pronouns present 
themselves in the following rhythmic shape: 





I 








Thou 


Nom. 


"g> "ga, 


ugga 






zig. ziga, zigga 


Gen. 


ammel 








tuel 


Dat. Ace. 


ammug, 


ammuga, 


etc. 


tug. tuga. etc. 




We 








Ye 




anzas 








sumes. sumaS 




anzel 








sumel, sumenzan 




anzas 








sumas. sumes* 



After recovering from the general effect of this list there are a 
few interesting circumscriptions, Ug, etc.. are, of course, assumed 
to be ego; zig etc. are compared with <rvye. But it is unlikely that 
the g of one form is not the saime as the g of the other, and zi is 
not <rv, nor, so far as can be seen, anything else Indo-European. 
The forms ammug, etc., are both nom. and ace. they are compared 
witli e/xoiye, but it seems far more natural again to identify their sec- 
ond syllable with the fundamental ug. etc. Therefore, the same is 
true of the sound ug in tug. etc. These and many other difficulties 
can perhaps be ironed out by assuming sundry analogies, and there 
certainly is here a very alluring air of Indo-Europeanism. The 
climax is reached in the relative, interrogative and indefinite pro- 
noun: masc. nom. kuis, neuter kuit. gen. kuel. The indefinite is 
also expressed by duplication: kuis kuis, neut. kuit kuit, or by 
kuis ki, neut. kuit ki. 



58 Philological Association, 1919-19 20 [692 

The reader will ask point-blank: 'I- llittite tndo European? 1 I 

answer that I believe it i<. hut t hat I do not feel quite certain. 
When Toeharian came to li^'ht the numerals alone were enough to 

settle its status. When Tocharian came to Lighl tin- nouns of rela- 
tionship were quite sufficienl to determine its character: pficar, 

'father,'; mfiear. 'mother,' prncar. 'brother/ The llittite words for 
father and mother arc either Anatolian nursery words: addai or 
attas, 'father'; annas • mother'; or they are written m Babylonian 
( Shetnit ic) : A.BTJ* lather '; \iu-i.\ ' of my brother '; \II \'l D : sister.' 
The llittite before us has, with the exception of the noun wftdar 
which is also written widaT: genitive wedenas. uetcnas. wideni. 
hardly a single other I. E. noun; the inflection of the noun is by no 
means conclusively Indo-European. The verbal inflections seem at 
points (not all of them brought out here) bewilderingly Indo-Euro- 
pean; at other points they are not less bewilderingly mystifying. 
From the point of view of verb etymology there are not half a dozen 
verbs that arc securely Indo-European, and the total of etymology, 
with the exception of pronominal etymology — the strong point — is 
the weakest link in the chain. The heaping of conglutinative par- 
ticles ( ma-ah-ha-an-ma-za-kan 'when further mine,' p. 39) com- 
bined with the conglutinative use of personal pronouns, is non-Indo- 
European, and deserves special investigation. Finally, the over-ripe 
condition of language at the earliest dating known to I.E. speech 
history (loOO b. c. ) bids us hold still a while longer, on the off- 
chance that we are facing a perplexing illusion. 

Three hundred and forty-first meeting. 
May 81, 1920. 

Professor Mustard was elected president; Professor Robin- 
son, vice-president ; and Professor Kurrelmeyer, secretary, for 
1920-1921. 

Professor Haupt presented the following minor communi- 
cations. The Holy Sepulcher: 

I have been familiar with the Holy Sepulcher from my youth: 
there is a model of it in the Chapel of the Holy Sepulcher on the 
road leading to the athletic field of the Gymnasium Augustum Gor- 
license 1 which I attended from 1867 to 1876; it was constructed 



1 Established (on the basis of a school connected with the Church 
of St. Catharine and St. Nicholas, dating from the 11th cent.) in 



HO: 1 .] P. Haupt 59 

under the direction of the burgomaster of Gorlitz, Georg Emerich, 
who made two pilgrimages to Jerusalem in 1465 and 1476 (TLZ 41, 
467 ). a A brook at the northwestern end of Gorlitz is called Kidron. 
The Chapel of the Holy Sepulcher in Gorlitz represents the chapel in 
the form in which it was restored after the Kharazmians had plun- 
dered the churches of Jerusalem in 1244 (REs 7, 54, 21 and 53, 52; 
8, 692, 25). 

The Father of Biblical Geography, Edward Robinson, stated in 
1841 that the traditional site of the Holy Sepulcher, NW of the 
Temple, could not be the true one. This locality would seem to have 
been within the walls of Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. 
But the place of execution must have been outside the city, in a 
conspicuous place, beside a frequented road leading to one of the 
gates, near a garden with a new rock-cut tomb. Nor can Golgotha 
have been the Mamilla Pool (JAOS 39, 143, b) NW of the Jaffa 
Gate, or above Jeremiah's Grotto outside the Damascus Gate. 

Golgotha is identical with Topheth in the Valley of Hinnom, S of 
the Harsith Gate in the southeastern corner of Jerusalem (JBL 37, 
233; 38, 45). Also the name of the valley (now filled up with rub- 
bish) between the eastern and western hills, which led to the 
Topheth in the Valley of Hinnom, was Topheth Valley. The name 
Tiiropa>on (EB 11 15, 332) Valley, given by Josephus, is due to a 
misunderstanding of the original Hebrew name ge-has-sefot, in 
which sefot, the Hebrew form (Neh. 3, 13) of the Aram, tefdt, 
Topheth, was misinterpreted as cheeses (Tyropceon, roc rvpoiroiui', 
means of the cheesemakers) on the basis of 2 S 19, 27 (EB 3091. 
2423, n. 4). According to Wetzstein (ZAT 3, 276) sefot in 2 S 17, 
29 denotes thick cream of cow's milk (not ewe's milk) in small 
cylindrical wooden containers (see cut in RB 1742). In Damascus, 
cream is called sifd-'l-halib, top of the milk (cf. Austrian Obers) . 
The word in 2 S 17, 29 should be spelled with 4, not s. 

Golgotha was a rubbish-heap like the Roman Monte Testaccio, 
formed of potsherds and other refuse. It was therefore known also 
as Potters' Field, and afterwards is was called Field of Blood, be- 
cause it was used by the Romans as a place of execution. The two 
explanations of Aceldama, given in Matt. 27, 8 and Acts 1, 19, 



1565 in a Franciscan friary founded in 1234. The first rector was 
Melanehthon's friend Petrus Vincentius who had been rector of the 
University of Wittenberg in 1560. See B. Meth, Schulgesohichten 
aus dem alten Gorlitzer Kloster (Berlin, 1909) pp. 5. 9. 

2 For the abbreviations, see Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 38, 
p. 142. 



60 Philological Association, 19 19-1920 

represent Inter Legends. Matt. 27. 10 i- baaed on ■ misinterpret* 1 

tion of a line of the Maccabea n poem m Zee h. 11. 1 3 ( misattrihuted 

in Matt. 27. 9 to Jeremiah) where we mus< read < llmi-iaear. into 
the treasury (Peshita: bit-gd&zA) instead of < Ihni-iorrr, to the 
potter. I leh. hiri'ir, treasury, is a Inform of orar, from tja<;dr = 
nuriir (NBSS 200) just as we have in Aramaie both [<U ,ir an( l 

o//(//% heap of stones. 

The original form of Golgotha was qilqiltA, refuse, which i- used 
in the Targums for Heb. aspdi and karsit (JBL 37, 233). The form 
Golgotha, .skull, represents a popular etymology: the Romans may 
have called the Harsith (». e. potsherd-dump) Mons Testaceus, and 
since testa means both potsherd and skull, this name may have been 
interpreted as Place of Skulls. After the Harsith had been used by 
the Romans as the place of crucifixion (GJV*, Register, p. 72 ,J ) for 
a number of years, skulls may have been more in evidence there 
than potsherds. 

The view that this place was called Golgotha because it resembled 
a, skull, is not satisfactory; nor can we accept the old legend that 
the name was derived from the skull of Adam which was buried 
there (Dillm. Chrest. Aeth. 16). During the crucifixion the blood 
of Christ trickled down on the body of Adam and restored him to 
life (DB 2, 226 B ). The skull and the bones at the base of a crucifix 
represent the skull and bones of Adam (Rlv> 7. 52, 25). 

The substitution of Golgotha for qilqilta was favored by the fact 
that q is often pronounced like g; even /.- may become g under the 
influence of an I. r, or n : Assyr. Tiikulti-pal-emrra appears in OT 
as Tiglath-pileser. and Sarru-Kenu as Saigon (JBL 36, 141. n. 3). 

The Jews did not crucify persons alive, and even when they gib- 
beted criminals after their execution, they interred them by night- 
fall; but the Romans allowed the bodies of crucified malefactors to 
decay on the cross. Jeremy Taylor (1649) calls Golgotha a place 
of death and dead bones, polluted and impure. The Mohammedans 
give the Church of the Holy Sepulcher the nickname Kanisat-al- 
Qumamah, Church of Rubbish, instead of Kanisat-al-Qiiamah, Church 
of the Resurrection (RB 540* )• 

The full text of this paper has been published in vol. 59 of the 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, pp. 237-244. 

Gallows and Cross: 

Qallows is combined with Lith. saiga, pole, post: Arm. dzalk; 
but it seems to be an adaptation of the Biblical (iolgotha which is 
interpreted in Matt. 27. 33; Mark 15. 22; John 19, 17 as tcpaviov 
T07T05 (Vulgate: Calvariae locus). Golgotha represents the Aram. 



0951 P. Haupt 01 

gulgiUtd. skull, which appears in Arabic as gdlgalah or gdlagaJi. 
The original meaning is round. The Syriac form is gagdltd. One 
of the Ts was elided, just as we say fugleman for fiwgelman = Ger- 
man Fliigelmann. BA 1, 114 (c/. AJP 27, 155) I suggested that 
heifer, young cow, was a Semitic loanword, and ZDMG 65, 107, n. 3 
I pointed out that German Hammel might be the Arab, hdmal. 
I have recently noticed that Kask in the list facing p. 302 of his 
Undersogelse om (let gamle Nordiske eller Islandske Sprogs Oprin- 
tlelse (Copenhagen. ISIS ) combined German Hummel with Arab. 
hdmal. Originally gallon's (Goth, galga, OHG galgo, AS gealga) 
denoted the cross on which Christ was crucified. In Ulfila's Gothic 
version we find c. g. in Mark 15, 32: atsteigadau nu uf ]>amma galgin 
for KaTafia.T<a vvv atrb rov aravpov For ToXyoda Ulfilas writes Gaul- 
gaupa (with au =-6). The cross was the Roman gallows. Lord 
Byron used ravenstone for gallows, which is an adaptation of the 
German Rabenstein, 1 i. e. a rock (eminence, hillock) where the 
ravens feed on the bodies of gibbeted malefactors. Horace (Ep. 1, 
16, 48) says: Non pa sees in crnee corvos. In German the raven 
is called also Galgenvogel. Mount Golgotha corresponds in some 
respects to our Gallows Hill (German Galgenberg) . 

English nickname and German nechen: 

The term nickname, a name given in ridicule or pleasantry, is a 
misdivision of eke-namc, just as we have an adder (German Otter) 
for a na dder = Ger. Natter, or aitchbone (var. edge-bone) for natch- 
bone ( natch = Lat. nates) and orange for Pers. ndrdnj. On the 
other hand we say newt for ewt (=> eft) and lute for Arab, al-'ud, 
the lute. Eke-namc, which appears in German as Ekelname, is sup- 
posed to be an added name (ef. ON T aukanafn, Greek eirwi'vixia, Ital. 
soprannome. Span, sobrcnombre) from efce = Lat. augere, to increase, 
add (av^aveiv) . Eke, which we have in the phrase to eke out, is 
connected with Ger. audi, also, prop, in addition to. Ger. Ekelname 
represents a popular etymology, combining Eke with Ekcl, formerly 
Eckel, disgust, which is connected with heikel. fastidious. In Uh- 
land's Metzelsuppenlied the adjective elder means fastidious. The 
term Metzelsuppe does not mean Wurstsuppe, as stated in Ludwig 
FrankeFs edition of Uhland's poems, but Schweinschlachten or 
Schlachtfest (cf. JBL 38. 144. n. 5). 



l Cf. Goethe's Faust, 1. 431)0; also the beginning of the last stanza 

of Ghamisso's poem Die Sonne bring! es an den Tug (1827): Die 

Edben Ziehen krachzend zumal \ naeh dem Hochgericht, zu halten 
ihr Mahl. 



62 Philological Association,; 1919-1920 [696 

But nickname is evidently identical with Ger. A'"7, VMMfU , quoted 
in Grimm's Worterbuch (7, 519"). Ger. necken, which was not com- 
mon before the end of the 18th century, means to tease, rally, chaff, 
banter. The French nom de nique, quoted in CD, Le nol recorded 
by Littre; he gives only the phrase favre l<i nique n quelqu'un and 
nique as the name of a demon in Normandy [La nu rt "Nique). The 
latter may be the Ger. "Neck or Nix. water-sprite, fern. Nixe, water- 
fay (c/. Eng. nix, nixy, nis) which is supposed to be connected with 
vi'^eiv, to wash, batbe. Nor can Hick in Old Nick, the devil, be a 
shortened form of St. Nicholas. In the first scene of Wagner'a 
Bhemgold Alberich calls the Rhine-daughters ( EB" 28, 240", below) 
Nicker, and at the beginning of the third act of the Gatterdammer- 
uiifi Woglinde asks Siegfried: Hat dich ein Nicker geneckt, while 
Siegfried says to the Khine-danghtei "8 : Euch Neckern geb' ich ihn 
(the ring) nie. 1 In Cornwall the fishermen say merry-maids and 
merry-men instead of mermaids (Ger. Meerweibchen) and mermen 
(BBn 18, 171*, n. 1). Sanders says that neckisch means in der 
Weise cities Necken oder Kobolds (gnome, goblin). Kobold (from 
which the name cobalt is derived, just as nickel, which is usually 
found associated with cobalt, denotes originally a fairy of the mine) 
is defined as lustiger Ncckefjeist or neckischer Hausgeist. In Licht- 
wer's Fabeln (1748) we read: Der Kobold hubsche Madchens neckte. 

Littre is inclined to combine the phrase faire la nique a quelqu'un 
= lui temoigner moqucrie et mepris par un certain signe de tete 
with Ger. nicken, the verb niquer meaning branlcr la tete. He 
might have referred to 2 K 19, 22 = Is. 37, 22; Pss. 22, 7; 44, 14; 
109, 25; Job 16, 4; Lam. 2, 15; Sir. 12, 8; 13, 7; Matt. 27, 39; Mark 
15, 29, where shaking (wagging, tossing) the head indicates scorn 
and mockery (EB 1981; DB 2, 316 b ; translation of Psalms in Poly- 
chrome Bible, p. 171. 1. 39). Also in English, to nick had the mean- 
ing to nod, wink '(to nick with nay) =Lat. nictare ; but nick in 
nickname must be combined with nick, notch, which is identical with 
nick, point (in the nick of time). •Similarly nag, from which the 
verb to nag is derived, denoted a nick or notch. Weigand 3 combines 
Ger. necken with nagen, to gnaw. To nick means to hit, and hit 
may denote a stroke of sarcasm, censure, rebuke. In the same way 
dig, thrust, punch, poke, may be used of sarcasm and criticism. We 
also say to poke fun at a person for to ridicule him. 

Grimm's Worterbuch combines Ger. necken, to tease, with Nacken, 
neck; but necken. to tease, is identical with necken. to smell, to 
taste: it denoted originally a pungent odor or taste, a penetrating 



1 Cf. also the Neckereien of Undine and Kiihleborn in FouquS's 
Undine, especially cc. 7 and 15. 



697 | P. Haupt; A. Ember 63 

strut or flavor. The original form was ecken which is connected 
w itli Ecke, edge, corner. Skeat suggested that notch was the OF 
oc// c. nick, nock, notch. Also nudge is not an assibilated form of 
knock, but derived from edge, egg. The primary connotation is 
sharp edge or point (Lat. acies, Greek dais) so that nickname would 
correspond to Ger. Spitzname. In Swiss dialects ack or nack signify 
a tang in food or drink, and tang means originally point {cf. our 
pungent, poignant; Pliny 31, 114 says: nitrum adulteratum pungit). 
The Germans say: Dieses Bier hat eincn Stich (French cette Mere 
se pique: Ital. questa birra ha la punta) so that nick in nickname 
would correspond to the German Stichelei (French piquerie and 
paroles piquantes; Ital. motto pungente) . Ger. sticheln is con- 
nected with Lat. instigare and Greek stigma. In certain parts of 
England tang was used of the sting of an insect or reptile. Sting 
may denote the mental pain inflicted by a biting or cutting remark 
or sarcasm. 

Also French agacer (e. g. agacer, or aguicher, un chien) is de- 
rived from Lat. acuerc; a connection with agace, magpie (OHG 
ttgalstra) or Ger. hetzen is impossible. OF adder = obstupescere in 
Jer. 31, 29; Ezek. 18, 2 {Les peres ont mange des raisins verts, et 
Us dents des enfants en sont agacees or Les pcres mangeront des fruits 
neides. et les enfants en auront les dents agacees means to unedge. 
LXX has in Jer. ai/xwdiav, and in Ezek. yofupi&Zeiv (cf. Sir. 30, 10), 
The Hebrew original has Abot akclil (Ezek. iokelu) bosr ue-sinne 
banim (Ez. hab-banim) tiqhena, and qahd undoubtedly means to be 
blunt, dull; cf. Eccl. 10, 10 (JBL 36, 86). The Graec. Ven. renders 
there : eai> vapKrj 6 aidrjpos. 

Professor Ember spoke on The Etymological Equivalent 
in Egyptian of Hebrew haze, ' breast.' 

Hebrew haze, Aramaic hadid, Assyrian irtu (for "iztu) , ' breast,' 
appears in Arabic in hidd'un, ' opposite, over against.' The semantic 
development in the Arabic word is: breast, front, opposite. Arabic 
hdd('i means 'to be over against, opposite to.' 1 In Minaean 
lidit signifies l correspondence.' I am inclined to believe that the 
etymological equivalent of the word in Egyptian is found in hzi. 
1 to reward, praise ' (originally to place a thing over against another 
thing), also 'to approach.' Hzut means in Egyptian 'reward, 
praise.' Similarly, Arabic 'aza, to face, front, be opposite { , iza , un = 



1 Professor Blondheim called my attention to Italian dirimpetto. 
Cf. also English abreast which in nautical language is used in the 
sense of 'opposite.' /fi£ //ftty- 

9 193] 



JUH 2 



u ^£Hs, 



"fr 



ILLINOIS 



<;| Philological Association, ID ID- Hi to [698 

'opposite, in front ') is etymologieally connected with Egyptian /-:«, 
'reward, recompense, 5 and /.:■/', 'hasten, advance.' .For the develop- 
ment in meaning in Egyptian hz{ 'to approach 1 (as well as in 
/:/ 'hasten') cf. Arabic qadama 'to approach/ Literally " t<> front.' 
Cf. also Arabic qablu, 'before,' qabala, -draw near,' q&bala, f to face, 
be opposite, compensate,' and 'aqbala, ' to advance.' Also tayaggahOf 
'to advance,' from uaijhuii. ' face' 

Professor Collitz read a paper on Three Philological Anni- 
versaries. 

The anniversaries commented upon were those of three works that 
have played a prominent part in the development of Comparative 
Indo-European and Comparative Germanic Philology, viz. Franz 
Bopp's t'ber das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache (Frank 
furt a. AT.. 1816); Rasmus K. Rask'a prize essay Undersogelse om 
rf<t ga/mle Nordiske eller Islands].!' Bprogs Oprindelse (i. e., "In 
quiry into the Origin of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language,' 
Copenhagen, 1818) : and the first volume of Jacob Grimm's Deutsche 
Grammatik (G5ttingen, 1819). 

Professor Blondheim read a paper on The Origin of 
Medieval Bible Translations among the Jews in Romance 
Countries. 

Agreements in vocabulary and method of translation between the 
Old Latin translations of the Bible and mediaeval Jewish versions 
or vocabularies of the Old Testament in French. Spanish. Italian and 
other Romance tongues were pointed out, and various hypotheses as 
to the possible cause of these agreements discussed. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

The Partitions of the Babylonian Ark. P. Haupt, - - 27 

The Causes of Phonetic Change. II. Collitz, 30 

The Individuality of Speech. J. W. Bright, - - - 32 

Vergil's Apprenticeship. T. Frank, ----- 35 
The Hindu Practice of Giving Animals Strong Drink. M. 

Bloomfield, - 36 

The Golden Psalms. P. Haupt, ------ 37 

Pi>schulle-Pistol(e). W. Kurrelmeyer, ... 40 
Uexotisme sentimental dans la litterature francaise an dix- 

uraricme siecle. G. Ciiinard, 42 

Euripides and the Radicals. P. Siiorey, 43 

The Logos in Goethe's " Faust." P. Haupt, 44 
The Linguistic Affinities of Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. T. 

Michelson, 45 

The Word Logos. J. E. Snyder, ------ 45 

A Xote on Elizabeth and Essex. H. C. Lancaster, - - 45 

The Poems of Habbakuk. P. Haupt, - - . - - - 4(5 

Rostorf's Dichter-Garten. W. Kurrelmeyer, 50 

The Silver Cord and the Golden Bowl. P. Haupt, - - 50 

Anglo-Saxon rwfnan. H. Collitz, ----- 52 

The Language of the Hittites. M. Bloomfield, - - 54 

The Holy Sepulcher. P. Haupt, - - - - - - 58 

Gallows and Cross. P. Haupt, ... - 60 

English nickname and German neclcen. P. Haupt, - - 61 
The Etymological Equivalent in Egyptian of Hebrew haze, 

' breast.' A. Ember, 63 

Three Philological Anniversaries. H. Collitz, 64 
The Origin of Mediaeval Bible Translations among the Jews 

in Romance Countries. D. S. Bloxdiieim 64 



65 



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STATE BUREAUS 

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The Johns Hopkins Press of Baltimore 



American Journal of Insanity. E. N. Brush, J. M. Mosher, C. K. Clarke, 
C. M. Campbell aud A. M. Barrett, Editors. Quarterly. 8vo. Volume LXX"VI in 
progress. 85 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

American Journal of Mathematics. Edited by Frank Morley, with the cooperation 
of A. Cohen, Charlotte A. Scott, A. B. Coble, and other mathematicians. Quart- 
erly. 8vo. Volume XLII in progress. 86 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

American Journal of Philoloary. B. L. Gildersleeve and C. W. E. Miller, Editors. 
Quarterly. 8vo. Volume XLI in progress. 85 per volume. (Foreign postage fifity cents.) 

Beltraige zur Assyriologie and semitischen Sprachwiggenschaft. Paul Hauft 
and Friedrich Delitzsch, Editors. Volume X in progress. 

Elliott Monographs in the Romance Languages and Literatures. E. C. Arm. 
strong, Editor. 8vo. 83 per series. Six numbers have appeared. 

Hesperia. Hermann Collitz, Henry Wood and James W. Bright, Editors. Fourteen 
numbers have appeared. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. Monthly. 4to. Volume XXXI in progress. 88 
per year. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. 8vo. Volume XIX in progress. 85 per volume. 
(Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 

Johns Hopkins University Circular, including thje President's Report, Annuai Regis- 
ter, and Medical Department Catalogue. Monthly (except February, June, August 
and September.) 8vo. 81 per year. 

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Education. E. F. Buchner and C. M. Camp- 
bell, Editors. 8vo. Two numbers have appeared. 

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Under 

the direction of the Departments of History, Political Economy, and Political Science. 

Monthly. 8vo. Volume XXXVIII in progress. 83.50 per volume. 
Modern Language Notes. J. W. Bright, Editor-in-Chief, G. Gruenbaum, W. Kurbkl- 

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85 per volume. (Foreign postage, fifty cents.) 
Reprint of Economic Tracts. J. H. Hollander, Editor. Fourth series in progress. 

82.00. 
Reports of the Maryland Geological Survey, Edited by E. B. Mathews. 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. L. A. Bauer, Editor. 

Quarterly. 8vo. Vol. XXV in progress. 83 per volume. (Foreign postage, 25 cents.) 



Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve. 527 pp. 8vo. 86. 
Btudies in Honor of A. Marshall Elliott. Two volumes. 8vo. 450 and 334 pp. 87.50 
Thb Eclogues of Baptista Mantuanus. By W. P. Mustard. 156 pp. Crown 8vo. 81.50. 
The Piscatory Eclogues of J acopo Sannazaro. By W. P. Mustard. 94 pp. Crown 8 vo. 81. 
The Eclogues of Faustus Andrelinus and Joannes Arnollettus. By W. P. Mustard. 

123 pp. Crown 8vo. $1.50. 
Diplomatic Negotiations of American Nava* Officers, 1778-1883. By C. O. Paul 1 in. 

380 pp. 12mo. 82. 
The Diplomacy of the War of 1812. By F. A. Updyke. 504 pp. 12mo. 82.50. 
Early Diplomatic Relations between the United States and Mexico. By W. JR. 

Manning. 418 pp. 12mo. 82.25. 
West Florida Controversy, 1798-1813. By I. J. Cox. 702 pp. 12mo. 83. 
ah Outline of Psychobiology. By Knight Dunlap. 145 pp. 84 cuts. Royal 8vo. 82.00, 
The Creed of the Old Sowth. By B. L. Gildersleeve. 128 pp. Crown 8vo. 81. 
The Life and Stories of the Jaina Savior ParsvanAtha. By M. Bloomfield, 266 pp 

8vo. 83.00. 

American Citizenship and Economic Welfare. By J. H. Hollander. 132 pp. 16mo. 
81.25. 

A complete list of publications sent on request. 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

BALTIMORE 

Founded 1876 



A FACULTY OF 375 PROFESSORS, V--OCIATES, INSTRUC- 
TORS, AND LECTURERS 



SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND WELL-EQUIPPED 
LABORATORIES 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
Degrees A. M. and Ph. D. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

Degree M. D. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

Degree A. B. 

(Open to Men) 



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING 

Degrees B. Eng. and S. B. in Cheh. 

(Open to Men) 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 

Degree S. B. 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 

Degrees D. P. H., S. D. and S. B. in Hyg. 
(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES 

With A. M., A. B., and S. B. Credits 

(Open to Men and Women) 



SUMMER COURSES FOR GRADUATES IN MEDICINE 



EVENING COURSES IN BUSINESS ECONOMICS, SOCIAL 

ECONOMICS, AND ENGINEERING 

(Open to Men and Women) 



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Maryland Forestry Bureau 



c 



ij(U'.C".»*J< 



New Series, 1921 Whole Number 331 

No. 3 



THE 

JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY CIRCULAR 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 
1921-1922 



blaltimobe, mabtland 

Published by the Univebsity 

Issued Mabch, Apbil, June, July. Octobeb, Novembeb 



JUNE, 1921 



Entered, October 21, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., as second class matter, under 
Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917. Authorized on July 3, 1918. 



COLLEGE COURSES FOR TEACHERS 
1921-1922 




Baltimore 

The Johns HorKiNS Press 

1921 



CALENDAR, 1921-1922 



College Courses for Teachers begin Monday, October 10, 1921. 
Thanksgiving Day falls on Thursday, November 24, 1921. All classes 

suspended. 
The Christmas Recess begins Friday morning, December 23, 1921. 
Exercises will be resumed Tuesday afternoon, January 3, 1922. 
College Courses for Teachers Mid-year Examinations begin February 

2, 1922. 
Commemoration Day will be observed Wednesday, February 22, 1922. 

All classes suspended. 
The Spring Recess begins Thursday morning, April 13, and closes 

Wednesday evening, April 20, 1922. 
College Courses for Teachers close Saturday, June 3, 1922. 



REGISTRATION 



Blank forms of application for admission to these courses 
may be obtained from the Kegistrar of the Johns Hopkins 
University, and are to be filled up by those not previously 
registered and returned to the Director on or before October 
1, 1921. Eegistration of former students should be made on 
or before October 1. 

For the new regulations concerning registration, privilege 
of late registration, payment of fees, and admission to classes, 
see expenses, pages 11-12. 

The Director's office, Eoom 217, Gilman Hall, Homewood, 
will be open daily from September 19 to October 1 (3-5 p. m., 
Monday to Friday; 10 a. m. to 12 m. Saturday). 



INSTRUCTORS 



Paul Haupt, Ph. D. 



Biblical Literature 



W. W. Spence Professor of the Semitic Languages. 

James W. Bright, Ph. D. Anglo-Saxon 

Caroline Donovan Professor of English Literature. 

Lorrain S. Hulburt, Ph. D. Mathematics 

Collegiate Professor of Mathematios. 

Wilfred P. Mustard, Ph. D. Latin 

Professor of Latin. 
Edward F. Buchner, Education 

Director of the College Courses for Teachers ; Professor of Education. 

David M. Robinson, Ph. D. Art 

W. H. C. Vickers Professor of Archaeology. 

J. Elliott Gilpin, Ph. D. Chemistry 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry. 

Knight Dunlap, Ph. D. Psychology 

Professor of Experimental Psychology. 

Gilbert Chinard, L. es L. French 

Professor of French. 
Tenney Frank, Ph. D. Latin 

Professor of Latin. 
H. Carrington Lancaster, Ph. D. French 

Professor of French Literature. 
William W. Ford, M. D., D. P. H. . Hygiene 

Associate Professor of Bacteriology. 

John C. French, Ph. D. English 

Associate Professor of English. 

Ralph V. D. Magoffin, Ph. D. Art 

Associate Professor of Greek and Roman History. 

Robert B. Roulston, Ph. D. German 

Associate Professor of German. 

Florence E. Bamberger, A. M. Education 

Associate Professor of Education. 

Buford Jennette Johnson, Ph.D. Psychology 

Associate Professor of Psychology. 

Francis D. Murnaghan, Ph. D. Mathematios 

Associate Professor of Applied "Mathematics. 

William Rosenau, Ph. D. Old Testament Literature 

Associate in 'Post-Biblical Hebrew. 

Frank R. Blake, Ph. D. Ancient History 

Associate in Oriental Languages. 

5 



College Courses for Teachers 



[108 



GUSTAV GbUENBAUM, I'll. D. 

Associate in Romance Languagi I. 

Fowler D. Brooks, A. M. 

Associate in Education. 

David E. Weglein, Ph. D. 

Associate in Education. 

Samuel E. Whitem.w, 

Instructor in Drawing. 

Charles C. Thach, M.S. 

Assistant in History and Political Science. 

Kay M. Merrill, A. M. 

Instructor in French. 

Francis E. A. Litz, Ph. D. 

Instructor in English. 

Lawrence M. Kiddle, A. M. 

Instructor in French. 

Josfi Kobles y Pazos 

Instructor in Spanish. 

Thomas C. Whitner, Jr., Ph. D. 

Instructor in Chemistry. 

Leslie C. Beard, Jr., A. B. 

Assistant in Chemistry. 

Alfred Breit. 
Chao Ming Chen 
Victor Dulac, Ph. D. 
Albert L. Hammond, A. B. 



J tat i 'in 

Education 

Education 

Drawing 

Political Science 
French 
English 
Frt nch 

Spa 71 isle 

Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Russian 

Chinese 

French 

Philosophy 

Journalism 



G. Ellis Porter, A. B. 

Editorial Staff, The Evening Sun, Baltimore. 

Raymond P. Dougherty, Ph. D. Old Testament Literature 

Professor of Biblical Literature, Goucher College. 

Katherine J. Gallagher, Ph. D. History 

Professor of History, Goucher College. 

Annette B. Hopkins, Ph. D. English 

Professor of English, Goucher College. 

Ernest P. Kuhl, Ph. D. • English 

Professor of English, Goucher College. 

A. Irene Miller, A. M. English 

Assistant Professor of English, Goucher College. 



GENERAL STATEMENT 



From its beginning in 1876 the Johns Hopkins University 
has endeavored to widen its usefulness by offering from time 
to time extended and systematic courses of public lectures. 
These have included a great variety of subjects and have 
followed different methods of treatment. Almost continu- 
ously since 1890 special courses of class lectures or "lesson 
courses" have been given from year to year, and many 
teachers and other persons in Baltimore and vicinity have 
availed themselves of these opportunities for systematic 
instruction in the subjects selected. Many teachers have 
completed one or more of these courses of public educational 
lectures at the University and have received certificates upon 
passing the required examinations. All this work was done 
without any reference to credit toward an academic degree. 

In continuation and extension of this form of public ser- 
vice, the Johns Hopkins University, acting in co-operation 
with Goucher College, has offered since 1909 courses of in- 
struction to teachers and others whose vocations prevent their 
attendance upon college lectures and recitations at the usual 
hours. The same arrangement is continued as a basis for the 
courses announced below for 1921-1922. It is the primary 
aim of these courses to provide teachers in public and private 
schools with special opportunities for further personal culture 
and for increasing their professional equipment and efficiency. 
These courses are similar in character, so far as quality and 
extent of instruction are concerned, to the corresponding 
courses given in the academic department. In order to give 
further encouragement to teachers in service and others to 
carry on extended systematic study, this plan of instruction 
also provides that satisfactory work accomplished in these 
courses will be credited, under suitable regulations, toward 
the degree of Bachelor of Art and Bachelor of Science. 



8 College Courses for Teacher. | l lo 

Persons other khan teachers will, as in the past, be admitted 

to these courses. They will be expected to presenl the proper 
qualifications for the subjects and courses they desire 

pursue. 

ADMISSION 

The preparatory training desirable for the sue© 
pursuit of these courses is that represented by the completion 
of a standard four-year high school course. In cases where 
questions may arise as to the adequacy of preparation, the 
applicant may be admitted provisionally and be given an 
opportunity to prove his or her ability to sustain the work 
undertaken. Admission to any particular course will depend 
upon adequate preparation for the pursuit of that course. 
Persons may be admitted to the courses either with or with- 
out reference to the baccalaureate degree. 

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is offered by the Johns 
Hopkins University to both men and women completing the 
required course of study in the College Courses for Teachers 
and in the Summer Courses, in accordance with the following 
regulations : 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of Bachelor 
of Science must present evidence of having successfully completer! 
courses of study equivalent to the graduating requirements of a 
standard four-year high school. This evidence may be offered by 
either of the following means : 

1. Presenting certificates: 

(a) Of graduation from a secondary school having a course of 
study of four years, and approved by the Committee on 
Matriculation. 

(b) Of the College Entrance Examination Board, or other ap- 
proved examining boards. 



1 1 1 I Degree of Bachelor of Science 

2. Passing an examination. 

Fifteen units of secondary instruction are required for matricula- 
tion, of which nine are prescribed and six are elective. The subjects 
in which the prescribed units must be offered are: 

English (three, requiring four years), History (one), Mathe- 
matics (Algebra and Geometry) (two), a Modern Foreign 
Language (two), Science (one). 

The remaining six units may be offered by election from the fol- 
lowing group, the numiber of additional units accepted in the several 
prescribed subjects being indicated in parentheses: 

. Domestic Science (one) or Manual Training (one), Drawing 
(one), History (one, or two), Latin (two, or three, or four), 
Mathematics (one, or one and a half), Modern Foreign Lan- 
guage (two, or three, or four), Music (one, or two), Science 
(one, or two), Book-keeping (one), Commercial Arithmetic 
(one), Commercial Geography (one), Commercial Law (one), 

Advanced standing may be granted to applicants who offer ap- 
proved collegiate or professional courses in a college, scientific school, 
normal school, training school, or technical school in advance of 
high school graduation. 

The course of study enabling the candidate to meet the 
graduation requirements is made flexible so as to permit a 
choice of courses in various subjects, within limits, in accord- 
ance with the future work of the student. 

The requirements are: 

1. A series of subjects required of all matriculated students, 
namely : 

English, two courses; Foreign Languages, three courses in at 
least two languages; History, one course; Science, one course. 

2. A major consisting of three courses in one subject and of two 
courses in one or two cognate subjects. Required courses may not 
be counted as part of the work in the major. 

'A. Electives sufficient to complete the requirement of one hundred 
and twenty points. 

All candidates for the degree must complete a minimum of twenty- 
four points in the College Courses for Teachers. The maximum 
eredit allowed a student in one summer session is eight points. 



10 College Courses for Teachers [112 

By a plan of co-operation with the Maryland Institute of 
Baltimore, provision has been made whereby candidal*- for 
the degree who desire to offer a major in art may do BO by 

completing the following courses: 

I. Drawing: Freehand drawing, first year, 6 hours; drawing from 
the antique, second year, 6 hours; still-life and portrait drawing, 
third year, 6 or 9 hours; life drawing, fourth year, 6 or 9 hours. 

II. Cognate courses: Design, 6 hours, and history of art, 2 hours. 
The first-year drawing may, and the history of art must, be taken at 
the University. The maximum amount of credit allowed for drawing 
is seventeen points. 

The Maryland Institute is also announcing a special 
Normal Art Course for the training of teachers and super- 
visors of art in public schools. Certain courses in education 
at the University form a part of this special course. 

Similar provision has been made, in co-operation with the 
Peabody Conservatory of Music, of Baltimore, whereby can- 
didates for the degree who desire to offer a major in music 
may do so by completing at the Conservatory the following 
regular courses: 

Musical literature, history of music, musical pedagogy, normal 
class, harmony and harmonic analysis, ear training, and at least one 
main branch, as piano, organ, violin, 'cello, voice, harmony, or school 
music. The maximum amount of credit allowed for a major in 
music is twenty-three points. Candidates completing a major in 
music may offer more than one main branch. 



CO-OPERATION WITH GOUCHER COLLEGE 

The plan of co-operation with Goucher College provides 
that the instruction in these College Courses for Teachers 
shall be given by instructors selected from the faculties of 
the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. In the 
case of women who may desire to become candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, it is provided that such credits as 
they may acquire by means of these courses, to the amount of 



113] Degree of Bachelor of Arts 11 

forty-five units or hours, will be accepted in full by Goucher 
College toward the degree. A similar provision is made by 
the academic department of the Johns Hopkins University 
in the case of those men who desire to proceed to the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. 



THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS 

Those who wish to become candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in this University are referred to the circular 
descriptive of The College of Arts and Sciences of the Johns 
Hopkins University, 1921, for a detailed statement of the 
requirements for matriculation. 

Those who desire to become candidates for the same degree 
in Goucher College are referred to the Announcements for 
1921-22, for a detailed statement of the corresponding re- 
quirements in that institution. 

As a final requirement before this degree can be conferred 
by either institution, the candidate must spend at least one 
year in residence. 

The degree is conferred by the University upon men only. 

EXPENSES 

The charge for instruction is twelve dollars a year for each 
hour per week. Each course will continue throughout the 
academic year, except as otherwise stated. Where laboratory 
fees are required they are additional. From two to three 
hours of laboratory work will be charged as one hour of 
recitation or lecture. 

Students in all other divisions of the University, paying- 
full tuition or on scholarship appointment, are permitted to 
register in any courses given .in the College Courses for 
Teachers without payment of additional fees, except the regu- 
lar laboratory fees. 



12 College Courses for Teachers |iil 

Students are required fco complete registration, which in- 
cludes the payment of fees, before being admitted to chu 
Before payment of fees can be made, a card stating tin- 
courses to be taken, musl be received from the office of the 

Director. 

Fees are payable in advance in semi-annual installments 
at the office of the Treasurer, as follows: on or before October 
16th, for the first half-year, seven dollars per hour; on or 
before February 5, for the second half-year, five dollars per 
hour; students registering February 1 for the second half- 
year only, on or before February 5, six dollars per hour. Stu- 
dents deferring the completion of registration until after 
October 16 for the first half-year, and after February 5 for 
the second half-year, will be subject to a fee of three dollars 
for the privilege of late registration. 

The fee for matriculation as a candidate for the degree 
of Bachelor of Science is $5. The fee for graduation is $5, 
payable before the delivery of the diploma. The fee for a 
duplicate copy of a student's record is $1, payable in advance. 



JUMBLE-INX SCHOLARSHIPS 

The Jumble-Inn Scholarships were established in 1920 by 
the gift of a fund to the University from the Jumble-Inn 
Committee, Mrs. Sumner A. Parker, Mrs. Walter Wickes, 
Mrs. W. W. Keith, Mrs. James H. Preston, Mrs. Julian 
Ridgeley, Mrs. William McMillan, and Miss Sarah Fischer. 
The income of the fund only is to be used for the benefit of 
women teaching in the elementary public schools of Baltimore 
who are residents of the city, and who are pursuing instruc- 
tion in the College Courses for Teachers as candidates for 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. Preference in every award 
is to be given to those in need of financial assistance in com- 
pleting a college course. Application should be made to the 
President of the University. 



115] Session 13 



SESSION 

Instruction will begin Monday, October 10, 1921, and close 
on Saturday, June 3, 1922. Each course will include in- 
struction for thirty-two weeks, except as otherwise noted. 
Classroom and laboratory exercises will be given in the after- 
noon and evening from Monday to Friday and on Saturday 
forenoon. Instruction will be omitted on the days which 
occur within the usual University recesses at Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

SCHEDULE OF HOURS 

Classes will be held in the University buildings at Home- 
wood and in certain public school buildings in the city. The 
complete schedule of hours can not be arranged prior to the 
opening of the courses on October 10. In addition to the 
usual afternoon and Saturday forenoon schedule, a number of 
classes will be held in the evenings at 8 o'clock, usually two 
hours in one session. Changes in the hours indicated may be 
made at the opening in order to meet the convenience of 
students. Where days and hours are omitted, the conveni- 
ence of students will also be considered in arranging the 
schedule. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION CENTERS 

Under a regulation adopted by the Advisory Committee 
on the degree of Bachelor of Science in September, 1917, non- 
laboratory courses announced in the program, for which 
arrangements for instruction can be made, may be conducted 
at centers throughout the State of Maryland. The satisfac- 
tory completion of courses so conducted will be credited 
towards the degree of Bachelor of Science, and, also, will be 
accepted by the State Superintendent of Schools towards the 
renewal, or advancing the grade, of teachers' certificates. 



14: College Courses for Teachers [110 

The general conditions, under which classes will be organ- 
ized at University Extension Centers, call for a minimum 
registration of twenty students, and provision by the local 
class of the place of meeting and the incidental expenses of 
the visiting instructor. Class exercises are to be held weekly 
during the regular session, from October to June. The con- 
ditions of admission and tuition expenses are described on 
pages 8 and 11. 

Since the adoption of the regulation, courses in Education 
have been conducted for both secondary and elementary public 
school teachers at Salisbury, Frederick, Elkton, Rising Sun, 
Havre de Grace, and Eockville. County Superintendents of 
Schools and others interested in the organization of classes 
at University Extension Centers should communicate with 
the Director of the College Courses for Teachers. 

The Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore having 
extended the privilege of using certain of the public school 
buildings for classes in the College Courses for Teachers, the 
University will, within the limits of the schedule of the 
members of the Faculty, undertake the organization of classes 
to meet at convenient centers which may be available in parts 
of the city remote from Homewood. 



117] Courses of Instruction 15 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



Any course for which there are fewer than twelve applicants 
may be withdrawn. In case there is a sufficient demand on 
the part of properly qualified persons for courses in advance 
of, or other than, those mentioned below, an effort will be 
made to arrange for such instruction. 

The exact amount of credit towards the baccalaureate 
degrees, which will be allowed for the successful completion 
of each of the following courses, can be determined definitely 
only at the end of the year. 

Art 
1. History of Art. 

(a) Ancient Art. 

A genera outline of ancient architecture, sculpture, and painting 
with some attention to the minor arts and to drawing as seen on 
vases. The development of the different branches of ancient art from 
prehistoric times will be systematically considered and their influence 
on later art emphasized. Lectures illustrated by slides, photographs, 
casts and original antiquities. Reports and required reading for 
credit. Books recommended: Reinach's Apollo (iScriibner's Sons, 
New York, 1909, $1.50) ; Fowler-Wheeler, Greek Archaeology (New 
York, 1909, $2.00). 

(b) Mediaeval and Modern Art. 

History of the development of Mediaeval, Renaissance, and Modern 
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. Lectures, recitations, reports 
on assigned topics. Text book: Reinach's Apollo. 

Professor Eobinson. Tuesday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

The course on the History of Art must be offered as part of the 
requirement of the major in art. 



16 College Courses for Teachers [118 

2. The History of Greek and Roman Sculpture. 

Lectures on the history of Greek sculpture, with an outline of 
Roman sculpture, having especial reference to Roman busts and his- 
torical reliefs. 

Professor Robinson. Monday, 5 p. m. 

3. The Private Life of the Greeks. 
Illustrated by Greek literature and monuments. 
Professor Robinson. Tuesday, 2 p. m. 

4. The Private Life of the Romans. 

Associate Professor Magoffin. Tuesday, 3 p. m. 

Chemistry 

1. General Inorganic Chemistry. 

No previous knowledge of chemistry is required. The work covers 
the general principles and laws of chemistry and a study of the 
more important metallic and non-metallic elements. In the labora- 
tory selected experiments, illustrating the preparation, properties 
and reactions of inorganic substances and the applications of chem- 
ical laws, are performed. 

Professor Gilpin, Dr. Whitner and Mr. Beard. Lecture, 
Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. ; and laborator}^ 7.30-10 p. m., Tuesday 
or Friday, or Saturday, 9 a. m.-12 m. 

2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. 

This course will include chiefly laboratory exercises, with two 
sessions each week. Occasionally a part or all of an evening will be 
devoted to a discussion of the theoretical principles of the reactions 
being studied. As the laboratory work is of an individual character, 
an effort will be made to meet the needs of each student in the kind 
of work assigned. Practice will be given in the methods of gravi- 
metric and volumetric quantitative analysis. 

Dr. Whitner and Mr. Beard. 7.30-10 p. m., Tuesday and 
Friday. 

3. General Organic Chemistry. 

A systematic course in the general principles of organic chemistry 
and the properties and reactions of the paraffin and benzene deriva- 



119] Education 17 

tives. It will consist of one lecture (two hours) and one laboratory 
period each week. The course will be so arranged as to meet the 
needs of those preparing for the Medical School, the School of 
Hygiene, or advanced work in Domestic Science. 

Prerequisite: Chemistry 1. 

Professor Gilpin, Dr. Whitner and Mr. Beard. Lecture, 
Thursday, 8-9.45 p. m., and laboratory, 7.30-10 p. m., Tuesday 
or Friday, or Saturday, 9 a. m s -12 m. 

Laboratory fee: $15.00 for each course, in addition to 
breakage. 

Chinese 

This course for beginners provides instruction in spoken Chinese, 
and in writing characters and composing sentences in Chinese. 

Mr. Chen. Friday, 4-6 p. m. 



Drawing 

The instruction in this course in freehand drawing aims to impart 
such knowledge of the principles of drawing as shall give students 
the ability to represent natural objects correctly. 

This course may be offered as the first-year requirement of the 
major in art. 

Mr. Whiteman. Six hours weekly. Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, 2-5 p. m. 



Education 

1. History of Education. 

The course presents in outline the history of Education, tracing 
the development of those ideas, practices and institutions of the past 
which have been most effective in determining the essential features 
and problems of education in the present. The work is based on 
Cubberley's "The History of Education" and "Headings in the His- 
tory of Education." 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 5.10 p. m. 



18 College Courses for Teachers [120 

2. Principles of Education. 

This course on the principles of Education undertake! a study of 
education with a view to understanding the work of the school and 
the mental and social factors in individual development. 

Professor Buciiner. Tuesday, 4.20-6 p. m. 

3. Educational Psychology. 

(a) During the first half-year the following topics are consid- 
ered: The laws of learning and "their application to elementary and 
secondary school instruction; work; fatigue; practice; individual 
differences. 

(b) The second half-year is devoted to mental development of 
school children, and includes such topics as psychological character- 
istics of children at different ages, growth curves of intelligence; 
adolescence. 

Mr. Brooks. Thursday, 4.10-G p. m. 

4. Educational Psychology: Elementary School Subjects. 

Analysis of the learning processes with special reference to read- 
ing and arithmetic, some attention being given to handwriting, 
drawing, language, composition and the social studies. 

Note. — Education 4 is the first half, of a full-year course, which 
includes Education 4 and 6. 

Mr. Brooks. First half -year. Monday and Wednesday, 
4.10 p. m. 

5. Educational Measurements. 

(a) Collection and Interpretation of Educational Data. 
This course deals with the principles and technique fundamental 

to scientific experimentation in education and to the interpretation 
of experimental data. Practice in the necessary statistical proce- 
dures. Text-book: Thorndike, "Mental and Social Measurements." 

(b) Intelligence of School Children. 

Principles and technique of rating the intelligence of school chil- 
dren; the development and forms of intelligence tests, both indi- 
vidual and group; statistical evaluation and graphical presentation 
of data; interpretation and application of results with special ref- 
erence to the classification and instruction of children. 

Mr. Brooks. Friday, 4.10-6 p. m. 



121] Education 19 

6. Educational Measurements : Tests of Elementary School 
Subjects. 

A study and evaluation»of the more useful scales and tests suit- 
able for use in the elementary school. 
Note. — See Education 4, note. 

Mr. Brooks. Second half-year. Monday and Wednesday, 
4.10 p. m. 

7. Principles of Teaching and Special Methods in Sec- 
ondary School Subjects. 

The first part of this course presents the principles underlying 
the method of instruction and class-room management, and includes 
such topics as habit formation, the laws of learning, and the nature 
of the thinking process. 

During the second part of the course application of these prin- 
ciples is made to the problems of teaching the subjects in secondary 
courses of study. 

Professor Buchner. Monday and Wednesday, 4.10 p. m. 

8. Secondary School Organization and Class-Eoom 
Management. 

This course deals with some of the principal topics related, to 
the organization and administration of secondary schools, such as: 
The historical development and function of the American high 
school; comparisons with secondary schools in other countries; the 
main problems connected with the program of studies; the junior 
high school; extra class-room activities; supervised study; methods 
of instruction. 

Reports and discussion of observation of class-room and other 
secondary school activities. 

Dr. Weglein. Thursday, 4.10-6 p. m. 

9. The Junior High School. 

The reorganization of education, historical survey of the junior 
high school, articulation of junior high schools with elementary 
schools and with senior high schools, provision for individual dif- 
ferences, programs of study, problems of administration and super- 
vision. 

Dr. Weglein. Monday, 4.10-6 p. m. Western High 
School, Room 103. 



20 College Courses for Teachers [122 

10. The Teaching of French in Secondary Schools. 

(a) First half-year: History of modern language teaching in 
I lie United States; methods and aims in^ the teaching of French; 
examination of modern language periodicals, French text-books and 
dictionaries; methods and aims in editing French text-books. 

(lb) Second half-year: Phonetics and Modern French Pronuncia- 
tion. Theory and practice. Text : Xvrop, \f<i»ufi phon4tique du 
frangais parte (Stechert) . 

Mr. Riddle. Two hours a week. 

11. Elementary Education. 

This course is intended to give teachers an insight into the sci- 
entific procedure in elementary education. It will study the learning 
process in relation to specific needs of pupils in the fundamental 
subjects of the curriculum. It is intended to aid teachers in the 
analysis of those specific habits in the control of which it is neces- 
sary for children to attain skill; the fundamental processes in arith- 
metic; reasoning problems in arithmetic; language; silent and oral 
reading; spelling; handwriting. 

There will be written reports based on assigned readings. One 
report will be required from each student based upon a careful 
study of the effect of scientific procedure upon one individual child. 

This course is intended for teachers in the first six grades of the 
elementary school. 

Associate Professor Bamberger. Saturday, 9.15-11 a. m. 

12. The Individual in Relation to Classroom Organization 
and Management. 

Aim: to furnish records for a teacher's class which might serve 
as a relatively thorough diagnosis of each individual child from the 
point of view of standard scores, so that on the basis of this data 
remedial measures might be applied. 

There will be assigned readings and written reports. Each stu- 
dent will be expected to give four standard tests to her class, and 
to use the results of these for analysis and study. Each student 
will be responsible for case study of two individuals. Careful test- 
ing will be followed by graded remedial measures and accurate rec- 
ords of growth and progress will be kept throughout the year. 

This course is designed for experienced teachers in the elementary 
grades, for practice teachers and for supervising principals. 

Associate Professor Bamberger. Saturday, 11.15 a. m.- 
1 p. m. 



L23] Education 21 

13. Special Problems in Classroom Leadership. 

This course is intended for advanced students and experienced 
teachers who are interested in the special problems which arise in 
the leadership of children. Solutions of these problems along lines 
of pupil participation in school activities will be attempted. For) 
this purpose the class will be organized in groups meeting on alter- 
nate weeks for laboratory exercises. Each student will choose the 
group in which he wishes to work and each group will elect one or 
more specific topics for intensive study. The field of activity will 
be limited to the elementary grades. Observation and demonstra- 
tion lessons illustrating various phases of the topics selected will 
be given for the entire class from to time. 

The selection of the topics will necessarily await the initiative of 
the members enrolled, but opportunity will be afforded to any de- 
si?ous of investigating the following topics: the relation of the 
learning process to silent reading in the first and second grades; 
individual growth in relation to supervised study; group co-opera- 
tion in relation to supervised study; care of the gifted child; learn- 
ing through projects; literature in relation to child interests. Stu- 
dents will provide all test material. 

This course is intended for experienced teachers who desire to 
investigate and experiment in their particular fields, for critic 
teachers, for teachers of method in normal and training schools, and 
for supervising principals. 

Associate Professor Bamberger. Tuesday, 4-5.45 p. m. 

14. Experimental Education. 

This course deals with educational measurements and tesis and 
includes a comparative study of investigations in educational re- 
search. Attention is given to methods of attacking educational 
problems in the fields of standardized scales and surveys of pupil 
achievements in school subjects and of rating the intelligence of 
school children, with special reference to the application of results 
to the control of instruction and the organization of schools. Re- 
search will be undertaken in problems in either elementary or sec- 
ondary education selected according to the chief interests of indi- 
vidual students. 

Professor Buchner and Mr. Brooks. Saturday, 11.15 
a. m.-l p. m. 



22 College Courses for Teachers [124 

English 

1. English Composition. 

This course will include a review of the essentials of usage, th'? 
study of the principles of structure and style, and frequent practice 
in writing. Weekly themes will be required; these will be returned 
with written criticism. 

Dr. Litz. Tuesday and Thursday, 5.10 p. m. 

2. American Literature. 

(a) During the first half-year American narrative and lyric verse 
studied with particular reference to the significance of literary types. 

(b) During the second half-year, a similar study of American 
prose, including the essay, the novel, and the short story. 

Throughout the course literary history and biography will be 
dealt with incidentally. Opportunity for critical writing will be 
provided. 

Associate Professor French. Monday and Wednesday, 
5.10 p. m. 

3. The History of the English Novel. 

The development of English fiction from the middle ages to the 
close of the nineteenth century, with a cursory view of the more 
important English novelists of the present day. Attention will be 
given to the influence of foreign fiction on the shaping of the English 
novel, particularly French, Spanish and Italian. The first semester 
will be devoted chiefly to a consideration of the growth of fictional 
types; the second, to a study of the technique of the novel in the 
nineteenth century and after. 

Professor Hopkins. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.10 p. m. 

4. Shakespeare. 

An intensive study of five of Shakespeare's plays, namely: Twelfth 
Night, Hamlet, Henry V, King Lear and Cymbeline. Students will 
also be assigned outside reading in Shakespeare and contemporaries. 
Lectures will be given on the Renaissance. 

Professor Kuhl. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

5. Modern Drama. 

(a) First half-year: A study of the principles of the drama as an 
art form, including the significance of action and emotion, the fit- 



125] French 23 

ting of plot to subject, characterization through action and dia- 
logue, the differentiation of tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, the 
method of the one-act play. A few representative plays will be 
carefully studied as illustrative material and will be used as a basis 
for the discussion of how to read and how to judge a contemporary 
drama. Those interested in play-writing will be given an oppor- 
tunity to try the adaptation of a short story or an original one-act 
play. Other members of the class will be expected to make a care- 
ful study of a dramatist or of a special problem. 

(b) Second half-year: A study of the more important figures of 
the British and American drama during the revival of the last 
thirty years, among them Barrie, Shaw, Galsworthy, Mas^eheM, 
Barker, Lady Gregory, Yeats, Synge, Dunsany, Clyde Fitch, Moody, 
with an account of the more important "little theaters" and their 
innovations in technique and methods of production. Further prac- 
tice in play construction or in dramatic criticism. 

Assistant Professor Miller. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

6. Anglo-Saxon. 

An introductory course, offered in the English Seminary, with 
lectures on the Germanic and Indogermanic relationship of tin 1 , 
language. 

Professor Bright. Friday, 3-5 p. m. 



French 



1. French Elements. 



This course is planned for students beginning the study of French 
and aims to impart a good reading knowledge of the language. Iti 
includes grammar, pronunciation, composition, and translation. Upon 
the successful completion of the course the student receives credit 
for one course if offered as college work ; if offered for matriculation, 
it absolves the requirements in French. 

Mr. Merrill. Tuesday and Thursday, 4.30-6 p. m. 

2. French Elements. 

In case of sufficient demand, a night class similar to French I, or 
in advance thereof, will be organized. 

Mr. Merrill. Tuesday and Thursday, 8-9.30 p. m. 



24 College Courses for 'ranchers [126 

3. French Heading. 

A course in French reading, grammar, and composition, for 

students who have had the equivalent of Course 1. The texts will be 
chosen from modern authors, and the exercises in composition will 
be of a practical nature. 

Mr. Riddle. Tuesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

4. French Elements. 

This course is planned for students beginning the study of French. 
It includes grammar, pronunciation, composition, and translation. 

Dr. Dulac. Monday, 4.10-6 p. m. Western High School, 
Room 101. 



This course provides for a continuation of grammar, pronuncia- 
tion, composition, translation, and conversation based on reading and 
current expressions and idioms. 

Dr. Dulac. Thursday, 4.10-6 p. m. Western High 
School, Room 101. 

6. Advanced French. 

This course is planned for those students who have completed, or 
have had the equivalent of, French 4 and 5. 

Dr. Dulac. Two hours a week. Western High School. 

7. Practical French. 

Practical exercises in spoken French. The nature of this course 
will depend upon the previous training of those who wish to follow 
it. It is intended, however, primarily for those who desire to in- 
crease their knowledge of practical modern French. 

Mr. Riddle. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

The following graduate courses are open to those with ade- 
quate preparation, the hours to be arranged on Saturday or 
an afternoon: 

8. Flaubert and his Successors. 
Professor Chinard. One hour a week. 



1 2 7 I German 25 

9. Explication ale textes: Lamartine. 

Lectures on non-dramatic authors and assigned readings. 

Professor Chinard. One hour a week. 

10. The Seventeenth Century. 
Professor Lancaster. One hour a week. 

German 

1. German Elements. 

This course is adapted to those who wish to begin the study of 
German or who have had a partial introduction to the language. 
The work will include the principles of grammar, pronunciation, 
translation, and composition. Upon the successful completion of the 
work, the student receives credit for one course if offered as college 
work; if offered for matriculation, it absolves the requirements in 
German. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Three hours a week. 

2. A. German Keading. 

Modern prose readings with exercises in prose composition. Such 
writers as Storm, Sudermann, C. F. Meyer, Arnold, Schurz, etc., will 
be read. This course corresponds to collegiate German 1, and, if 
satisfactorily completed, will be credited accordingly. The two hours 
of literature and the one hour of composition may be taken jointly 
or separately. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Three hours a week. 

Or, 

B. German Literature. 

1. Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. 
October to February 15. 

2. Gottfried Keller. 

February 15 to the end of the year. 

Associate Professor Roulston. Two hours a week. 

History 

1. A. Recent United States History. 

This course covers the period from the Civil War to the present. 
It supplements by means of a more detailed study the survey course 



26 College Courses for Teachers \\'l^ 

of United Statea history from L783 L883. Especial emphaui if laid 
upon economic developmentB and theii bearing upon domestic politics. 
The evolution of the foreign policy of the [Jolted States ia traced 

in detail. 

Or, 

B. History of the United States, L783-1883. 

A survey of the political, social and economic history of the United 
States during the first century of national development. A syllabus 
will be provided and no single text-hook will be used. 

Professor Gallagher. Monday, 8-9.45 p. m. 

2. A. Contemporary European Bistory. 

This course is a general survey of European history in the nin •- 

teenth and twentieth centuries. Special emphasis is placed upon 
the expansion of Europe into Asia and Africa and the course oi 
international politics leading up to the great war of 1914. The 
course closes with a study of the Peace Settlement of 1919. 

Or, 

B. British Empire Since 1815. 

This course will take up the history of the British Empire as 
distinct from the history of England. Particular attention will 
be given to the interests of India, Canada, Australia, Xew Zealand 
and South Africa. The recent nationalistic movement^ in Egypt 
and India will be considered, and the place of the British Empire 
as a world power by the terms of the treaties of 1919-1920. 

Professor Gallagher. Thursday, 4.10-6 p. m. Western 
High School, Eoom 103. 

Hygiene 

The course in hygiene will consist of lectures and demonstrations 
(October to March). Attention will be given to the principles of 
bacteriology as applied to sanitation and the prevention of disease, 
and the principles of physiology as applied to personal hygiene, 
nutrition, and the control of the physical environment in regard to 
ventilation and illumination. 

Associate Professor Ford and Assistants. Tuesday and 
Thursday, 4 p. m., School of Hygiene and Public Health, 312 
West Monument Street. 

Tuition fee: $16.00. 



129] Italian 27 

Italian 

1. Italian Elements. 

The object of this course for beginners will be to acquire a reading 
knowledge of modern Italian and correct pronunciation. Prose 
composition will begin* as soon as the most elementary part of the 
grammar has been mastered. The following text-books will be used : 
Phelps, Italian Grammar; Bowen, Italian Reader ; Collodi, Le Av- 
venture di Pinocchio. 

Dr. GrRUENBAUM. Wednesday, 4.10-5.50 p. m. 

2. Italian Beading. 

Selections from classical authors. Italian composition. History 
of Italian liter